Military Review

Eric XIV's National Armor

52

You will be in Stockholm, see this sign and come in soon. You won't have to regret!


King Eric did not receive the armor ordered in Antwerp, he did not receive it. The enemy got it! But the fact is that he already had armor of his own, local production, which were, of course, worse than the "armor of Hercules", but also very good!

"The king of Israel replied: - Tell him:" A warrior putting on armor should not brag like one who takes them off after victory. "
(I Kings 20:11)

Museum collections of knightly armor and weapons. And it so happened that a little earlier in 1562, King Eric XIV of Sweden ordered another, earlier in time armor, which was made for him in the workshops in Arbog, where labor was brought, for example, from Germany. On the other hand, it is likely that the gilding was done by the Frenchman Jacob Pasquier, who was then in Stockholm doing other work for Eric XIV, but was already decorated by Eliseus Libarts after the models of the French artist Etienne Delon in Antwerp. It is possible that this armor, in the fashion of that time, was carried back and forth, just to please the monarch. And ... in the end, they managed to deliver them to him before the coronation, at which he flaunted in them. Their entire surface was richly decorated with mythological figures, scenes of battles and images of "trophies", as well as the coat of arms of the Vasa family, three crowns and the coat of arms of the country. The material is steel with an etched and at the same time stamped pattern on it, as well as gilding of individual parts.

It is interesting that a large round shield with a convex middle was relied on to the armor, in general, at that time it was already completely unnecessary. The fact is that the quality of the armor as a whole was already such that any need for shields had long since disappeared. But on the other hand, a fashion has arisen for round shields of rondashi, of an exclusively ceremonial nature, once again telling about something important for their owner. This shield was decorated in high relief and filled with figurative scenes depicting the clashes of male warriors with Amazons. This is probably a battle scene from the Trojan War. According to the myth, the Amazons supported the king of Troy Priam in the war, but in the end they lost their queen Penthesilea, who was killed by Achilles.

Eric XIV's National Armor
This shield from 1562! Royal Armory - Livrustkammarin, a museum at the Royal Palace of Stockholm

The following technologies were used to create the relief decoration of the shield: chasing, embossing, acid etching and gilding. From the inside, it was lined with red velvet. He was held by two ribbons sewn from velvet, 3 cm wide, with metal buckles to regulate their tension. 36 rivets with hex washers hold the fabric in place all the way around. This shield weighs 4,143 g. The diameter of the shield is 580 mm.


And this is a drawing of images on a shield in 1562. The Royal Armory - Livrustkammarin, a museum in the Royal Palace of Stockholm

The armor itself consists of 18 parts, and could serve both ceremonial and combat. The total weight of the armor is 25,6 kg. It is known that the king used it at one of the many festivities, in particular, at the festival held after the campaign against Denmark in 1564. Then Eric drove into Stockholm "with great triumph" and brought trophies and prisoners of war, which were a living illustration of the decor of the armor, which just depicted figures chained in shackles!


This is how this armor looked for King Eric XIV along with a round shield. Royal Armory - Livrustkammarin, a museum at the Royal Palace of Stockholm

The horse part of the set was delivered a year later, in 1563, and had a different decor. Apparently, it was sent as a sample, after which Eric ordered at least one more armor in Antwerp.


Saddle from this headset. Royal Armory - Livrustkammarin, a museum at the Royal Palace of Stockholm

The breastplate of the armor had a slightly pointed lower part, a flat top and was entirely decorated with patterns and figures of people engraved on it, as well as in some places lined with gold. Three holes on the right chest served for attaching a lance hook, that is, the armor could be used in equestrian combat. The belly armor is riveted at the bottom. The decoration of the cuirass is generally symmetrical, but the figures in the medallions differ. Moreover, since these are female figures, it can be assumed that these are the queens of the Amazons Lampeda and Marpesia. The weight of the bib is comparatively small - only 1,925 g.


