Military Review

Polish mobilization of 1939

88
Young man reads mobilization alert
Mobilization. Young man reads an alert on the streets of Warsaw


Until the beginning of 1938, a mobilization plan was in force in the Polish Armed Forces "S"... But in view of new events, the plan was found to be inappropriate to reality, both in terms of mobilizing human resources and military units, and in terms of mobilizing material supplies.

Plan "W"


The growing threat of war forced the development of a new mobilization regime - a plan "W"in force from April 30, 1938.

The new mobilization plan was based on the military-political concepts of the Second Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, based on the theory of two enemies. It was distinguished by its unity and flexibility in the event of a war either with the USSR or with Germany.

Its mobility was based on the possibility of making a number of changes to it as the military-political situation changed. With the possibility of carrying out either emergency (secret) mobilization through the system of individual conscription of the next contingents, or general (explicit) by means of an appropriate official notification of the population. Covert mobilization could be carried out either throughout the country or in some regions, depending on the direction and level of the military threat.

Thus, it was possible to change the scope of mobilization by defining its territorial coverage or the categories of reservists who needed to be attracted to perform certain tasks.

For this, a system of differentiated mobilization agendas was introduced:

  • The “brown group”, divided into five subgroups, concerned the mobilization of the Air Force, Air Defense, units of the Ministry of Railways, units and services of the second department of the General Staff, headquarters of the high command;
  • "Green group" - units located in border areas;
  • "Red group" - units intended for operations in the eastern direction;
  • "Blue group" - units intended for operations in the western and northern directions;
  • "Yellow group" - parts intended to strengthen the "red" or "blue" group;
  • "Black group" - a limited contingent in the event of a local conflict.

General mobilization was envisaged in two stages. On the first stage, the armed forces had to reach combat readiness within 6 days from the moment of the announcement of mobilization (day "X"). And on the second, which began between the third and fifth day from day "X", the armed forces had to reach full combat readiness between the tenth and twelfth days of general mobilization.

According to the mobilization plan "W", about 75% of the troops were to be put on alert through the emergency mobilization system. 26 infantry divisions (including 2 reserve), 11 (all) cavalry brigades and the only (10th) tank motorized brigade. Partly under the emergency mobilization fell 4 infantry divisions (including 2 reserve).

General mobilization additionally affected 7 infantry divisions (including 3 reserve). In the course of mobilization, emergency and general, the state police, the border guard and the Border Guard Corps were supposed to bring the states to the military schedule. The Ministry of Railways and the Ministry of Posts and Telegraphs were to form their own technical, construction and repair units according to military standards.

The mobilization of the people's defense battalions was to be carried out according to a slightly different scheme - the so-called "gatherings", which, according to circumstances, could be announced for each battalion separately.

Plan "W2"


In May 1939, amendments to the plan were implemented "W" - the so-called mobilization plan "W2".

It includes all the changes and additions that were not taken into account in the plan. "W" and pointed out by the headquarters responsible for the mobilization. So, according to the plan "W2", the number of divisions subject to emergency mobilization was increased by two reserve ones, the formation of two additional infantry divisions and the reorganization of the 10th Panzer Motorized Brigade (it was named Warsaw) began.

In addition, plans were developed to mobilize units directly subordinate to the Ministry of Military Affairs - fortress battalions and companies, air defense divisions, heavy artillery divisions, etc., as well as the system of mobilizing the national defense.

Finally, according to plan "W2", the mobilized army was supposed to number 1500000 troops in line, marching and militia units and formations.

In connection with the German occupation of the Czech Republic and Moravia, on March 23, 1939, the first, partial, emergency mobilization under the "red" and "yellow" summons was initiated in military districts IV (Lodz) and IX (Brest). This mobilization brought four infantry divisions, one cavalry brigade and auxiliary units to alert.

In addition, the personnel of the border and coastal units was increased, and some of the reservists were called up for unscheduled exercises. On August 13, in Military District II (Lublin), an emergency mobilization of reservists with "green", "red" and "black" subpoenas was launched, which brought two infantry divisions, one cavalry brigade and auxiliary units to alert.

Finally, on 23 August, full emergency mobilization began in five military districts. 18 infantry divisions, 2,5 reserve divisions and 7 cavalry brigades were put on alert. Emergency mobilization of still unmobilized units, in particular in districts VI and X, began on August 27. At the same time, orders were issued on the formation of subdivisions of the Ministry of Posts and Telegraphs. Fully three infantry divisions and two cavalry brigades were brought to combat readiness, and in part two line and one reserve infantry divisions and one motorized tank brigade.

Only on August 29 was a general mobilization announced, which, however, had to be interrupted under the onslaught of France and Great Britain. England and France were ready to make concessions at the expense of Poland and tried to bargain with Germany on acceptable terms.

Instead, they received a list of 16 demands, which Germany put forward in an ultimatum tone towards Poland. In Warsaw, they learned about them at night from 30 to 31 August. And in response, in the morning, the Polish government resumed general mobilization.

Fascist German forces invaded Poland on the morning of September 1, 1939.

All formations mobilized in an emergency manner were already on alert, but not all of them managed to reach the deployment areas in defensive positions.

For the rest of the mass of troops, it was the second day of general mobilization, which was already being carried out under enemy fire and bombs and in conditions of disrupted communications.

By September 1, the Poles managed to put on alert and deploy the following forces on the defensive lines:

In the Army:

Task force "Narev" - 2 pd, 2 cavbr;
Task force "Vyshkov" - 1pd;
Army "Modlin" - 2 pd, 2 cavbr;
Army "Help" - 5 pd, 1 cavbr;
Army Poznan - 4 pd, 1 cavbr;
Army "Lodz" - 3 pd, 1 cavbr;
Army "Krakow" - 5 pd, 1 tmbr, 1 cavbr, 1 gsd;
Army Carpathians - 2 gsbr.

Together it was: 22 infantry divisions, 8 cavalry brigades, 3 mountain rifle brigades, 1 armored motorized brigade, as well as scattered parts of the national defense, coastal defense, border and serf services, etc.

В aviation:

army aviation - 68 bombers, 105 fighters, 122 reconnaissance aircraft (together - 295 aircraft);
RGK aviation - 36 bombers, 50 linear aircraft, 54 fighters, 28 reconnaissance and liaison aircraft (together - 168 aircraft);
Total: 463 aircraft.

