Military Review

Humber forts

64
Humber forts
Fort Bull Sand in an abandoned state today


Great Britain, spread out on the islands, is a natural fortress. Since the Norman conquest of England, no one has successfully attempted to land on the islands, but the XNUMXth century has seriously altered the balance of power.

Britain was still the largest naval power with the strongest fleet, but technological progress gave the opponents of the kingdom more chances of success, and the German fleet by the beginning of the First World War became the second largest in the world.

To protect themselves from the German fleet and cover their communications, the British launched a serious military construction, erecting fortifications and coastal batteries on the coast, as well as creating forts. In 1914, two artillery forts were planned to be built in the Humber estuary near the port city of Grimsby.

Prerequisites for the construction of forts


It was decided to build the forts at a distance from the coast in the Humber estuary (from the Latin aestuarium - "flooded river mouth"). The Humber Estuary is a single-arm funnel-shaped river mouth that widens towards the North Sea. The Humber is formed by the confluence of the Trent and Ouse rivers.


Estuary Humber, image from the ISS

This estuary was of great importance for the navy and merchant fleet of Great Britain, therefore, it was decided to protect the entrance to it from the sea already in 1914 with two forts, the construction of which began only in May 1915. At the same time, the British military had been hatching plans to protect the Humber since the early 1900s, realizing the strategic importance of this geographical facility for their fleet.

The Royal Navy needed the Humber Estuary as it was the only major anchorage on the east coast of the country between the Thames and Forth rivers (in Scotland). At the same time, the threat from the German fleet was not illusory. German ships and submarines appeared in the area as early as 1914.

The Humber in the north of England was of strategic importance not only to the navy, but also to the merchant fleet. This estuary was chosen by the British as a safe place for gathering convoys. To protect the entrance to the estuary from the North Sea, it was necessary to build a system of fortifications. Quickly enough, the British established two artillery batteries on either side of Cape Spern, complemented by two forts directly at the entrance to the Humber and railway batteries in the section between Cleethorpes and Grimsby.

There were indeed plenty of targets for the High Seas Fleet in this area. The British feared that the German fleet could destroy the port infrastructure, as well as the docks at Grimsby and Immingham. In addition, there were 35 large oil tanks in the area of ​​Cleethorpes, and there was a fuel base for the Royal Navy. Another target could be the Admiralty wireless station in New Waltham, the main station on the east coast of England.


Fort Bull Sand under construction

If the artillery batteries were deployed quickly enough, there was a serious hitch with the forts. The construction of the two forts began only in April-May 1915 and dragged on until the very end of the war. The Haile Sand Fort was officially commissioned only in March 1918 (the guns appeared here in April 1917), and the Bull Sand Fort after the end of the First World War - in December 1919 (the artillery pieces were installed a month before the end of the war in October 1918).

Description of the Humber forts


There is no exact cost to build two forts. But according to rough estimates, the largest of the two Bull Sand forts cost the British treasury a million pounds, and the smaller Haile Sand - 500 thousand pounds. For this money, the British received impressive fortifications that never took part in the First World War. True, the forts came in handy again during the Second World War.

The first of two Haile Sand forts was built on a concrete hexagonal foundation on a small sandbank located about 500 meters off the coast of Lincolnshire. The guns were installed on it by April 1917, and the official delivery took place in the spring of 1918.

Externally, the fort was a four-story well-fortified structure, the surface of the fort was round. The walls of the fort were additionally covered with light steel armor. Internal steel supports provided additional strength to the reinforced concrete structure. The structure was crowned with a two-story observation tower of the central battery.


102-mm naval gun Mk IX on the coastal battery

Initially, according to the project, the fort housed two rapid-firing 4-inch naval guns. The famous British 102mm naval guns Mk IX. Guns with a barrel length of 45 calibers had a rate of fire of 10-12 rounds per minute and sent 14 kg shells at a distance of up to 12 meters. These guns were massively used by the Royal Navy during the First and Second World Wars.