Breastplate, front, along with a short skirt. Royal Armory - Livrustkammarin, a museum at the Royal Palace of Stockholm


Cuirass. Close-up. The quality of the work is simply amazing! Royal Armory - Livrustkammarin, a museum at the Royal Palace of Stockholm

The dorsal part is even lighter - 1629 and is not so richly decorated, although its surface is also covered with patterns. There is only one medallion on it. And on it we also see Hercules. In general, judging by the number of "Hercules" on this armor, as well as their subsequent number on the armor in the Armory of Dresden, the image of this ancient Greek hero clearly struck the imagination of King Eric, but the creators of the armor knew about this and tried to please the king.


Breastplate, back part. In an oval cartouche on his lower back lies an exhausted Hercules, leaning on his club and surrounded by flames. Hercules wore a cloak poisoned with the blood of Nessus the centaur. It stuck to his skin, causing terrible pain. Because of the pain, he made a fire, on which he decided to burn himself alive. The fire, however, killed only his human essence, and he was accepted into the Kingdom of Heaven as a god. Royal Armory - Livrustkammarin, a museum at the Royal Palace of Stockholm

Helmet - a typical closed helmet with a crest, an armé helmet, with a visor and a collar of two plates. At the back there is a holder for a plume of feathers. The helmet, like other parts of the armor, is primarily distinguished by a very rich decor. Its entire surface is covered with relief figures and engraved decor. The edges of the parts are gilded. Some of the screws on the helmet are newer, so it is obvious that it has undergone restoration. The visor also depicts Hercules with his famous mace (right). These helmets were traditionally heavy. Usually their weight exceeded three kilograms. Eric's helmet was no exception. Its weight is 3,195 g.

The weight of the shoulder pads varied somewhat, but the weight of the left one was 1331 g. As can be clearly seen in the photo below, the shoulder pads were not one-piece forged, but were a structure of three plates connected by rivets. At the same time, the mount was mobile, that is, the movement of the hands, thanks to this design, did not restrict.


Left shoulder pad. Both shoulder pads are decorated with images of lions, "trophies" and bouquets of flowers. Royal Armory - Livrustkammarin, a museum at the Royal Palace of Stockholm

One of our regular readers and one of the readers last time in the comments to the material about the armor of the Greenwich workshop asked questions about how such parts of the armor, and in particular the same shoulder pads, were attached to a human figure. Look at this portrait.


Portrait of Walter Devereux, 1st Earl of Essex (1539-1576). Unknown artist. National Portrait Gallery, UK

He is wearing Greenwich armor, and you can clearly see that the shoulder pads are fastened to the armor with straps with buckles. But since a helmet with wide brims in the neck area was also worn on top, these straps were usually not visible. Another belt with a buckle fastened the shoulder pad on the arm a little below the armpit and, of course, was also invisible.

"Armor" for the leg included, in English terminology, "kuis" (legguard), kneecap, greave ("mane") and sabaton (plate shoe). The gaiter consisted of several plates overlapping one another and fastened with leather straps with rivets. This piece of armor protected the leg only in front, and it was fastened with two belts with buckles fastened at the back.

Greaves - "manes", protected the legs entirely from the knee to the ankles and exactly matched the shape of the lower leg. Usually they consisted of two parts, on one of which there were eyelets with holes, and on the other there were holes for them and hooks with which these eyes were locked on the leg. Sometimes the connection on the outside was carried out on hinges, but for the same Greenwich armor, the connection on hooks on both sides was characteristic. Below, sabatons and spurs were stuck to the "manes".


On top of that, the elbow pad was very beautifully decorated! Royal Armory - Livrustkammarin, a museum at the Royal Palace of Stockholm

The elbow piece together with two "pipes" on the arm - weighed 1798, tassettes (continuation of the "skirt") 619 each; leg armor along with sabatons - 1685; legguards for 1167, gorget 709; well, gloves - each 514 g.