In navy:

destroyer division (1 unit);
destroyer battalion (12 units);
submarine division (5 units).
Author:
Photos used:
Krajowa Agencja Wydawnicza
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      1. andrewkor
        andrewkor 21 May 2021 05: 55
        +9
        The Germans also had enough shoals, but there was a continuous analysis of hostilities and optimization of the interaction of different types of troops. By June 22, 1941, this reached almost optimum, to our regret!
      2. Reptiloid
        Reptiloid 21 May 2021 08: 23
        +3
        ..Psheki again .....
        well yes,! Dreams about Uraina, Belarus, the Baltic states, Russia itself ...
    2. pytar
      pytar 21 May 2021 09: 23
      +16
      Interesting. that later, in the same Poland, the Nazis recruited about 600 soldiers for the Wehrmacht, which is an order of magnitude more than the number of Poles in all their "resistance" and in units formed from Poles in the USSR and Britain.

      So I'm wondering why this disinformation is constantly being replicated in ru-net? Let's see what is the catch of these speculations?
      The ethnic composition of the population of pre-war Poland is not taken into account! A large number of ethnic Germans lived on its territory! And there is also a difference between Great Poles and other ethnic groups. In particular, the Kashubians - in Pomorie, the Mazurians - in Prussia, the Silesians - in Western Poland (Silesia), the Gurals (highlanders) - in the Polish Tatras, all of them by that time were not yet part of the Polish nation. Ethnic groups are historically highly Germanized, such as the Lusatian Serbs living in Vost. Germany. Silesia is indicative, where 20% of the population voted in favor of joining Germany in a referendum in the 60s. The Polish authorities did not recognize the results, 3 anti-Polish uprisings broke out, which the Polish army barely managed to suppress with the help of the French. This is far from the appearance of Hitler! After the defeat of Poland, these areas were annexed to Germany, the local population received German citizenship. Was conscripted on an equal basis with other German citizens in the Wehrmacht. So much for 600 thousand. "Poles"! fool
      1. Trapp1st
        Trapp1st 21 May 2021 10: 23
        +1
        A large number of ethnic Germans lived on its territory!
        What do you say about France then? Are they also completely ethnic Germans?)
        1. pytar
          pytar 21 May 2021 10: 41
          +9
          What do you say about France then? Are they also completely ethnic Germans?)

          Dear! As I understand the topic is not about France, but about Poland, right? request And so the French are the francs! One of the Germanic tribal groups! bully
          1. ABC-schütze
            ABC-schütze 21 May 2021 13: 06
            +1
            And as I understand it, the topic of collaboration is very international. And Poland, with its "ethnic composition", is absolutely no exception in this regard. Moreover, taking into account its objectively, completely justified, "five sections". Or six? .. As for the "French", this is a centuries-old ethnogenesis of an ethnic cross between Franks and Gallo-Romans ...
            1. pytar
              pytar 21 May 2021 14: 17
              +3
              And as I understand it, the topic of collaboration is very international.

              Undoubtedly, it and the USSR was not an exception. For different reasons, from different motivations. We will find collaborationists in the world, as well as those who resist! Collaboration and Resistance go hand by hand! yes
              As for the "French", this is a centuries-old ethnogenesis of an ethnic cross between Franks and Gallo-Romans ...

              There was a case when I talked to a Frenchman. An intelligent person, a teacher at the university. I asked him about the origin of the French. He replied that they were both gali, Franks, Norman and some other (I don't remember anymore).
              1. ABC-schütze
                ABC-schütze 21 May 2021 14: 50
                +5
                Well, that's unlikely. There were no fewer ethnic Germans among Swiss citizens than among Polish citizens. However, about their mass collaborationism, and whether the newspapers write about their loyalty to the Nazis "somehow muffledly" ... ANTI-Soviet collaborators, ALL without exception, he was nationalists to former "whites", were dissatisfied with the people's Soviet power. And the subjects of Poland, France, the Czech Republic (Belgium, Holland, etc.), excuse me, serving the Nazis, what were they "dissatisfied" with? .. This is my legitimate interest, due to the "different" reasons mentioned by you. After all, as I recall, in the partition of Czechoslovakia, no "friction" between the Polish and "Silesian" subjects of Poland was observed. But it has passed since that time, barely only "a year" ... For sim, "easy" and "quick" answers do not need to be given. They are - "general watering" and will not "ride" ...
                1. Catfish
                  Catfish 21 May 2021 16: 45
                  +2
                  Well, that's unlikely. There were no fewer ethnic Germans among Swiss citizens than among Polish citizens. However, about their massive collaboration, and whether the newspapers write about their loyalty to the Nazis "somehow muffled"


                  Was Switzerland occupied by the Germans? This is something new. laughing
                2. pytar
                  pytar 21 May 2021 17: 19
                  +2
                  Well, that's unlikely. There were no fewer ethnic Germans among Swiss citizens than among Polish citizens. However, about their massive collaboration, and whether the newspapers write "somehow muffled" about their loyalty to the Nazis ...

                  You have compared warm to soft. lol It is foolish to reproach the Poles or the then non-existent Poland, for the fact that its former citizens, ethnic Germans and Germans, etc. mobilized to the Wehrmacht!
                  And where does Switzerland and the Swiss have to do with it? request
                  ANTI-Soviet collaborators ... from nationalists to former "whites" were dissatisfied with the people's Soviet rule. And the citizens of Poland /enough huh? No. /, France, Czech Republic (Belgium, Holland, etc.), serving the Nazis what were "dissatisfied" with?

                  What is common to all of them? Anti-communism! Each ideology generates its own antipode. Is it possible to blame the Soviet people for the acts of the used collaborators citizens of the USSR? It's like blaming you for the fact that your neighbor turned out to be a bandit!
                  After all, as I recall, in the partition of Czechoslovakia, no "friction" between the Polish and "Silesian" subjects of Poland was observed.