The larger Bull Sand Fort was built two and a quarter miles (approximately 3,6 km) southwest of Fort Haile Sand. From this fort to Cape Spern was approximately 2,4 km. The fort was built on a flooded sandbank. It is for this reason that the construction of the facility was fraught with great difficulties and was so delayed in time. The protective structure was built on a sandbank, the top of which was 3,4 meters below the water level.

To form a solid foundation, concentric steel rings were driven into the sandbank and filled with rubble. Externally, the fort was also a four-level circular building on an octagonal foundation. It was a massive structure made of steel and reinforced concrete. The total amount of concrete and steel spent in the construction is estimated at 40 thousand tons.


Fort Haile Sand nowadays, in 2018 was sold for 117 thousand pounds

From the sea side, the fort was additionally protected by sheets of armor steel 12 inches (305 mm) thick. These armor plates were supposed to protect the fort from shelling from heavy warships of the German fleet. The fort rises 18 meters above the sea surface, and its diameter is approximately 25 meters.

On the lower floors of the forts, there were coal-fired boiler rooms, storage and guard rooms, kitchens, fresh water tanks. Above, there were officers' cabins and mess rooms, as well as barracks, there was also a medical office. Artillery positions were located on the upper floors. Fort Bull Sand had everything needed for the life of a garrison of 200 people.

According to the plans, the fort was to be armed with four 6-inch Mk VII artillery pieces and four 90-cm searchlights. The 152mm Mk VII naval guns were used by the British until the 1950s. A gun with a barrel length of 45 calibers sent 45 kg shells to a range of up to 14 meters. At the same time, the rate of fire of the gun reached 400 rounds per minute.


152-mm Mk VII naval gun on a coastal battery

The fate of the Humber forts


After the end of the First World War, the forts were mothballed until 1939. With the outbreak of World War II, the garrisons were returned to the forts and the artillery was again deployed, though this time lighter. The garrison of the two forts in 1939 numbered 255 people, including 10 officers.

Two 6-pounder rapid-fire guns (57 mm anti-tank guns) were installed at Fort Haile Sand, and the same armament soon appeared at Fort Bull Sand. They also placed anti-aircraft artillery on them. Initially, heavy coastal artillery guns appeared on the forts, but they were quickly abandoned in favor of rapid-fire field guns.

This time, the British did not expect large enemy warships to appear near their coast. Therefore, the composition of the armament responded to the repelling attacks of high-speed small ships, for example, landing or torpedo boats. In addition, between the forts, the British drew a steel anti-submarine barrier under water to prevent German submarines from entering the Humber.


Fort Bull Sand after World War II

During World War II, the forts finally took part in the hostilities, often becoming the target of German attacks. aviation... At the same time, the Germans could not seriously damage or destroy the forts. After the end of the war, the British military continued to operate the forts until 1956, when they left them for good.

For many years, the forts of the Humber turned into abandoned structures that remain a local landmark, attracting tourists and British stalkers. Moreover, attempts were made to operate the facilities after the Second World War.

So, in 1997, the Streetwise charity was going to restore Fort Bull Sand, placing in it a rehabilitation center for drug addicts. The second fort, Haile Sand, was recently sold at auction for 2018 pounds in 117, the identity of the fort's buyers remained unknown.


View of both Humber forts, with Haile Sand in the foreground
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  1. Olgovich
    Olgovich April 13 2021 06: 07
    .
    The fort rises 18 meters above the sea surface
    this is the height 9 storey at home.

    A conspicuous target ....
    1. Foul skeptic
      Foul skeptic April 13 2021 08: 38
      +14
      The fort rises above the surface of the sea on 18 meters
      this is the height of a 9-storey building.

      Are you sure a builder?
      1. A1845
        A1845 April 13 2021 10: 49
        +3
        Quote: Nefarious skeptic
        Are you sure a builder?

        no mathematician yes
    2. garri-lin
      garri-lin April 13 2021 11: 53
      +12
      This is the height of a five-story building on a high basement.
    3. Petrik66
      Petrik66 April 13 2021 12: 58
      +3
      The height of the floor is 3,3 meters, and sometimes it is 3 and 2,8 meters.
  2. Catfish
    Catfish April 13 2021 06: 15
    +20
    Interesting article, thanks to the author.