The snake-like figure is actually a dolphin. The dent on the knee pad, depicting a frightening face, is the so-called mascaron or mascaroni (Italian). They have been a popular decoration in different eras. Royal Armory - Livrustkammarin, a museum at the Royal Palace of Stockholm

In this magnificent armor, King Eric XIV of Sweden looked very solemn. In the spirit of the High Renaissance, the motifs of the armor were borrowed from ancient myths, and these myths were selected in such a way as to perfectly match the Swedish stories and national symbols of that time.


Visor of the helmet. On it, again, all the same Hercules in a lion's skin and with a club! Royal Armory - Livrustkammarin, a museum at the Royal Palace of Stockholm


But this scene, depicted on the left side of the visor, causes controversy among historians. There are different interpretations of what exactly is depicted here. According to one version, we see here the goddess Hera, breastfeeding Hercules. But then what is the man with the twisted shell doing next to them? Trumpets her, notifying everyone that a great hero has been born? Royal Armory - Livrustkammarin, a museum at the Royal Palace of Stockholm


Eric XIV armor set. As you can see, both the saddle and the shaffron horse forehead - everything, absolutely all the details are made in the same style. Of course, this made a very strong impression on the commoners, and even on the nobility. Royal Armory - Livrustkammarin, a museum at the Royal Palace of Stockholm

And it is quite possible that it was in them that on October 2, 1564, Eric, after the military campaign in Blekinge in the south of Swedan, returned to Stockholm and with the whole army, like a Roman triumphant, proceeded through the streets of his capital. So then, when he had already lost his crown and became a prisoner, he had something to remember and something to regret!

PS The author and the site administration would like to express their gratitude to the curator of the Royal Armory Livrustkammarin Andreas Olsson, as well as Katharina Nimmerwall for the information and photos provided.
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  1. Alien From
    Alien From April 7 2021 18: 07
    +6
    Vyacheslav Olegovich! I'll sit down to study your articles, it's not quick, but incredibly interesting! hi
    1. kalibr
      April 7 2021 18: 26
      +7
      God help you. I took up this topic in 1995 and since then I have been doing a little on a regular basis ...
  2. WHAT IS
    WHAT IS April 7 2021 18: 12
    +10
    Of course, this made a very strong impression on the commoners, and even on the nobility.

    And now it makes a strong impression - this is a real work of art, and not just armor for battle! Beauty ..
    1. Clear
      Clear April 7 2021 20: 18
      +4
      Quote: WHAT IS
      Of course, this made a very strong impression on the commoners, and even on the nobility.

      And now it makes a strong impression - this is a real work of art, and not just armor for battle! Beauty ..

      Very very beautiful good But, it's incredibly hard and you can't see anything in a helmet what
    2. vladcub
      vladcub April 7 2021 20: 34
      +1
      Curiously, did the king deign to participate in battles or did he deign to rest on a mound in a tent?
      1. kalibr
        April 7 2021 20: 49
        +2
        There will be another of his armor with traces of blows.
        1. vladcub
          vladcub April 7 2021 21: 16
          +3
          So the king took part in the battle?
          When a king (prince) participates in a battle, it is a double-edged sword.
          1) it testifies to the courage of the king and simple wars will idolize such a king.
          2) such a monarch risks the well-being of the entire state, what if he dies and to whom will he leave the state? It's good if the heir is friendly with his head, but if the heir has an ass instead of a head? Or, by himself, he is not stupid and kind, but henpecked like Nicholas II. Under his father or grandfather, everyone walked on tiptoe: "you can get to Siberia" (s), but Niki could not cope with the little woman and as a result: the whole family was in the basement of the Ipatiev house.
          Although, there are times when you SHOULD RISK, but there are a lot of nuances
  3. polpot
    polpot April 7 2021 18: 19
    +5
    Thanks for the excellent article and illustrations, Eric XIV was a great original, citizens of his "eccentricity" will remember for a long time.
    1. kalibr
      April 7 2021 18: 27
      +7
      Someone there wanted to see traces of the combat use of the armor - so on this armor they are not! But they will be on the next!
    2. vladcub
      vladcub April 7 2021 20: 37
      +1
      To tell the truth: I don't know anything about Eric14 AT ALL. Apparently, I did not come out next to him and he did not invite me to the yard.
  4. Undecim
    Undecim April 7 2021 18: 32
    +5
    From the inside, it was lined with red velvet. He was held by two ribbons sewn from velvet, 3 cm wide, with metal buckles to regulate their tension. 36 rivets with hex washers hold the fabric in place all the way around.
    1. kalibr
      April 7 2021 18: 40
      +6
      36 rivets with hex washers hold the fabric in place all the way around.
      !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
  5. Engineer
    Engineer April 7 2021 18: 56
    +11
    Helmet - a typical closed helmet with a crest, an armé helmet, with a visor and a collar of two plates.