                  I explain it on my fingers! Czechoslovakia was divided in 38 years! Meanwhile, Poland existed, albeit ethnically heterogeneous, all were Polish citizens. Whether there was friction or not, it is not so important, the state machine was intact! In 39, Poland was gone ... non-Polish ethnic groups had different destinies and aspirations. It was worse for the Jews, for the Poles it was also hard. But the Silesians, Germans, etc. poured into the German nation. Apparently the Germans were closer to their souls than the Poles! Did you understand?
                  1. ABC-schütze
                    ABC-schütze 21 May 2021 21: 39
                    +1
                    Well, you explained it to yourself "on the fingers". And for me, it will not be enough. Just in case ... International, according to the definition of the USSR, fought not with the "Germans", not with the "Poles", but with the anti-communists. And the state machine of the Polish state was such - anti-communist, and during the partition of Czechoslovakia, and remained so, until the moment of flight to Romania. Before the Romanian border, it is true, this "machine" resigned from itself, but all the anti-communism that made it up Poles (and not "ethnic" Germans ...) took with them. The fact that "the Polish state has ceased to exist" (that is, the "machine" you have mentioned) Molotov quite officially declared to Grzybowski on September 17th. When the Soviet government made a decision to bring units of the Red Army into the territory of FORMER Poland. But somehow I have not heard that this axiom would find understanding in today's Warsaw. Yes, and you personally, when discussing the "Polish question" in other branches, do not particularly pedal this nuance. But if you grabbed onto this "agrument" yourself, then be OBJECTIVE to the end. That is to say, “explain” the same thing to today's Warsaw, when it accuses the USSR of all sorts of “occupations”, yes, “stabs in the back”, and rolls out “collusion” with Hitler ... Just in case, let me remind you once again that Hitler was also an anti-communist. And hardly more than the same Pilsudski or Anders ... I will not deign to deign to discern a certain "occupation" of Switzerland in my previous commentary. Time is a pity ... But, for the educational program, let me remind you that the German (pro-Nazi) collaboration of the subjects of Czechoslovakia, actively manifested itself long before the Nazi occupation of the latter. And even, before its partition in the fall of 1938 ... But the Germans (as well as the Italians) of Switzerland did not have such moods. By the way, along with collaboration, I mentioned "or loyalty". So, I highly recommend reading it FIRST. And then, "to grab onto the clave" ... And no one accuses the Soviet people of collaboration. Both in the USSR and in present-day Russia, all the collaborators-traitors, from among Soviet citizens, especially those who fought on the side of Hitler against the USSR with arms in their hands and who took the oath to him, were called and are called "CHECKERS of the Motherland." And only in today's "tolerant" and "democratic" Europe, and anti-communist, too, they are called "freedom fighters" for some reason. I clearly explained? .. I tried not "on the fingers". For today, I take my leave. Leaving everyone at his opinion ...
                    1. pytar
                      pytar 21 May 2021 22: 17
                      +3
                      Well, you explained it to yourself "on the fingers". And for me, it will not be enough.

                      It seems strange to me that you do not perceive the obvious things. I am always ready to agree with the interlocutor, but your theses contain obvious contradictions, illogicality, this is some kind of a mixture of all sorts of different things. It is unlikely that we will reach one opinion, let everyone stay with their own. I wish you all the best! hi
                      1. Nazar
                        Nazar 21 May 2021 23: 51
                        +1
                        pytar (Boyan Ivanov) - How do you want to blame everything on the Germans, and what, the Serbian partisans were not slaughtered by the Bulgarians - huh? Or were they also "ethnic Germans"? And the concentration camp Yasinovets (up to 600 killed Serbs) - were not the Croats organized?
                        Romanians did not occupy Odessa and did not fight at Stalingrad? Do Hungarians, Spaniards, Italians also count? Even the "neutral" Swedes and the unfortunate occupied Norwegians fought hard against us as volunteers in the Viking division.
                        The entire current "European Union" is already the third "edition" of Napoleonic, then Hitler's, united Europe. And again, all the same against Russia, it does not matter - Tsarist, Soviet, or Putin. In the 19th and 20th centuries, Europeans generally got off with a slight fright, but this time will there be anything left of Europe? Or, nevertheless, the "final solution" of the European question will take place, according to the scheme: - no Europe, no problems. wassat
                      2. pytar
                        pytar 22 May 2021 12: 20
                        0
                        The first post would be yours, if I'm not mistaken? Yes? The admins erased the ego, but I have nothing to do with it. So ... it contained fake suggestions! Poles were accused of it, that some ethnic non-Polish ethnic groups, former citizens of Poland, fought in the Wehrmacht! It's like blaming the Russians because, for example, in the Wehrmacht there were military formations of the Tatars or other non-Russian ethnic groups!
                        The last thing you write has nothing to do with the topic of Poland! And if you did, why do you forget to mention the collaborative-predecessors from the USSR? It can be seen from the lack of arguments on the topic, jumping from topic to topic!
                      3. Nazar
                        Nazar 24 May 2021 06: 25
                        +1
                        pytar - traitors from the USSR - policemen, Vlasovites, "Cossacks" - were tried after the war and many were simply hanged, but the "Europeans", those who fought on the side of the Nazis for some reason were forgiven, even the Finns who strangled Leningrad along with the Germans, but in at the end of the war they quickly "changed their shoes" and got away with all their "heroism".
                        And regarding the fact that the Wehrmacht did not seem to serve as an excuse, the Poles (as well as the Bulgarians) at the first opportunity, are ready to fight against Russia, even in the army of Napoleon, even Hitler, even with the devil together, well, or as now in NATO.
                      4. pytar
                        pytar 24 May 2021 11: 22
                        0
                        traitors from the USSR - policemen, Vlasovites, "Cossacks" - were tried after the war and many were simply hanged, but the "Europeans", those who fought on the side of the Nazis for some reason were forgiven, even the Finns who strangled Leningrad along with the Germans ...

                        After WWII, all over Europe were judged accomplices of the fascists. It is a fact. Finland is a special case, she was not a member of the Axis, she fought to regain the lands lost in the Soviet-Finnish war of 39-40, the war was condemned by everyone except Hitler.
                        And about the fact that the Wehrmacht did not seem to serve as an excuse ...

                        Your myth has been shattered, but you keep repeating the ego! Interesting from the point of view of personality psychology!
                        (as well as the Bulgarians) at the first opportunity, they are ready to fight against Russia ...

                        Sheer nonsense, 100%! The only case was in WWI. The topic is disclosed here:
                        https://www.vedomosti.ru/opinion/articles/2017/10/20/738689-bratushki-bratoubiitsami
                        even in the army of Napoleon, at least Hitler, at least with the devil together, well, or as it is now in NATO

                        Events from different eras, with each of these countries Russia periodically fought, then entered the union.
                        In short, the facts are drastically different from your statements. You can repeat it a million times, but this will not make a lie true.
                      5. Nazar
                        Nazar 25 May 2021 01: 14
                        +1
                        pytar - Today.
                        NATO in its fundamental documents openly calls the Russian Federation an enemy. Bulgaria is a NATO member, which means our enemy.
                        And this is true, no matter how you get out here.
                      6. pytar
                        pytar 25 May 2021 09: 14
                        +1
                        Present day. NATO in its fundamental documents openly calls the Russian Federation an enemy. Bulgaria is a NATO member, which means our enemy.