    However, the idea turned out to be "contagious" and, in the estuaries of the Mersey and Thames, in 1942-43, naval anti-aircraft forts were erected, designed by the famous British engineer Guy Ansell Maunsell.



    The fort during the war and today.

    1. Richard
      Richard April 13 2021 09: 00
      +12
      Good morning, Kostya
      Here's an interesting angle. Fort Bull Sand gun pads
      1. Catfish
        Catfish April 13 2021 09: 08
        +8
        Hi Dima. hi
        Here is the fort that I have in the last two photos, I saw for the first time today, and the "Martian tripods" have been published for a long time and often in different publications.
        1. bubalik
          bubalik April 13 2021 18: 13
          +8
          often becoming the object of attacks by German aviation
          ,,, the British shot down, the Germans put life buoys for their pilots.

          Bui Udet
    2. WHAT IS
      WHAT IS April 13 2021 09: 03
      +11
      Thank you for the interesting addition - the top picture of the movie one reminded me of how futuristic these old abandoned forts look like ..
      1. Catfish
        Catfish April 13 2021 09: 09
        +5
        Thank you, Colleague, for your kind assessment. smile
        1. Pane Kohanku
          Pane Kohanku April 13 2021 09: 34
          +9
          Thank you, Colleague, for your kind assessment.

          Hello, everybody! drinks
          I have been waiting for a long time for someone to write about these forts (there is one more article left to issue - about the naval air defense towers, laid out by you, Uncle Kostya). And he even assumed who could write - Yuferev, Shpakovsky, Bubalik. In general, I was not mistaken. Thanks to the author, all have a nice day! hi
          1. Catfish
            Catfish April 13 2021 09: 44
            +8
            Kolya, hi! hi
            And what I was waiting for, I would have taken it and wrote it myself. wink drinks
            1. Richard
              Richard April 13 2021 10: 18
              +7
              Greetings Nikolay hi
              But Konstantin is right. An article about the Leningrad towers of the MPVO has been asking for a long time. You are local - and the cards are in your hands. The theme is gorgeous, and the photos of the war years in the internet are full. Phil shows up from workout - throws in a lot
              1. Pane Kohanku
                Pane Kohanku April 13 2021 10: 38
                +8
                The theme is gorgeous, and the photos of the war years in the internet are full. Phil shows up from training - throws in a lot

                There are enough authors here. And about the British - little knowledge. Better to let Alexei "Boltorez" write. drinks Thank you!
          2. dzvero
            dzvero April 13 2021 18: 14
            +4
            It was already on topvar:
            https://topwar.ru/114148-forty-protivovozdushnoy-oborony-mansella.html
            You guessed the author too - Sergey Yuferev smile

            PS Another one, though unsigned:
            https://topwar.ru/20349-morskie-forty-mansella.html
            It is already about the post-war fate ...
            1. Pane Kohanku
              Pane Kohanku April 15 2021 09: 51
              +1
              It is already about the post-war fate ...

              Thanks for the links! drinks
              1. dzvero
                dzvero April 15 2021 10: 22
                +1
                You're welcome drinks It turns out that Topvar, like Greece, has everything smile
                1. Pane Kohanku
                  Pane Kohanku April 15 2021 10: 24
                  +1
                  It turns out that Topvar, like Greece, has everything

                  So yes, if only good articles were published more often! drinks
                  1. dzvero
                    dzvero April 15 2021 10: 31
                    +1
                    There is one.
                    I noticed something interesting - good articles / cycles are like geese - go in shoals. but with long breaks ...
  3. sergo1914
    sergo1914 April 13 2021 06: 59
    +2
    ... was sold at auction for 117 thousand pounds, the identity of the fort's buyers remained unknown.


