Military Review

150 years of the Paris Commune

51
150 years of the Paris Commune
Ernest Picchio. "Shooting of the Parisian Communards"


French disaster


The years 1870-1871 were a difficult time for France. Emperor Napoleon III, who considered France the leader of Western Europe, allowed the country to be drawn into a war with Prussia. The Prussian chancellor Bismarck, who united Germany with "iron and blood", did everything to provoke France. Prussia needed a victory over France to complete the unification of Germany. Prussia was well prepared for the war. And the Second Empire overestimated its strength, underestimated the enemy and was not ready for war.

The French tried to attack, but the beginning of the war showed that their army was not ready for active hostilities. The command was unsatisfactory, as was the general organization and preparation of the rear and reserves. The German army acted like a well-coordinated fighting mechanism, winning victory after victory. Marshal Bazin's French army was blockaded at Metz. After the depletion of reserves, she surrendered on October 29 (200 thousand army ceased to exist).

The second French army tried to free the first, but was itself trapped in Sedan. The fortress was not ready for a long siege. The Germans occupied the commanding heights and could simply shoot the enemy. On September 1, 1870, the Sedan catastrophe followed. The 120-strong French army ceased to exist. Over 80 thousand French soldiers, led by MacMahon and Napoleon III, surrendered. After that, France lost most of its armed forces. There was only one (13th) corps, which was supposed to strengthen the army of MacMahon, he retreated to Paris.

On September 3, Paris learned about the Sedan disaster. The people's dissatisfaction with the regime of Napoleon III escalated into mass unrest. Crowds of workers and townspeople demanded the overthrow of the emperor. On September 4, the overthrow of the emperor, the formation of a republic and the creation of a provisional government were announced. Simultaneously, similar events took place in other large cities in France. The September revolution was the fourth revolution in France. General Trochu, commander of the Paris Army, became the president of the interim government. The new government offered Prussia peace. But due to the excessive demands of the Germans, the agreement did not take place.


Prussian artillery battery near Paris

Capitulation of Paris


On September 15-19, 1870, the German corps laid siege to Paris. The Prussian command refused to storm, since the battle for such a huge city could lead to heavy losses. The bombing was also abandoned, since artillery shelling would have led to the deaths of many civilians. And this could cause a lot of public noise and interference from England or Russia. The Germans decided to confine themselves to the blockade so that the city would run out of supplies of food and fuel.

The French army had a numerical advantage: 350 thousand French (including 150 thousand militia) against 240 thousand Germans. However, the French command was weak, most of the troops, including the National Guard, were of low combat effectiveness. The French could defend themselves, relying on the forts and structures of the capital, but they could not successfully attack. Attempts by the French to break the siege were unsuccessful. In addition, the command of the Paris army was confident that the siege of the city would fail. Sooner or later, the Germans, under the blows of other French armies that were formed in unoccupied parts of the country, under pressure from other great powers, or because of problems in the rear (lack of supplies, illness, winter, etc.), had to lift the siege.

Trochu and other generals, dignitaries more than the Germans, feared "the enemy in the depths of Paris." That is, a social explosion. There were reasons for this fear: on October 31, 1870 and January 22, 1871, uprisings began demanding the proclamation of the Commune, but they were suppressed. Therefore, the French command did not use the available opportunities to strengthen the defense of Paris or the offensive potential.

Thus, despite a number of military disasters and the general unfavorable course of the war, the French had a chance to knock the enemy out of the country. The government controlled 2/3 of the country, could form new corps and armies, call on the people to resistance, partisanship. At sea, France had complete superiority, her fleet could create big problems for German trade. World public opinion was gradually tilted in favor of France. Germany's tough political demands (the annexation of the French provinces of Alsace with Lorraine, a huge indemnity) and the methods of the Prussian military irritated the world. Sooner or later England, Russia and Italy, and after them Austria, could side with France.

However, it took time and sacrifice ("to fight to the death"). The prevailing opinion among the French elite is that it is better to immediately conclude a "bawdy" peace than to get a new revolution. The command of the Paris army decided to surrender. On January 28, 1871, Paris threw out the white flag. In February, the Germans even staged a victory parade in the French capital.