                        To date! Enemy, so enemy! Yesterday there was one thing, now another, tomorrow there will be a third! Everyone in the world changes, nothing costs one place!
          2. Victor Tsenin
            Victor Tsenin 21 May 2021 22: 33
            +1
            > he fought not with "nemtsami", not with "polyakami", but with the anti-communists.

            You know, the USSR thought differently. As for the operation in Poland, it was a good option to move the border to the west for the future inevitable confrontation.

            > that this axiom would be understood in today's Warsaw.

            If by an axiom you mean a historical fact, then in the Russian Federation they do not really care about the understanding of Russophobic Poland.

            > that the German (pro-Nazi) collaboration of the subjects of Czechoslovakia
            In the previous sayings, they described exactly who exactly, there is no, because we are talking about the Sudeten Germans, I suppose.

            > But the Germans (as well as the Italians) in Switzerland did not have such sentiments.
            The occupation stimulates collaboration, doesn't it?

            > And no one accuses the Soviet people of collaboration.
            Is this a bold statement, but far from reality, ~ 500000 in the ROA, Bandera, Kalmyks, Crimean Tatars, is it a tangible moment in the Caucasus? I'm sure you know that.

            > they are called from something "freedom fighters".
            Namely, that traitors, and all these Czech Republic and Poland and To us are not the Motherland, therefore. At least they can be called a lily of the valley, the essence of this will not change)
    3. iouris
      iouris 21 May 2021 20: 59
      +1
      There were no collaborators in the USSR. They are traitors. Traitors were hanged in the USSR. And let's no longer talk about collaborators in the USSR, because the USSR fought and won the war with the Hitlerite Reich. Those countries in which there were "collaborators" are Hitler's allies. Descendants of collaborators today are trying to arrange revenge.
      1. pytar
        pytar 21 May 2021 22: 38
        0
        Call them what you want. Collaborationists and traitors were hanged in all countries after WWII. As for the descendants, where what turned into what, if I write what I think, they will be banned. lol Okay, let's go. bully
        1. iouris
          iouris 22 May 2021 11: 55
          0
          Maybe they hung up "collaborators" to "close the topic" and become a "fighter against the damned regime." France especially distinguished itself in this.
          1. pytar
            pytar 22 May 2021 15: 09
            0
            This is your subjective guess. You have the right to yours, just like others have the right to their opinion that does not coincide with yours.
  • kamakama
    kamakama 21 May 2021 17: 49
    +2
    Alsace and Lorraine were, as it were, German-speaking then. Just look at the writing of the villages around Strasbourg and Metz, even on today's maps
    1. Sergej1972
      Sergej1972 23 May 2021 02: 41
      0
      They are still German-speaking.
      1. kamakama
        kamakama 24 May 2021 17: 00
        0
        Not quite anymore. In schools, German is not taught, the level of influence in society is decreasing, only in completely remote villages it survives
  • ABC-schütze
    ABC-schütze 21 May 2021 12: 52
    0
    And I do not understand what you are going to "refute" in this quote. And, most importantly, why? .. Don't be hypocritical and juggle with "ethno-historical" excursions. Firstly, the figures given are absolutely accurate and correct. Secondly, we are talking about the citizens of the former Poland, who willingly went to cooperate with Nazi Germany. And, even, to serve in the ranks of the Wehrmacht. These people lived in the territory of the former Poland and had HER SUBJECT. Thirdly, no one in the quote calls them "Poles", but this - YOUR CITIZENS ARE COLLABORATORS ... Would remind the VO forum better that Hitler, during the "funeral" ceremony of the deceased organized in Berlin, at his direction Pilsudski, PERSONALLY stood in a mournful "honor guard" at his symbolic coffin ... Pilsudski, if my memory serves me right, was a "real" Pole. Is not it?..
    1. pytar
      pytar 21 May 2021 14: 41
      +2
      And I do not understand what you are going to "refute" in this quote.

      What is not clear? request The text contained incorrect suggestions in fact.
      And, most importantly, why? ..

      For objectivity and impartiality.
      Firstly, the figures given are absolutely accurate and correct.

      I don’t dispute the numbers. But the bottom line is that Reich existed and Poland did not!
      Secondly, we are talking about the citizens of the former Poland, who willingly went to cooperate with Nazi Germany. And, even, to serve in the ranks of the Wehrmacht. These people lived in the territory of the former Poland and had HER SUBJECT.

      "former" Poland !, hence they were no longer its citizens!
      ... willingly agreed to cooperate with Nazi Germany. And, even, to serve in the ranks of the Wehrmacht.

      Ethnic German, and some of the Germanized nationalities, who became citizens of the Reich and mobilized in the Wehrmacht!
      These people lived in the territory of the former Poland and had HER SUBJECT.

      You cannot be served by a non-existent state!

      In the controversial text, suggestion is completely different! By the way, the admins erased it.

      Thirdly, no one in the quote calls them "Poles", but these are YOUR CITIZENS ARE COLLABORATIVE ...

      It cannot be, mine or your fellow citizens, if mine or your state does not exist. At that time they were citizens of Reich, and besides, they are not Poles. By the way, I am not a Pole either, so I am impartial on the topic.
      They would remind ... that Hitler ... of the "funeral service" of the deceased Pilsudski, PERSONALLY stood in a mournful "honor guard" ...

      Politicians do this kind of thing a lot. And they hug and smile at each other, hating, depending on what interests they have. After all, Khrushchev also carried Stalin's sarcophagus, depicting sorrow ...
      1. iouris
        iouris 21 May 2021 21: 08
        0
        Quote: pytar
        Politicians do this kind of thing a lot.

        Stalin and Hitler are not politicians, but the leaders of powerful antagonistic forces. And they cannot be put on the same level, not only because they represented polar ideologies, humanism against the darkest anti-human force. And there can be no two points of view, because Nazism is becoming a powerful force.
        1. pytar
          pytar 21 May 2021 22: 34
          +1
          Stalin and Hitler are not politicians, but the leaders of powerful antagonistic forces.

          Well, yes, when the politicians kill their opponents and concentrate all power in their hands, they turn into "godlike" leaders! Hitler in this attitude was more modest, he declared himself Fuhrer / leader / to the German people, and Stalin was the "leader of the peoples." And there is no without ideology, it has been so since the ancients, when the leaders were also sorcerers. lol
          And there can be no two points of view ...