    You can not do it this way. Either an armé or a closed helmet. At the arm, the sides are hinged on the left and right and open wide open. In a closed helmet, the entire front part forms a second, large visor and rises to the top
    Here is the difference

    There is no problem to call both arme, a collective word - it was so until relatively recently.
    Close helmet - closed helmet - is used mainly by specialists precisely to show the difference from the armé

    It can be clearly seen here - Eric's helmet is a closed helmet. The use of two names only confuses the reader. And unsuccessful angles do not allow to determine the type independently without additional search
    1. kalibr
      April 7 2021 18: 59
      +4
      It's good that you paid attention to this ... Thank you! Yes, you always have to think when you write and look at the photo more attentively ...
  6. Trilobite Master
    Trilobite Master April 7 2021 19: 04
    +7
    No, colleagues, whatever you want, but in such armor I would not go to battle. smile
    I would be a monarch, famous for his modesty and asceticism. smile
    Or he would even have done it differently - he would have stuffed his armor with straw and set him on a horse, and he himself would have found something simpler and more practical somewhere nearby under the royal standard. That's exactly what I would have done. Do I have cool armor? There is. Here it is. Come, admire. I am rich and glorious. Well, the fact that I am standing next to me in simpler armor is because I am humble, modest and full of Christian virtues. laughing
    It seems that the classic Maximilian armor with its corrugation, with the same quality of steel, gave the wearer better protection than this work of art.
    1. Catfish
      Catfish April 7 2021 19: 17
      +5
      Or even would have done it differently - the armor would have filled with straw and mounted on a horse,


      "- No, Sam, sand is not an important substitute for oats ..." (c)
      1. vladcub
        vladcub April 7 2021 20: 48
        +2
        I remember, I remember how two idiots wanted to get rich on kidnapping and what happened
    2. vladcub
      vladcub April 7 2021 20: 46
      +5
      Misha, good evening. "In something simpler and more practical" do you want to repeat Dmitry Donskoy? He gave his "basket" to someone, and he himself fought in the clothes of a simple warrior.
      Something like this I remember from history
      1. Trilobite Master
        Trilobite Master April 7 2021 21: 19
        +2
        Perhaps it was so.
        However, if we consider the reconstruction of Dvurechenskoye, then the Kulikovo battle was a series of one-time horse collisions, and not a wall-to-wall battle. In addition, the armor, especially the princely, was purely individual, so it was problematic to just exchange it with someone, and besides, it took a long time. You can't do such an operation before a fight. To give the cloak and order to wear the princely banner behind this cloak - yes, perhaps. It is also possible to lead a detachment and directly participate in the battle from the very beginning, entrusting the leadership to someone more experienced and capable. What for? I do not know. Dmitry was not particularly smart, but he was certainly a courageous and vain man. Perhaps he wanted the glory of a great warrior ...
        But I would not throw myself into a fight like Dmitry. I am a cynic and pragmatist, besides, I am no longer very young and not very playful. Surviving the battle is just as important to me as winning. smile
        1. vladcub
          vladcub April 8 2021 06: 57
          +2
          Here you and I are the same: not young and the strength of the agility is not the same
    3. kalibr
      April 7 2021 20: 52
      +3
      Michael! So he had one more armor, and it was on him that the traces of blows were preserved - dents and notches ... There will be another article ...
      1. Trilobite Master
        Trilobite Master April 7 2021 21: 21
        +1
        That's what I mean. Such beauty is only for the parade. And for dirty work, if there is a desire to do it, there is a practical working form. smile
      2. Richard
        Richard April 8 2021 08: 57
        +3
        The main royal regalia of the Swedish Kingdom today are considered
        - the crown of Eric XIV;
        - scepter of Eric XIV;
        - Power of Eric XIV;
        - the state sword of Gustav III Vasa;
        - the royal key of Eric XIV.
        The Royal Regalia of Sweden are kept at the Royal Treasury. Some of them are exhibited in the Skattkammaren or the Royal Treasury and can be seen