    Well, if a "mud warehouse", a lounge area with a panoramic window and an aquadiskotheque appear there, I think we will be able to accurately identify the owner.
  4. Trapp1st
    Trapp1st April 13 2021 10: 27
    +14
    The topic has not been disclosed)) What about the Sealand principality or the pirate station, which has become an integral part of world culture, one might even say changed the world).
    1. Bolt cutter
      Bolt cutter April 13 2021 11: 15
      +8
      Barely noticeable from the Felixstove, Fort Roughs is located seven miles from the coast - which made it possible for Paddy Roy Bates, a major in the British army to declare that they were originally built there illegally (the border of the terrorist then - in 1942 was a distance of 3 miles) and fenced in the 50s The forts were legally terra nullus - and in Christmas 1966 (a cunning plan - most government organizations are inactive until the New Year, and the continuing services are working much less zealously) occupied the fort initially in order to continue the work of his pirate radio station Radio Essex.
      1. Bolt cutter
        Bolt cutter April 13 2021 11: 24
        +9
        Previously, his pirate radio Essex broadcast (from 62nd) from the identical Fort Maunsell Knock John, but the reckless major from there was put out in the cold because "John" (by the way, the slang name for the toilet) was closer than three miles and was considered a full-fledged territory of Great Britain.
        On September 2, 1967, on the birthday of his wife Joan, (after consulting with lawyers) Major Bates announced the independence of his fort. From that moment, by the way, Joan Bates is the princess of Sealand.
        Another participant in the capture was a colleague-radio pirate Ronan O'Rahilly (Radio Caroline) / Bates did not want to share with him and sent him, and in 1967 he had to fight off the assault on Sealand by pirates led by ORahilli. Rifles and Molotov cocktails were enough to defend the fort.
        1. Pane Kohanku
          Pane Kohanku April 13 2021 11: 33
          +10
          From that moment, by the way, Joan Bates is the princess of Sealand.

          The founder's daughter, Princess Penelope, is very pretty ... at least she was. drinks Directly a model for painting one of our dear forum participants! good
          1. Catfish
            Catfish April 13 2021 21: 54
            +6
            Directly a model for painting one of our dear forum participants!


            Paprashu without a hint! Although the topic of the mammary glands is almost fully disclosed. laughing

            View of the object from the side of the sirloin.
            1. voyaka uh
              voyaka uh April 13 2021 22: 10
              +5
              I would surrender without a fight smile
              1. Catfish
                Catfish April 13 2021 22: 15
                +5
                Hi Aleksey. hi
                I agree. With this "uniform" she would have stacked us in piles. And without the use of technical means. laughing drinks
        2. Bolt cutter
          Bolt cutter April 13 2021 11: 34
          +7
          Almost immediately, surprised by this turn of affairs, government officials sent sappers with the task of undermining all the forts remaining in the area - they still lacked Micronesia wassat Attempts to approach their fort 50 feet away, Paddy Bates responded with rifle fire, which was enough to leave them alone. But for the shooting, the major ended up in the dock. Good luck - on November 25, 1968, the judge announced (even the laws of the 17th century were used) that Her Majesty's court has no jurisdiction over Sealand! The jolly major considered this a de facto recognition of independence. He didn't refuse a British passport, though.
          1. Bolt cutter
            Bolt cutter April 13 2021 11: 50
            +9
            The popularity of pirate radio stations came from the fact that the BBC then had an almost complete monopoly on broadcasting in the UK (with the appropriate quality of content) - and people wanted something fresh.
          2. Bolt cutter
            Bolt cutter April 13 2021 12: 05
            +9
            In August 1978, there was an attempted coup - Alexander Achenbach, a German (they love coups), with a group of mercenaries from Germany and the Netherlands stormed Sealand from helicopters and boats. They took Michael Bates hostage. Papa Paddy Roy and his wife were at home in England (they have a fish business there), but they managed to get onto the platform, and taking possession of the weapons hidden there, recaptured the platform, expelling the mercenaries and capturing Achenbach himself. German diplomats had to negotiate his release, which, according to Major Bates, is de facto recognition of Sealand's independence by Germany. Achenbach founded a government in exile (like the big uncles yes ) The reason for "Game of Thrones" was the disagreement about making money on the platform - Major Bates planned a casino and a hotel, but did not plan to share.
            1. Pane Kohanku
              Pane Kohanku April 13 2021 13: 22
              +5
              The reason for the "Game of Thrones" was the disagreement about making money on the platform - Major Bates planned a casino and a hotel, but did not plan to share.