          Maybe iouris, maybe ... forbid people to have different points of view, it happens only where dictator-leaders reign. yes
          1. iouris
            iouris 22 May 2021 11: 52
            0
            "Point of view" is often enemy propaganda. This is a class war. Your sympathies are on Hitler's side. To whitewash Hitler and breathe new life into the European project, you need to hit the USSR and Stalin.
            1. pytar
              pytar 22 May 2021 12: 21
              +1
              "Point of view" is often enemy propaganda.

              Not always! According to your logic and your hardening, propaganda is!
              1. iouris
                iouris 22 May 2021 13: 39
                0
                Quote: pytar
                According to your logic and your hardening, propaganda is!

                Even so, but not Nazi and anti-Russian propaganda. Not even anti-Bulgarian.
                1. pytar
                  pytar 22 May 2021 15: 04
                  0
                  Even so, but not Nazi and anti-Russian propaganda. Not even anti-Bulgarian.

                  Propaganda is the dissemination of information, facts, arguments, rumors, half-truths, or lies - to influence public opinion. Propaganda is a more or less systematic effort to manipulate the beliefs, attitudes, or actions of others. At its core, every propaganda is the opposite of the truth!
                  1. iouris
                    iouris 23 May 2021 11: 53
                    0
                    Are you here to tell us the truth? Your "propaganda" and attitude towards Hitler is a social fact, i.e. a criterion that allows me to identify your true goal.
  • andrewkor
    andrewkor 21 May 2021 05: 50
    +10
    I think so, based on the configuration of the borders with Germany, the Poles had no chances in the conflict with it. All hope, to hold out as long as possible until real help from France and Great Britain, but it just did not wait!
    1. The leader of the Redskins
      The leader of the Redskins 21 May 2021 06: 16
      +5
      Moreover, they still, it turns out, "planted a pig" during the mobilization!
      By the way, thanks to the author for the detailed article.
      1. Peak
        Peak 21 May 2021 07: 05
        +1
        Quote: Leader of the Redskins
        Moreover, they still, it turns out, "planted a pig" during the mobilization!


        Are these "partner allies"?

        Only on August 29 was a general mobilization announced, which, however, had to be interrupted under the onslaught of France and Great Britain. England and France were ready to make concessions at the expense of Poland and tried to bargain with Germany on acceptable terms.


        These, but already on a more extended list, also continue to trade and dispose of other people's territories as their own, as was the custom with them from Munich yes
    2. iouris
      iouris 22 May 2021 12: 04
      +1
      After Munich, only Polish Nazis obsessed with animal Russophobia, who overestimated their own resources and importance and believed that they could use Hitler to build "Greater Poland" at the expense of Russia, could wait for help from France and England and pursue a policy hostile to the USSR.
  • antivirus
    antivirus 21 May 2021 06: 08
    0
    and these heroes have the same fat as uhram ............................. instead of power from Mozha to Mozha, they got needy















  • Olgovich
    Olgovich 21 May 2021 06: 36
    +8
    Even if they had time to carry out the mobilization in full, there was a catastrophic lack of weapons.

    And they started it too late.

    PS Put a good article "plus", do not forget.
  • Undecim
    Undecim 21 May 2021 07: 46
    +5
    By September 1, the Poles managed to put on alert and deploy the following forces on the defensive lines:

    Let me make some clarifications.
    By September 1, Poland had deployed in fact eight armies or the equivalent army of operational formations and ten operational groups.
    Army "Modlin"
    Army "Pomerania"
    Army "Poznan"
    Army "Lodz" (Army "Warsaw")
    Army "Krakow"
    Army "Karpaty" (Army "Little Poland")
    Reserve Army "Prussia".
    Independent operating group "Narev".
    Operational groups: Vyshków, Vostok, Petrków, Shlensk, Belsko, Cavalry Task Force No. 1, Cavalry Task Force No. 2, Task Force of Brigadier General Jan Krushevsky, Jaslo, "Kolo".
    1. Paul Neumann
      22 May 2021 16: 17
      0
      For especially gifted individuals who read the text diagonally: the article lists ONLY those units that were put on alert by September 1, 1939.
  • pytar
    pytar 21 May 2021 09: 38
    +4
    It would be nice if the author would insert cards from the deployment of the Polish Army, on the eve of the German invasion.

    For the defending Poles, the configuration was geographically extremely unfavorable, and ideal for the tactics of the Germans - blitzkrieg with covering wedges. In addition, Poland was forced to leave part of its forces in the eastern direction, although it was clear that they would not be able to cover such a long border. It was impossible for Poland to fight on two fronts. She clearly had fewer resources than the Wehrmacht.

    For all that, the Poles fought bravely!
    1. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
      Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 21 May 2021 09: 58
      +2
      Quote: pytar
      For all that, the Poles fought bravely!

      The picture with zholnezhs bravely chopping down German tanks with blades, I think, spoils the explanatory commentary a little.
      1. pytar
        pytar 21 May 2021 10: 20
        +4
        The picture with zholnezhs bravely chopping down German tanks with blades, I think, spoils the explanatory commentary a little.

        Film picture, for illustration. There is a controversy about whether the cavalry attacks of the Polish cavalry on German tanks really took place or this is a myth. I can neither affirm nor deny, but Guderian himself writes: "The Polish Pomor Cavalry Brigade, due to ignorance of the design data and methods of action of our tanks, attacked them with cold weapons and suffered monstrous losses."
        I see no reason to dispute the fact that the Poles really fought bravely on all WWII fronts. hi
        1. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
          Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 21 May 2021 10: 31
          +5
          Quote: pytar
          I see no reason to dispute the fact that the Poles really fought bravely on all WWII fronts.

          and I do not dispute. Just Guderian's passage that the Poles thought that German tanks were made of plywood, I was always amused. This is similar to Lockwood’s Ethiopians throwing hornets' nests into the open hatches of Italians. Neither the first nor the second has been confirmed or described by anyone else.
          1. pytar
            pytar 21 May 2021 10: 45
            +2
            Just Guderian's passage that the Poles thought that German tanks were made of plywood, I was always amused.

            I don’t know to what extent Guderian is telling the truth, although I personally don’t exclude the possibility that the Polish cavalrymen met with German tanks and probably tried to harm them in some way. This could have happened most likely by accident, the fighting units were mixed, often did not know what they would overstrain. The chaos was not weak! hi
            1. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
              Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 21 May 2021 10: 54
              0
              Quote: pytar
              The chaos was not weak!

              Chaos explains banzai saber attacks on tanks ?? Come on.
              1. pytar
                pytar 21 May 2021 12: 09
                +1
                Chaos explains banzai saber attacks on tanks ?? Come on.