        Eric XIV's crown is Sweden's oldest crown. It was created to order by the Flanders craftsmen under the direction of Cornelius ver Weyden in 1561. Originally it had the letters "E" and "R", the initials of the Latin form of the royal name "Ericus Rex"

        The scepter was created by the master Hans Heiderick in 1561 and is made of gold, enamel and a range of precious stones - including diamonds, rubies and sapphires. It was originally topped with a large round sapphire at the top, surrounded by two intersecting rows of pearls. This sapphire was lost at the baptism of Gustav IV Adolf and was replaced by the current dark blue enamel ball in 1780.

        An interesting element is Eric XIV's royal key. In fact, this is the royal regalia of only Swedes and Popes. It was made in Stockholm in 1561 by Peter Holtsweiler. The key is made of gilded silver. Dimensions 43 cm in length. Weight 676 grams
    4. kalibr
      April 7 2021 20: 58
      +2
      Quote: Trilobite Master
      I would be a monarch, famous for his modesty and asceticism.

      I would accept monasticism, why not! and in a cassock with a cross or in a modest black jacket with a simple sword, he stood at the top of the hill and indicated with a rod made of narwhal's horn where to attack. And I would begin the battle with the words: I will repay my vengeance! Not peace - but a sword! And I would have introduced a uniform: black armor, black cock feathers and black painted horses ... And in order to attack, everyone shouted: "Take no prisoners! DO NOT B-R-A-A-AT!" Opponents would scatter from one type of your army ... And your patron would be St. Michael with a fiery sword on a black banner!
      1. Trilobite Master
        Trilobite Master April 7 2021 22: 05
        +2
        Monasticism - no ... I do not agree. Not mine. I couldn't pretend like that. smile To pretend to be an ascetic in public was not going to go, but to assume obligations to God somehow completely ...
        And I would start the battle with these words:
        My warriors! Your king hasn't drunk wine, eaten meat, or touched women since his heir was born! I cherish all this for you! Go, conquer in the name of your king and we will all celebrate this event as each of us is supposed to! The tables have already been laid and all the women who will serve you during the feast passed the sacrament, received absolution and washed themselves! It remains only to win and you will cope with this, because I am with you! Go ahead and God help you!

        Something like this ... smile
        1. kalibr
          April 8 2021 06: 05
          +1
          Quote: Trilobite Master
          Something like this ...

          Great!
    5. Alien From
      Alien From April 7 2021 23: 57
      +1
      No colleague, I won't give you a machine gun good
    6. Mihaylov
      Mihaylov April 8 2021 10: 22
      +2
      Quote: Trilobite Master
      Or I would even have done it differently - I would have stuffed my armor with straw and put it on a horse, and I myself would have found something simpler and more practical somewhere nearby under the royal standard.