              So the Lannisters survived? laughing
              German (they love putsches)

              This is if with beer with sausages ... wink
              German diplomats had to negotiate his release, which, according to Major Bates, is de facto recognition of Sealand's independence by Germany.

              "We have won, and the enemy is running, running, running!" drinks
              1. Bolt cutter
                Bolt cutter April 13 2021 13: 31
                +7
                So the Lannisters survived?
                Paddy Roy Bates died in a nursing home on October 9th 2012 (wife Joan - March 10th 2016), so yeah yes ... As the major himself said about himself (by the way, he fought at Monte Casino and in North Africa) "I will die young or old, but not from boredom."
                "We have won, and the enemy is running, running, running!"
                Sealand still exists today. drinks
                1. Pane Kohanku
                  Pane Kohanku April 13 2021 13: 58
                  +6
                  As the major himself said about himself (by the way, he fought at Monte Casino and in North Africa) "I will die young or old, but not from boredom."

                  What boredom there is! Being a Founding Father is definitely not easy! good
                  Sealand still exists today.

                  I remember that! And what do they make money on? "Vika" writes that there is even a chapel there - of course, in honor of St. Brendan! drinks
                  The Magidovichs, in their monumental Essays on the History of Geographical Discovery, mentioned the legends about Brendan. And about the fact that according to the description of one overseas island, allegedly visited by his comrades, we can conclude that he did swim to Jan Mayen! fellow
                  1. Bolt cutter
                    Bolt cutter April 13 2021 14: 03
                    +6
                    I remember that! And what do they make money on?
                    https://sealandgov.org/shop/
                    Here, the titles are swaggering wassat As well as stamps and other souvenir products. Donations are accepted. Passport scams and money laundering are a thing of the past.
                    1. Pane Kohanku
                      Pane Kohanku April 13 2021 14: 19
                      +6
                      Here, the titles are barren wassat As well as stamps and other souvenir products.

                      And if I order a piece of Sealand territory from them (as they promise), will they give me two cubic meters or space for an urn? wassat

                      Donations are accepted.

                      Everyone loves donations, especially the church ... wink
                      Here, the titles are swaggering

                      Alexey, I don’t know about you, but here they systematically use pseudo-diplomas and pseudo-medals. For example, a letter like this comes: "Wow! We are such and such a fund! You have become a winner in such and such an all-Russian competition of organizations, and you are entitled to an award!" And on their sites they really have some kind of rating posted, and you even see yourself ... And then ... there is a price tag for those awards that you can order for yourself in honor of "winning the competition"! wassat Medals "For Victory over Sexual Illiteracy", certificates, pennants and other hat hat. Anyway. Some, especially arrogant, call in a couple of days: In a cheerful tone: - "Hello. Have you seen our letter?"
                      "I saw. - further, in a lazy voice: - How much? .."
                      "From 45 thousand rubles ..."
                      "Leave it to yourself!"

                      Therefore, when sometimes there is an opportunity to see some important clerk with a bunch of letters ... it is worth considering ... perhaps they are all like that! what
                      Here, the titles are swaggering

                      Count le Dubois-y-Papua von zu Kohancu will suit me perfectly. drinks
                      1. Bolt cutter
                        Bolt cutter April 13 2021 14: 31
                        +7
                        Will they give me two cubic meters or a place for an urn?
                        According to their website, one square foot. For ten years - then it will be necessary to update for a nominal fee smile
                        and in our country they systematically use pseudo-diplomas and pseudo-medals
                        The phrase is in the amero english diploma mill. The office that provides honorary doctorates, certificates of instructor in alconautics, medals for victory in the Battle of Kulikovo, but now the fashion has somehow passed.
                        see some clerk with a bunch of letters.
                        Here blacks like to confirm their own education and importance in such a way. lol
                      2. Pane Kohanku
                        Pane Kohanku April 13 2021 14: 40
                        +5
                        According to their website, one square foot. For ten years - then it will be necessary to update for a nominal fee

                        That is, if you don’t die in ten years, they will give it to someone else’s urn. So to speak, the "ballot box" mortgage. Or "urnyashnaya"? How is it correct? Sly ones! good You can even arrange auctions on ballot boxes - you give them my idea, let them not thank them - I am a good Samaritan, only the giant Mark Rat-Slayer and my friend Anton 3x3zsave are kinder than me. wink
                        medals for victory in the Battle of Kulikovo, but now the fashion has somehow passed.

