Military Review

"Almaz" - Soviet military space station

18

One of the most secret objects of the Soviet Union for space exploration can be considered the unique station "Almaz". The need to create an actual combat space module was due to the Cold War, which was gaining momentum in the 60-70s of the last century. For obvious reasons, this war extended to outer space.


The USSR understood the fact that the enemy can arrange provocations not only on land or at sea, but also in space. Thus, they discussed the growing danger of the US and NATO countries striking spacecraft. The issue of protection from American satellites, which carried out space monitoring, tracking the activities of Soviet vehicles in near-earth space, was also being resolved.

But it is one thing to create weapons for use in a normal environment, it is quite another thing - weaponthat would have to be applied in a vacuum.

A truly special space weapon was housed aboard a military space station. This is a specially designed gun of the Shield-1 system - NR-23. Tests of this space gun, capable of hitting targets at a distance of several kilometers in a vacuum, were carried out in the USSR in the mid-1970s.

What were the special weapons for a military space station, what were the goals and objectives of this station, is described in the plot "Military Acceptance" at the TK "Zvezda":

18 comments
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  1. Nikolay Ivanov_5
    Nikolay Ivanov_5 April 21 2021 20: 37
    +4
    May space always be available to our country, so that it will be the first there and occupy only leading positions.
  2. rocket757
    rocket757 April 21 2021 20: 42
    -1
    "Almaz" - Soviet military space station
    ... There was a case near "Poltava" !!!
    1. sabakina
      sabakina April 21 2021 21: 49
      +3
      Quote: rocket757
      "Almaz" - Soviet military space station
      ... There was a case near "Poltava" !!!

      Victor, rather "over Poltava". wink
      1. rocket757
        rocket757 April 22 2021 07: 39
        0
        Greetings Vyacheslav soldier
        This is a matter of high flight, of course !!! The main thing is that our glorious ancestors did great things, accomplished great victories ...
        Of course, I want to talk about victories on the peaceful "front", but such was the situation in the world that it was necessary to forge weapons, formidable, even terrible weapons, but it just happened ...
        We just need to remember that this was not done in vain, at the whim of someone.
  3. swan49
    swan49 April 21 2021 20: 54
    +16
    It is a pity that the program only told about the Almaz manned orbital station (OPS) from the Almaz military complex. After all, the complex itself included the Almaz OPS (11F71) and a manned transport supply ship (TKS, 11F72), which was supposed to deliver a crew of 3 cosmonauts to the OPS, equipment, consumables and descent capsules. Structurally, the TKS with a mass of 20 tons consisted of a functional cargo unit (FGB), which had the designation 11F77, and a return vehicle (VA) - 11F74.
    It could be said that DOS "Salyut" was formed from the converted buildings of the OPS and TKS, which were launched under the name "Cosmos". In 1977 the first TKS-1 - "Cosmos-929". His VA returned to the ground, and the FGB docked with the Salyut-6 station. In 1981, TKS-2 - "Cosmos-1267" was launched. His VA also returned to the ground, and the FGB docked with the Salyut-6 station. Launched on March 2, 1983, TKS-3 - Kosmos-1443 - delivered 7 tons of cargo to the Salyut-2,7 station, worked for a long time as a module and completed the flight on September 19, 1983. His VA on August 23, 1983. made a soft landing, delivering about 350 kg of cargo and the results of experiments to Earth. The next one docked with the same "Salyut-7" on October 2, 1985. TKS-4 - "Cosmos-1686", launched on September 27, 1985.
    The remaining TCS were converted into functional-service (FSB) and functional-cargo blocks (FGB) of the Mir station. One of them delivered the Kvant-1987 module to Mir in 1, the other was used to create the Skif-DM military station. On the basis of the FGB TKS, the Zarya module for the ISS was made, and there are plans to launch the FGB-2 Nauka.
    It is a pity that the program never once mentioned the word GUKOS (General Directorate of Space Facilities) and the surname of its chief, Colonel-General Andrei Grigorievich Karas (he did not allow his surname to be declined!). Andrei Grigorievich was the head of the GUKOS from 1964 to 1979.
  4. DerSamowar
    DerSamowar April 21 2021 22: 05
    0
    And that conscripts serve at this station. They will run AWOL on the ISS, shoot sizki.
  5. Nikolaevich I
    Nikolaevich I April 22 2021 03: 24
    +1
    A very "educational" video! For example, I didn't know. that in space "gunpowder will not explode; because there is no air (oxygen) ..."! fellow People! What are you listening to? Besides that, there are other questions! For example, at different times the TV broadcasts were reported in complete anxiety, about the guns not only NR-23, but also about the R-23, R-23M "Kartech"! Moreover, there was infa that on the basis of the aircraft cannon (R-23 / 23M), a "space" 14,5-mm machine gun was created, not a cannon! Before choosing a cannon or a machine gun, take a closer look at the "shells" ... their size ...! (Although, there is a "nuance"! The ammunition was telescopic!) "Space firearms" were developed for the "Shield-1" system! Space-to-space rockets (RSC) were developed for another system ... Shield-2! The Shield-2 system was not fully developed!
    PS There were, of course, problems "worthy" for consideration ... These are both the recoil and the pressure difference in space and inside the station ...
    1. Skyscream
      Skyscream April 23 2021 00: 03
      +1
      Why are you so excited? Accessible gear for everyone. How many people in the world think about the fact that "something is flying up there"? And how it flies. So they are trying to tell them about it on the sly. And the fact that gunpowder burns in an airless space, and does not "explode", is known from the school chemistry course, but who remembers this?
      1. Intruder
        Intruder April 23 2021 10: 42
        0
        And the fact that gunpowder burns in an airless space, and does not "explode", is known from the school chemistry course, but who remembers this?
        Well, so it burns in the atmosphere, more precisely in the inner volume of the liner, only quickly and creates an excess pressure of the gas fraction of its multicomponent layers (combustion products), if it exploded, it would not be a propelling explosive, but simply an explosive !!! laughing wink
        1. Nikolaevich I
          Nikolaevich I April 23 2021 10: 55
          0
          Quote: Intruder
          if it exploded, it would not be a throwing explosive, but simply an explosive !!!