      How is Dmitry Donskoy?
      1. Trilobite Master
        Trilobite Master April 8 2021 10: 50
        +1
        Are you comparing poor Brenk to straw? smile
        I have already answered a similar question to Svyatoslav above on the thread.
        I'm not sure that the episode with the replacement of the prince for a boyar under the banner took place in reality, at least in the tat form, as it is described in the sources - time.
        I am already much more fearful than Dmitry was on the Kulikovo field, and I am not at all attracted by the prospect of participating in the first rows of a cavalry attack (if according to Dvurechensky) or standing in the first row of an advanced regiment (if according to the classical description). At his age (thirty years), such thoughts would undoubtedly come to my mind, and I could consider it my immediate duty to wave a piece of iron, but now I would rather agree with Ivan III, as he tried to learn on the Ugra: you, they say, sort it out here, and I'm home. smile
        1. Mihaylov
          Mihaylov April 8 2021 10: 58
          +2
          Quote: Trilobite Master
          I have already answered a similar question to Svyatoslav above on the thread.

          I'm sorry, I didn't notice right away hi
          I'm not sure that the episode with the replacement of the prince for a boyar under the banner took place in reality, at least in the tat form, as it is described in the sources - time.

          Who knows, the sources are quite late, the Zadonshchina generally is usually attributed to the 16th century.
          About the role of the commander in the battle, Chapaev wrote everything quite convincingly on potatoes. wassat
          but now I would rather agree with Ivan III, as he tried to learn on the Ugra: you, they say, sort it out here, and I'm home.

          And what did Ivan III learn on the Ugra? Something I don't remember anything unusual? hi
          1. Trilobite Master
            Trilobite Master April 8 2021 12: 51
            +1
            Well, in the midst of the confrontation, at the most crucial moment, he fled to Moscow,
            horror naida on n, and at the moment to flee from the shore, and his Grand Duchess Roman and the treasury with her ambassador to Beloozero

            It seems like they were barely persuaded to return to the troops. It was just at the very beginning of the "standing".
            As for the "horror", of course, I doubt it, but "out of harm's way" - quite.
            1. Mihaylov
              Mihaylov April 8 2021 14: 29
              +2
              Quote: Trilobite Master
              Well, in the midst of the confrontation, at the most crucial moment, he fled to Moscow,

              For some reason I don't remember this episode
              horror naida on n, and at the moment to flee from the shore, and his Grand Duchess Roman and the treasury with her ambassador to Beloozero

              And what is the chronicle reporting? hi
              1. Trilobite Master
                Trilobite Master April 8 2021 14: 39
                +1
                Wiki refers to the Independent Annals, I have not checked.
                Even the date of the "escape" is indicated - September 30th. Just when Akhmat came out to Ugra.
                1. Mihaylov
                  Mihaylov April 8 2021 15: 11
                  +1
                  Quote: Trilobite Master
                  Independent annals

                  I looked, it was interesting: yes, there is such a reconstructed vault, presumably created in church circles (at a temple or monastery), but not in official ones. There, this story is detailed. In two words: the traitor boyars Ivan Vasilyevich Oschera and Grigory Andreyevich Mamon persuaded the Grand Duke to do this:
                  These were the rich boyars of the Grand Duke, they did not think to stand up for the Christians and fight the Tatars, but thought to run away, and betray the Christians, dooming them to untimely death those fighting in battle, remembering only about their great wealth, wives and children

                  Why aren't the current oligarchs? hi
                  In general, they caught up with fear on VK and fled to Moscow, and in Moscow the townspeople and Vladyka Vassian of Rostov shamed him:
                  And Vladyka Vassian began to speak harshly with the Grand Duke, calling him a fugitive. So he said: “All Christian blood will fall on you, because you, having betrayed them, run away, not giving battle to the Tatars and not fighting them. Why are you afraid of death? You are not immortal, man, mortal, and before the time there is no death for man, bird, or beast. And give the soldiers under my command, will I, old one, hide my face from the Tatars? "

                  In general, he consulted the Grand Duke and he returned to the troops, and his son Ivan Ivanovich showed steadfastness and, despite all his father's letters, remained with the army.
                  Something like that. hi
  7. Alexander Betonkin
    Alexander Betonkin April 7 2021 19: 55
    +2
    I can't even believe that this is chasing. As if casting with engraving. Or a press with post-processing. How long did it take for the armor? It's scary to think.
    1. kalibr
      April 7 2021 21: 00
      +1
      Quote: Alexander Betonkin
      went to armor