                        Mongol-Tatars were also awarded? lol The Mamaia Order and the Popeye Maritime Medal? drinks
                        Here blacks like to confirm their own education and importance in such a way.

                        The desire to put on more beads is genetics! wink And genetics is a science, sir, sir! yes
                      3. Bolt cutter
                        Bolt cutter April 13 2021 14: 44
                        +6
                        will give someone else's urn. So to speak, an urn mortgage.
                        I think that they are not selling for ballot-box purposes. By the way, you will have to try to stay there for the night - panorama felixstove (in itself a beautiful seaside town with a Victorian spirit and cheap pubs) and container ships scurrying around - it will be interesting.
                        The desire to put on more beads is genetics!
                        And where did the neo-Cossack mummers have bad genes?
                      4. Pane Kohanku
                        Pane Kohanku April 13 2021 14: 47
                        +6
                        I think that they are not selling for ballot-box purposes.

                        And with which ones? Put notes? belay I wonder if you can buy a title not for yourself, but as a gift?
                        And where did the neo-Cossack mummers have bad genes?

                        Subtle, subtle ... wink Allowed!
                      5. Bolt cutter
                        Bolt cutter April 13 2021 14: 54
                        +6
                        Can you buy a title not for yourself, but as a gift?
                        Sure you may. There, on the site, everything is very well laid out - any whim for your money.
                      6. Pane Kohanku
                        Pane Kohanku April 13 2021 15: 01
                        +5
                        Sure you may. There, on the site, everything is very well laid out - any whim for your money.

                        https://sealandgov.org/shop/
                        Why are the titles of baron and lord cheaper than the title of knight? what And why only four titles? sad Perhaps I wanted to make the Sea Cat a marquis, and the Trilobite Master a specific prince! stop but there are no such titles! request Soon Anton has 3x3zsave Birthday - forgive me, Anton, you will not be either a Horseman or a Landgrave! crying All the damned greedy Silesians are to blame! drinks
                      7. Bolt cutter
                        Bolt cutter April 13 2021 15: 26
                        +7
                        All the damned greedy Silesians are to blame!
                        What problems? Gather a separate company of the VO special forces (there will be volunteers here), take the platform by storm from the motorboats, hold a referendum, and the Republic of Sea Land is part of the Russian Federation! This platform can be seen directly from the beach area of ​​the pub on the promenade - so on return, the whole thing can also be washed right away!
                      8. Andrey Korotkov
                        Andrey Korotkov April 13 2021 15: 51
                        +5
                        Quote: Bolt Cutter
                        All the damned greedy Silesians are to blame!
                        What problems? Gather a separate company of the VO special forces (there will be volunteers here), take the platform by storm from the motorboats, hold a referendum, and the Republic of Sea Land is part of the Russian Federation! This platform can be seen directly from the beach area of ​​the pub on the promenade - so on return, the whole thing can also be washed right away!

                        Thanks, colleagues added a good article and photo and story + great humor hi
                      9. Bolt cutter
                        Bolt cutter April 13 2021 15: 53
                        +7
                        article and photo and story + great humor
                        As far as I understand, the first volunteer already exists wassat
                      10. Andrey Korotkov
                        Andrey Korotkov April 13 2021 16: 10
                        +6
                        Quote: Bolt Cutter
                        article and photo and story + great humor
                        As far as I understand, the first volunteer already exists wassat

                        Of course I'm in the subject laughing I'm not looking for privileges, but after the referendum I apply for the bartender position drinks
                      11. Bolt cutter
                        Bolt cutter April 13 2021 16: 13
                        +7
                        after the referendum I apply for the bartender position
                        For you the portfolio of the minister moonshine the alcoholic beverage industry is practically gagant! Well, or the people's commissar, depending on the social formation wassat
                      12. Andrey Korotkov
                        Andrey Korotkov April 13 2021 16: 19
                        +4
                        Quote: Bolt Cutter
                        after the referendum I apply for the bartender position
                        For you the portfolio of the minister moonshine the alcoholic beverage industry is practically gagant! Well, or the people's commissar, depending on the social formation wassat