                Comparison with banzai attacks is incorrect. If such mixing happened, it is most likely due to the unpredictability of the situation.
                Believing collegue gsev (Gusev Vladimir) probably right in pointing out:
                Apparently they meant the battle of the 18th Pomeranian Uhlan regiment near Kroyan.

                Of course, I can't say anything, but I got to this episode, about the actions of the Soviet cavalry:
                Already in 1942, a triumphant battle took place near the village of Kushchevskaya: the Cossacks of the 13th Kuban Cossack Division of the 17th Cavalry Corps conducted a brilliant attack, at a gallop, taking the shocked Germans with checkers. It was truly a triumph for the cavalry in the "war of motors". Red Cossacks burned bottles of fascist cars and hacked to death over 2 thousand Nazis. The surviving Germans fled in panic, throwing their weapons down. In this battle, the legendary Russian Cossack K.I. Nedorubov, hero of two world wars. Now at this place there is a monument to a Cossack, rapidly flying on a horse.
                1. Catfish
                  Catfish 21 May 2021 17: 51
                  +2
                  Good afternoon, Boyan. hi

                  Red Cossacks burned fascist cars with bottles and hacked to death over 2 thousand Nazis.

                  Quite like a frank "branchy cranberry". Whose memoir is the quote?

                  As for the attack of the Polish lancers, they attacked the dismounted motorized infantry, which was located at the edge of the forest for a bite to eat. The armored personnel carriers, of course, were placed in the forest. When the Germans woke up from surprise, and this happened very quickly, the drivers and machine gunners took their places, and the armored personnel carriers went out into the open, firing, and that was all. There were no tanks there. At least that is how A. Sickness described this episode in his "Blitzkrieg".
                  1. pytar
                    pytar 21 May 2021 22: 07
                    +1
                    Good afternoon, Boyan.

                    Hi Constantine! hi
                    Quite like a frank "branchy cranberry". Whose memoir is the quote?

                    From ru-nete found. Shas looked, somewhere there are 300 links from this passage.

                    To be honest, I don’t know why the dialogue went this way! What difference did it make whether the Polish cavalry had battles with German armored vehicles or not ?! request
                    In general, I would not comment if the forum did not start with anti-Polish misinformation, which the admins later deleted. hi

                    The Poles fought as circumstances permitted, and they fought bravely all along the fronts! soldier
                    1. Catfish
                      Catfish 21 May 2021 22: 56
                      +3
                      Actually, I would not comment if the forum did not start with anti-Polish misinformation ...

                      Yes, these are all urya-patriots, they have enemies all around and solid Russophobes, they are tired of worse than a bitter radish with their scanty little mind and hackneyed cliches. It is useless to treat them.
                      And so, yes, the Poles knew how to fight, that in the Army of Human, that in the Army of the Regional, only the latter then slipped to a banal massacre.
            2. Forcecom
              Forcecom 21 May 2021 15: 15
              +3
              Rather, I will believe in one description of these events that came across to me, the Poles in cavalry attacked part of the reconnaissance battalion of one of the tank divisions, the benefit of the motorcyclists is all the same with sabers, but the tank battalion moved behind the scouts, which quickly came to the aid of its colleagues and organized a pogrom for the Poles, and then the Germans made a propaganda myth out of this.
        2. Undecim
          Undecim 21 May 2021 10: 52
          +5
          There is a controversy about whether the cavalry attacks of the Polish cavalry on German tanks really took place or this is a myth.

          This dispute has long been resolved, even the author of this myth, the Italian journalist and historian Indro Montanelli, who in 1939 was assigned to the German army to cover events in Poland, was found. Back in 1998, he admitted that he had invented this episode, moreover, with the sole purpose of showing the bravery of Polish soldiers.
          1. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
            Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 21 May 2021 11: 25
            +4
            Quote: Undecim
            This dispute has long been resolved, even the author of this myth, the Italian journalist and historian Indro Montanelli, was found.

            Nevertheless, the colorful splint of the Italian, unfortunately, is usually interpreted in the spirit of "well, stupid ...". And in general, it is considered almost good form to arrogantly pour slop over the Poles.
            1. Undecim
              Undecim 21 May 2021 11: 46
              +5
              In fairness, it should be noted that the Poles themselves had a hand in spreading this myth.

              Painting by Polish artist Jerzy Kossak "Battle of Kutno". 1945 year.
              1. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
                Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 21 May 2021 11: 49
                +4
                Quote: Undecim
                Painting by Polish artist Jerzy Kossak "Battle of Kutno". 1945 year.

                laughing
                Funny daub)
                Similarly based on the Guderian tale)
                1. Undecim
                  Undecim 21 May 2021 11: 59
                  +5
                  Rather, Guderian composed a fairy tale based on the picture.
                  1. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
                    Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 21 May 2021 12: 10
                    +2
                    Quote: Undecim
                    Rather, Guderian composed a fairy tale based on the picture.

                    Yes, perhaps that's more accurate)
              2. Catfish
                Catfish 21 May 2021 17: 42
                +2
                This "artist" would not hurt to take a look at least once at the photographs of German tanks. laughing
          2. Liam
            Liam 21 May 2021 23: 14
            0
            Quote: Undecim
            Back in 1998, he admitted that he had invented this episode, moreover, with the sole purpose of showing the bravery of Polish soldiers.

            A bit wrong. He did not invent, but repeated the story of the German propaganda department, which arranged an excursion for the correspondents on the battlefield. They didn’t go to the front where and when they wanted. Of course they didn’t see the battle, but what happened there allegedly was recorded from the words of German propagandists , who invented this story. Well, the corpses of several soldiers and horses that were on the battlefield added to the "picture".
            This myth took shape on the pages of the October (1939) issue of the German propaganda magazine "Der Pimpf" which came out with this picture on the cover

            The tone of the article is German superiority over the inferior Slavs. The myth-making continued in the 40-year book Panzerschützen in Polen and finally fixed in the minds of the 41-year film Kampfgeschwader Lützow, in which there was a scene with this mythical attack. The role of the Polish cavalry in the film was played by the cavalry units of the Slovak army.
            And already in the post-war years, the propagandists of socialist Poland also put their hands on, but with the opposite goal - to show the heroism of the Poles
            1. Liam
              Liam 21 May 2021 23: 48
              +1
              Quote: Liam
              Book 40 Panzerschützen in Polen


              Quote: Liam
              film 41 years old Kampfgeschwader Lützow,

              https://archive.org/details/kampfgeschwaderlutzow1941bombercrewtakingpartinliberationofposen
              On the 28th minute this episode
        3. gsev
          gsev 21 May 2021 10: 54
          +5
          Quote: pytar
          , but Guderian himself writes: "The Polish Pomor Cavalry Brigade, due to ignorance of the design data and methods of action of our tanks, attacked them with cold weapons and suffered monstrous losses."