      It took about a year ...
      1. Alexander Betonkin
        Alexander Betonkin April 7 2021 23: 37
        0
        Thanks. I have never been particularly interested in this matter (how they made such wonderful images on metal), having looked through the article again, it touched me - but what is the situation with this now. But in no way. What they are doing now and then is heaven and earth. So in ancient times the technologies were different, or were we so dull?
        1. kalibr
          April 8 2021 05: 47
          +1
          Quote: Alexander Betonkin
          So in ancient times the technologies were different, or were we so dull?

          It's just that we don't need such labor-intensive technologies today ...
          1. Alexander Betonkin
            Alexander Betonkin April 8 2021 09: 46
            0
            Well, how are they not needed? I think there are a lot of wealthy people who have a collection of "antique" armor and paraphernalia. Don't they want the same copies or new drawings? And museums, all sorts of historical communities - so what can chasing, normal sculpture be created now?
            sko
            1. kalibr
              April 8 2021 12: 13
              +1
              Quote: Alexander Betonkin
              I think there are a lot of wealthy people who have a collection of "antique" armor and paraphernalia.

              It's easier for them to buy ready-made. Doing it again is troublesome and expensive. My uncle, who died in the war, made a carved stone chair from red marble. With three matchboxes. The thing is as tasteless as it is time consuming. I, boys, admired. How did he do it? Mom told me that she saw how he did it ... So he did it. The question is how? I couldn't repeat it. It didn't even work out a checkerboard lattice on his polished seat. As a result, I broke it in anger. But it was ... the boy did it in the mid-30s. And the boy in the mid-60s, who knew how to work with his hands, is no longer there. Who will do it now? Nobody!
              1. Alexander Betonkin
                Alexander Betonkin April 8 2021 15: 38
                +1
                So everything is correct: the technologies were different and gradually the hands began to grow from the wrong direction. So I noticed - in winter, somehow the light was turned off for a long time. Everything, well, lit candles, sat down with my wife about something, we are talking about, in short, melancholy. It would be summer, at the dacha something could be done. This is what I mean - ten years will pass, twenty years will be robotic, like a robot will hammer a nail (I'm exaggerating a little). Then another fifty years, what will happen is scary to think. And then bang - a universal accident. All knowledge on some kind of media, which was accordingly covered. Books only in historical repositories, which will also be destroyed after a while, because no one will take care of them (temperature, humidity, etc.), or maybe they will simply be burned in the fires. The entire "civilized" world will die stupidly from hunger and cold (now take your smartphone - they are tying like kittens). Who will remain - the inhabitants of the North, the natives of the Amazon (if it is not cut down), Berbers and Arabs in the deserts, aksakals in the mountains, and of course blacks. Where does the "first man" come from now? Here. And everything will start all over again. And all sorts of Sumerian tablets will again be unearthed from the former museums and will be studied. Yes, and rock and cave paintings too, since the surviving children had to draw somewhere. So history repeats itself.
                1. kalibr
                  April 9 2021 21: 17
                  +1
                  It will be so. I advise you to read the book by A. Mirer "Nine Lives" If you have not read it ... You will like it ... All your thoughts are there!
  8. Aleksandr97
    Aleksandr97 April 7 2021 20: 11
    +3
    Very nice!!! It’s even scary to think how, by such beauty, with a sword or ax in a real battle ...
    Well, there were no Lamborghinis, Bentleys and Rolls-Royces then - so they invested in full in armor and weapons.
  9. vladcub
    vladcub April 7 2021 21: 28
    +2
    Q. Oh, I welcome you to "your home". We have already communicated with Valery, and now we will continue in your "house"
    Judging by the armor, Eric was not indifferent to Hercules, perhaps considered himself no worse than Hercules. But Hercules did good: He saved Promitei from suffering, and Eric, what positive did he do?
    1. kalibr
      April 7 2021 21: 45
      +1
      Quote: vladcub
      made positive?