                        Ok, I can also embroider on a typewriter repeat , I'm afraid Kote will be serious competition yes
                      13. Bolt cutter
                        Bolt cutter April 13 2021 16: 21
                        +8
                        I can embroider on a typewriter
                        The young republic acquires light industry good
                      14. Andrey Korotkov
                        Andrey Korotkov April 13 2021 16: 34
                        +4
                        Quote: Bolt Cutter
                        I can embroider on a typewriter
                        The young republic acquires light industry good

                        Republic? Hinting at the electivity and rotation of the chapter? wink for me, it's better to let citizens have personal and political rights yes then think about the federation boom laughing
                      15. Pane Kohanku
                        Pane Kohanku April 13 2021 16: 48
                        +7
                        then think about the federation boom

                        Fu you, damn it, on the blue eye first read - "about feudalism"! laughing
                    2. Korsar4
                      Korsar4 April 14 2021 05: 29
                      +3
                      "The dispute between the governor and the mayor continued" (c).
                    3. Andrey Korotkov
                      Andrey Korotkov April 14 2021 08: 33
                      +2
                      Quote: Korsar4
                      "The dispute between the governor and the mayor continued" (c).

                      On the second Soviet? laughing
                    4. Korsar4
                      Korsar4 April 14 2021 12: 54
                      +3
                      Sure. You can't erase a word from a song.
          3. Pane Kohanku
            Pane Kohanku April 13 2021 16: 34
            +6
            I'm not looking for privileges, but after the referendum I apply for the bartender position

            It looks like we will have to hold a referendum in the local pub as well ... what It would be nice to enlist the support of the political dissident Prince Harry! bully He loves "this business"? drinks
          4. Andrey Korotkov
            Andrey Korotkov April 13 2021 16: 41
            +4
            Who does not drink? Name! classics of the genre laughing But seriously lol - Let the prince reduce requests, we do not need family squabbles with grandmother in a close team.
          5. Pane Kohanku
            Pane Kohanku April 13 2021 16: 47
            +5
            Let the prince reduce requests, we do not need family squabbles with grandmother in a close team.

            Yes, and the truth is that. A couple of gossips will destroy any team. drinks
        3. Bolt cutter
          Bolt cutter April 13 2021 17: 44
          +6
          support for the political dissident Prince Harry!
          Black jo .. that is, he loves hair! Let him sit where he used to - we still have to raise the industry!
      2. AUL
        AUL April 14 2021 09: 53
        +3
        Quote: Andrey Korotkov
        after the referendum I apply for the bartender position

        Is the position of artistic director at the local brothel not yet occupied? Then she's mine! wassat
      3. Andrey Korotkov
        Andrey Korotkov April 14 2021 12: 10
        +2
        Quote: AUL
        Quote: Andrey Korotkov
        after the referendum I apply for the bartender position

        Is the position of artistic director at the local brothel not yet occupied? Then she's mine! wassat

        No exams, interviews, tests (pandemic) yes hired good ! But until we captured the fort, we work remotely laughing
      4. vladcub
        vladcub April 14 2021 20: 11
        +1
        I apply there too
  • vladcub
    vladcub April 13 2021 20: 01
    +4
    "becoming the object of attacks by German aviation" I'm thinking: what practical benefits did these forms bring to WWII? In WWI they were needed: to prevent the enemy's fleet, but with the development of aviation, the importance of forts was decreasing. But at the same time, although hypothetical, there was a danger of the appearance of landing craft, hindering the action of the Luftwaffe is also a benefit.
    1. voyaka uh
      voyaka uh April 13 2021 22: 05
      +4
      The British had an air defense system for the entire coast. First radar
      Air defense, by the way. And damage the air defense, make a "hole" before the raid
      bombers to objects in the depths of the country - an urgent task both then and now.
    2. vladcub
      vladcub April 14 2021 13: 01
      +1
      I say: "hindrance to the Luftwaffe"