          Of course...! It exploded ... it means it sounded, most likely, in a TV show and the word turned up "under the arm" ... If the presenter was voiced for all 100, then the meaning of his "speech": projectiles (cartridges) with a powder propellant charge cannot be used in space; since there is no air (oxygen)! The fact that the propellant charge contains oxygen (oxidizing agent) is unaware of the leader! That's all I wanted to point out!
    2. Intruder
      Intruder April 23 2021 10: 36
      0
      For example, at different times the TV broadcasts were reported in complete anxiety, about the guns not only NR-23, but also about the R-23, R-23M "Kartech"! Moreover, there was infa that on the basis of an aircraft cannon (R-23 / 23M), a "space" 14,5-mm machine gun was created, not a cannon! Before choosing a cannon or a machine gun, take a closer look at the "shells" ... their size ...!
      There is not only another propelling explosive in the sleeve, completely different ballistics and the problem with the impulse of force, which they decided how to compensate ..., because microgravity in orbit is not 1g near the ground, so we stopped at the experiment with 23 mm. and decided not to continue, although they tested many other "products" of the Soviet genius, such as:



  6. nikvic46
    nikvic46 April 22 2021 07: 17
    0
    And there was enough money for everything.
    1. Vadim237
      Vadim237 April 25 2021 17: 50
      0
      Of course it was enough - because for the military-industrial complex more than 30% of the budget of the USSR was allocated - for comparison, now only the 8th part of the budget of Russia.
  7. svp67
    svp67 April 22 2021 09: 41
    0
    More or less successful Soviet project
    A total of 5 Almaz-OPS stations were launched - manned by Salyut-2, Salyut-3, Salyut-5, as well as automatic modifications Kosmos-1870 and Almaz-1.

    But if "Almaz" is already clearly outdated, then it is VERY sorry that they forgot about the TCS "Transport Supply Ship", developed in conjunction with "Almaz"
    1. Vadim237
      Vadim237 April 25 2021 17: 52
      0
      A similar Almaz can still be created through the Ministry of Defense, for example, for the maintenance and repair of satellites in all orbits.
  8. Zaurbek
    Zaurbek April 22 2021 20: 13
    0
    Was it just shown, and then announced the creation of its own Station?
  9. Intruder
    Intruder April 23 2021 10: 28
    0
    Tests of this space gun capable of hitting targets at a distance of several kilometers in a vacuum
    The video is interesting, but the presenter's pathos about "shooting bursts in space for kilometers" evokes a soft smile, this is from the same dimension, but within terrestrial distances - by "millimeters", or the editors have forgotten a little that space is not a distance from the center White stone and to the Moscow Ring Road !?
  10. Old26
    Old26 April 23 2021 16: 52
    +3
    Quote: swan49
    It is a pity that the program only told about the Almaz manned orbital station (OPS) from the Almaz military complex. After all, the complex itself included the Almaz OPS (11F71) and a manned transport supply ship (TKS, 11F72), which was supposed to deliver a crew of 3 cosmonauts to the OPS, equipment, consumables and descent capsules.

    The topic of creating space technology is interesting in itself. Especially those developments that did not go into series.
    As for space stations, the topic itself is very deep and interesting. And if about "pure" SALUTES (ed. 715 or modules of type 17K), about DIAMONDS (ed. 71), about the same TCS (ed. 72) and DOS modules "MIR" (modules 77KS), they wrote a lot about modules of the 37th series almost nothing is known. A short description and that's it. Almost nothing was written about modules 19KA.

    And all were created, but they were not always launched into orbit or did not go into orbit and suffered an accident quite a large number.
    • "Clean" SALUTES were created and launched 8 (one crashed during the launching phase, the second flew under the KOSMOS-557 designation
    • DIAMONDS was created by EMNIP 5 pcs, incl. 2 did not start
    • Automatic DIAMONDS (ed. 668) were created by 6 EMNIP. Of these, 2 flew and 1 - emergency withdrawal