      Rules!
    2. polpot
      polpot April 7 2021 22: 03
      +2
      Eric XIV is called the insane king of Sweden for his unpredictable and willful temper, which resulted in a serious mental breakdown. The protracted war against Denmark and the struggle with the Swedish nobility led the king to imprisonment in a prison, from which he tried to escape with the help of Ivan the Terrible. The guards learned about the secret plans - the king's security was strengthened, the conditions were tightened.
      At the end of his life, Eric was excommunicated from his family, sent to another castle, and then poisoned.
      1. vladcub
        vladcub April 8 2021 06: 52
        0
        lived "cheerfully"
    3. Richard
      Richard April 8 2021 09: 14
      +4
      and Eric, what has he done positively?

      From the point of view of the Swedes, he fought quite successfully, capturing the northern part of Estonia with Reval in 1561 after the collapse of the Livonian Order. He was able to expand the Swedish influence to the Baltic countries and Estonia. Introduced the first gold coin. In foreign policy, Eric's efforts were aimed at strengthening Sweden, turning it into a great power. But in domestic politics, his actions were mainly aimed at limiting the power of the nobility and establishing royal one-man rule. For which he, in fact, was deprived of power, arrested and killed.
      1. Richard
        Richard April 8 2021 09: 30
        +4
        By the way, Eric married for love, which is a rarity in royal families. His chosen one was a simple Finnish girl Katarina Monsdotter, whom he made a queen.
        She is called the Cinderella of the Swedish crown. Karin Monsdotter is a girl from the common people who became the Queen of Sweden.

        True, she was only 87 days queen. But still, all the same ...
        Psychotherapists, who know everything and about everyone, call the tale of Cinderella one of the most harmful fairy tales. They say that she teaches modern girls the wrong attitude to life, inspires unrealizable dreams, detaches them from reality. Let's leave these reflections on the conscience of skeptics. Karin Monsdotter's example of life completely refutes their arguments. There is a place in life for a fairy tale! There is! And let this tale with a rather sad end, but it was. And there were Karin Monsdotter and King Eric XIV of Sweden, who loved each other and transgressed laws and regulations for their love.
        Chancellor of Sweden Goran Persson: "They called each other only the half of their souls given by God.
        Talking about the love of Eric XIV and Karin Monsdotter, I just want to remember the legend of two halves of one soul, separated in space. True love only happens when these two halves meet. There is no other way to explain why they, so different in age and social status, found each other and merged into a single whole. Who is he? King of Sweden from the great Vasa dynasty, son of King Gustav and Catarina, Duchess of Saxe-Lauenburg, who received an excellent education, spoke several foreign languages, endowed with the signs of the monarch's power. And she is an illiterate girl, and not even a Swede, but a Finnish woman. According to all the laws, their paths simply could not cross, as they used to say “they ate at different tables”. But a miracle happened, they met and fell in love. For her sake, Eric XIV went against the will of the laws stating that only a person of royal blood can be on the throne, and against the will of his relatives, which is why, in the end, he paid not only with his freedom, but also with the fate of his family? "

        Eric Johan Löfgren. Canvas "Eric XIV and Karin Monsdotter" 1864
  10. Mihaylov
    Mihaylov April 8 2021 10: 28
    +1
    There are different interpretations of what exactly is depicted here. According to one version, we see here the goddess Hera, breastfeeding Hercules

    I wonder for what purpose? to poison? wink
    I wonder what this interpretation is based on? As far as I remember, according to the classical version, Hera was the main "enemy" of Hercules and all the time built various intrigues for him hi
  11. NF68
    NF68 April 8 2021 16: 37
    0
    They look gorgeous.
  12. Maks1995
    Maks1995 April 8 2021 17: 50
    -1
    Yes, good article