          Apparently they meant the battle of the 18th Pomeranian Uhlan regiment near Kroyan. On September 1, the regiment, which had about 850 men in its ranks, fought a classic defensive battle. Having suffered heavy losses by the middle of the day, the command of the regiment decided to carry out a raid in the rear of the Germans with limited forces and take advantage of their transition to repel the attack to break away from the Germans and begin an organized withdrawal. Moving forward to bypass the Germans, 2 squadrons collided with a German detachment that was halted and in horse formation from a distance of half a kilometer, attacking it, they began to chop the Germans. In turn, the Poles were attacked by the Germans' armored vehicles, which they did not notice, and having lost about 25 horsemen, together with the commander who led them into the attack, killed and about 50 seriously wounded retreated. During the entire day of September 1, the losses of the 18th regiment amounted to 60% of its composition. Against the background of a war with the Germans of any enemy from 1939 to the end of 1941, this attack can be considered a model of success. If everyone had fought as much against the Germans as the 18th Pomeranian Uhlan Regiment in this attack, Germany would have lost about 2 million by the end of 1941.
          1. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
            Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 21 May 2021 12: 08
            +1
            Quote: gsev
            Against the background of a war with the Germans of any enemy from 1939 to the end of 1941, this attack can be considered a model of success.

            A dubious success, actually. Moreover, the Poles themselves did not consider this battle a success. How did Col. Mastalezh say to the liaison officer? "Do not teach me, sir lieutenant, how to carry out impracticable orders." And General Skotnitsky generally disowned this attack.
            Quote: gsev
            If everyone fought like this against the Germans like the 18th Pomeranian Uhlan regiment

            Without diminishing the courage of the Poles, I note that the 18th regiment was retreating all day on September 1, until it was behind Brda. Major Maletsky's raid to the rear of the Germans is, of course, a bold enterprise, but, to put it mildly, is not an example of competent tactics. Catch the enemy off guard to be caught off guard by him?
            1. gsev
              gsev 21 May 2021 12: 15
              0
              Quote: Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
              A dubious success, actually. Moreover, the Poles themselves did not consider this battle a success.

              Halder's diary is considered the most objective source on the war before 1942. If you trust him, then the losses of the Wehrmacht before the transition of the Red Army to the counteroffensive near Moscow were negligible. The losses of the Wehrmacht referred to the losses of its opponents as Israel's losses to the losses of Hamas during the May 2021 conflict.
              1. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
                Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 21 May 2021 13: 36
                +1
                Quote: gsev
                If you trust him, then the losses of the Wehrmacht before the transition of the Red Army to the counteroffensive near Moscow were negligible.

                So what? This is the reason for the 1939 Polish uhlans. set as an example to the soldiers of the Red Army in 1941?
            2. gsev
              gsev 21 May 2021 12: 36
              -1
              Quote: Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
              A dubious success, actually. Moreover, the Poles themselves did not consider this battle a success.

              After this battle, the Germans shot a propaganda film where armored cars were replaced by tanks. Apparently, the entire occupation was shown this film to the Poles and convinced that there was no point in attacking the Germans. The same film "Four Tankmen and a Dog" was filmed to remove the fear of the Germans and their military machine from the post-war youth of Poland.
              1. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
                Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 21 May 2021 13: 39
                0
                Quote: gsev
                After this battle, the Germans shot a propaganda film where the armored cars were replaced by tanks.

                what movie? Game? As there are no such episodes in the stories of D. D. Wohenshau. Yes, and the burgher could have a question - "if the Poles are such idiots, then why did we lose 13 thousand soldiers?"
                1. Liam
                  Liam 21 May 2021 23: 28
                  0
                  Quote: Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
                  Game?

                  Yes, Kampfgeschwader Lützow.

                  https://archive.org/details/kampfgeschwaderlutzow1941bombercrewtakingpartinliberationofposen
        4. Victor Tsenin
          Victor Tsenin 21 May 2021 22: 36
          0
          > but Guderian himself writes

          Uderian himself writes a lot, but this myth has long been exposed. Well, think for yourself, oligophrenics were only recruited into the Polish cavalry.
      2. Paul Neumann
        22 May 2021 16: 20
        0
        um ... am I okay? still a famous, classic shot.
  • Tests
    Tests 21 May 2021 11: 40
    -1
    Dear pytar (Boyan Ivanov) posted wonderful diagrams. On September 01, 1939, the first Slovak division, together with the Germans, began a war against Poland. And a few days later, the third Slovak division, destroying Poland's border guards in battles, occupied a piece of Polish territory ... And needless to say, there were not many Slovak troops. The mother of a Polish soldier killed on the southern border of Poland does not care, the only son was killed by a German or Slovak soldier ... But to Slovakia, for unleashing war and occupation, the Polish authorities cannot hear or see any claims at the state level ... Stalin and the USSR are to blame ... True, they somehow forgot in Poland: from Lithuania and Czechoslovakia, from Ukraine and Belarus, who took the land for themselves by war and began to polonize ...
    Interestingly, the author considers the Polish fleet. The very beginning of Operation Peking was a little earlier than 15:29 on August 1939, 12. Mobilization? ... And 6 destroyers - where does this figure come from? 100 minesweepers plus gunboats General Haller and Pilsudski, training ship Mazur, and what else? ... A few months ago on VO. recalled the escape from Tallinn of the Polish naval submarine "Eagle", recalled how and where the other submarines were preparing to repel the German attack. Mobilization? ... And river monitors and gunboats, as well as artillery boats of the Pinsk flotilla, how many shells from their guns fired at the Germans? Is this mobilization? The support of infantry, armored vehicles, tanks and cavalry from XNUMXmm howitzers would be completely superfluous? ... The headquarters of the Polish armed forces were somehow strangely preparing for the defense of Poland ...
    1. pytar
      pytar 21 May 2021 13: 10
      +5
      Hello dear Eugene! hi If we pull out selectively individual events, we lose causal relationships, and accordingly we risk getting a distorted picture.
      On September 01, 1939, the first Slovak division, together with the Germans, began a war against Poland. And a few days later, the third Slovak division, destroying Poland's border guards in battles, occupied a piece of Polish territory ...

      Territorial disputes between Czechoslovakia and Poland arise immediately after the acquisition of independence of these states after WWI. There is also a story from the Cieszyn region, Silesia, etc. I will not go into details, both sides have their own arguments, and the non-settlement in the disputed areas was mixed. Specifically about Teshin, I will say a few words. Czechoslovakia occupied it in the 20s, when Poland was unable to resist. The Red Army was at Warsaw, a battle broke out which the Poles call "The Miracle on the Vistula". In 38 Czechoslovakia fell, and Poland occupied these disputed regions. In 38, the Germans handed over the strip / about 15-25 km. / Of the former Czech Republic to the Slovaks. In 39, Slovakia occupied a shallow strip / several villages / north of the border with Poland. Typically territorial compensation for the fact that in 38 the part of the territory of Slovakia inhabited by ethnic Hungarians was transferred to Hungary.
      And it is not necessary to say that there were not many Slovak troops.

      Well, if we want to be mundane, let's note that the participation of Slovakia is minimal. Losses - 18 killed, 46 wounded and 11 missing.
      For all the ambiguity of the story, I want to be clear - I'm not going to judge who is right or wrong! But do you know what makes an impression on me when I leaf through Russian forums and media? "Czechs are bad, Slovaks are bad, Poles are bad", yes, in general, all bad! And in order to inspire negativity, "suitable" pieces of historical events are selected!
      But towards Slovakia, for unleashing war and occupation, the Polish authorities cannot hear or see any claims at the state level ... Stalin and the USSR are to blame for everything ...

      Ordinary people don't have it either! Do you know why? Because they took and apologized to each other! Without arguing who was right! Each has its own truth! We acted wisely, realizing that historically everyone will have a claim to everyone! Now these nations are in the EU! Boundary formal, no dispute! hi
      1. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
        Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 21 May 2021 13: 46
        +4
        Quote: pytar
        when I leaf through Russian forums and media? "Czechs are bad, Slovaks are bad, Poles are bad," but in general they are all bad!

        laughing
        Moreover, everyone begins to practice in the composition of derogatory nicknames, gushing with bilious wit. This is completely incomprehensible to me.
        1. Liam
          Liam 21 May 2021 13: 48
          +3
          Quote: Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
          This is completely incomprehensible to me.

          Resentments and complexes
        2. pytar
          pytar 21 May 2021 14: 56
          +1
          Moreover, everyone begins to practice in the composition of derogatory nicknames, gushing with bilious wit. This is completely incomprehensible to me.

          Yes, it really looks strange ... As if the forums are a place to unload the internal negativity in life ... request
    2. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
      Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 21 May 2021 13: 16
      +2
      Quote: Tests
      And a few days later, the third Slovak division, destroying Poland's border guards in battles, occupied a piece of Polish territory ...

      She did not destroy anyone in battles. The 3rd Division was on the border, and when it was ordered to move deep into Poland, it did not meet any resistance.
      Quote: Tests
      But to Slovakia, for the outbreak of war and occupation, the Polish authorities cannot hear or see any claims at the state level.

      And why should Poland have claims? In 1920, Czechoslovakia squeezed Orava from them "in a fair fight", in 1938 the Poles took Tesin like a rat. And then the stuffing began to be exaggerated that Poles and Hungarians also want to divide Slovakia. The Slovaks hastily formed three divisions and in 1939 they attacked Poland (they went as far as 30 km and stopped), and as a prize, according to an agreement with the Germans, they receive the Cieszyn region. Well, what happened after the war is known.
      Quote: Tests
      Stalin and the USSR are to blame for everything.

      No, not in everything. Hitler still.
    3. wkat
      wkat 21 May 2021 13: 28
      +3
      There are no claims to Slovakia, just as the USSR had no claims to Romania, Hungary. And the Hungarians were so fierce. Nothing was taken from Belarus and Ukraine, they were not (the BNR and the UPR were not full-fledged states). They have already apologized for Czechoslovakia.
      1. iouris
        iouris 22 May 2021 12: 07
        0
        Quote: wkat
        They have already apologized for Czechoslovakia.

        What polite gentlemen! And for some reason they forgot to say "thank you" to the Russian soldier, Stalin and the USSR.
    4. CastroRuiz
      CastroRuiz 21 May 2021 15: 40
      +2
      The Slovak army was just taking back its territory from the submarine, which the "good Poles" were taken during the division of the Czechoslovakia. Teaches history.
    5. Paul Neumann
      22 May 2021 16: 25
      0
      especially gifted individuals who read texts diagonally: the article does not speak of 12 destroyers, but of a destroyer battalion (dywizjon minowców), which consisted of 12 DIFFERENT units. Operation "Peking" is outside the scope of the topic, since the decision to send three destroyers to England was made earlier and does not apply to the mobilization of the Polish armed forces in 1939.
  • Obliterator
    Obliterator 21 May 2021 14: 27
    +1
    Quote: gsev
    Against the background of a war with the Germans of any enemy from 1939 to the end of 1941, this attack can be considered a model of success. If everyone had fought as much against the Germans as the 18th Pomeranian Uhlan Regiment in this attack, Germany would have lost about 2 million by the end of 1941.

    The Germans escaped this attack with a small number of wounded, so the effect was more psychological. The attack on tanks with sabers is entirely a German invention.
  • iouris
    iouris 21 May 2021 21: 14
    -1
    Poland never viewed Nazi Germany as an antagonist. The Polish leadership has always considered and still considers Russia and the Russians to be an antagonist and mortal enemy. Therefore, the Polish leadership and state could not seriously oppose Germany. The same can be said about almost any other state. The exception is the USSR.
    In addition, it is quite rightly indicated that the newly formed Polish state by the Entente included German lands and the German population.
    If you want to delve into the problem more deeply, read the novel by G. Grass "Tin Drum".
    1. Victor Tsenin
      Victor Tsenin 21 May 2021 22: 38
      -1
      Moreover, pre-war Poland was very eager to be friends with the Nazi Reich, the Foreign Ministry sang defirambs and gladly took part in the Czech issue.
  • Andrei Nikolaevich
    Andrei Nikolaevich 21 May 2021 22: 02
    +1
    Personally, I liked the powerful "destroyer division".)
    1. Paul Neumann
      22 May 2021 16: 49
      +1
      two French-built and two English-built destroyers, it was a real force. especially since the Polish destroyers were supposed to act against the USSR as part of the combined forces of the Baltic countries. no one thought about what would happen if they had to fight with Germany. in the end, someone was smart enough to send the three most valuable ships to England on the eve of the war.
  • isv000
    isv000 23 May 2021 15: 55
    0
    Destroyer division! Don't come near! ... am