Proclamation of the Paris Commune in the square in front of the Hôtel de Ville on March 26, 1871

72 days that shook the world


With the consent of the Germans, elections to the National Assembly (lower house of parliament) were held in France in February. The victory was won by the supporters of an immediate peace with Germany. A new parliament gathered in Bordeaux, which formed a coalition government of monarchists and republicans. The conservative politician Adolphe Thiers was elected president. On February 26, at Versailles, a preliminary peace was signed with Germany. On February 28, the National Assembly approved the peace treaty. On May 10, peace was finally signed in Frankfurt am Main. France lost two provinces and paid a huge contribution. The German Empire became a great power.

The new government, led by Thiers, canceled deferred payments and salaries for the guardsmen, exacerbating the plight of thousands of people. Then the authorities tried to disarm the National Guard, workers' districts (districts) of the capital and arrest members of the Central Committee of the National Guard. This attempt, made on the night of March 18, 1871, failed. The soldiers went over to the side of the guards, with whom they together defended the city from the Germans. General Lecomte, who ordered the shooting at the crowd, and the former commander of the National Guard, Clement Thoma, were shot. The rebels captured government offices, Thiers fled to Versailles. The red banner of the socialist revolution was raised over Paris. Several cities followed Paris, but there the revolts were quickly suppressed.

On March 26, elections were held for the Paris Commune (86 people). It was proclaimed on March 28th. The commune consisted mainly of representatives of the working class, office workers and the intelligentsia. There were no industrialists, bankers and stock speculators among them. The leading role was played by socialists, members of the 1st International (about 40 people). Among them were the Blanquists (in honor of the socialist L. Blanca), Proudhonists, Bakuninists (the direction of anarchism), people professing the ideas of Marxism. The commune was ideologically divided into two factions: the "majority", adhering to the ideas of neo-Jacobinism, and the Blanquists, the "minority."

The new authorities declared Paris a commune. The army was abolished and replaced by an armed people (National Guard). The church is separated from the state. The police were liquidated, and their functions were transferred to the reserve battalions of the guard. The new administration was created on a democratic basis: electivity, responsibility and changeability, collegial government. The commune eliminated bourgeois parliamentarism and the division into branches of government. The commune was both a legislative and an executive body.

The functions of the government were taken over by 10 committees of the Commune. The general management of affairs was taken over by the Executive Commission (then the Committee for Public Safety). The commune took a number of measures to alleviate the material situation of the common people. In particular, the abolition of rent arrears, a 3-year installment plan for the repayment of commercial bills, the abolition of arbitrary fines and illegal deductions from the wages of workers and employees, a minimum wage was introduced, workers' control at large enterprises, public works for the unemployed, etc.

The indemnity to Germany was to be paid by the perpetrators of the war: former ministers, senators and deputies of the Second Empire.

The commune launched a struggle to introduce free and compulsory education. Schools, canteens and first aid posts were opened in different parts of Paris. Assistance was allocated to the families of the dead guardsmen, lonely elderly people, schoolchildren from poor families, etc. That is, the Commune became the forerunner of modern socially-oriented politics, the "welfare state." Also, women took a great part in the organization and activities of the Commune. The rise of the women's movement began: the demand for equality in rights, the introduction of education for girls, the right to divorce, etc.

The communards were able to establish a peaceful life in the city.

“Paris has never enjoyed such unconditional tranquility, was not so secure in material terms ... - noted the writer Arthur Arnoux, an eyewitness to the events. "There were no gendarmes, no judges, and not a single offense was committed ... Everyone watched for their own safety and for the safety of everyone."

Thus, the Paris Commune opposed the strange "republic without a republic" (the National Assembly was dominated by monarchists of different factions), against the attempt to restore the monarchy (according to contemporaries, such plans were hatched by Thiers).

It was a patriotic challenge to the capitulatory policy of the Versailles government. Speaking out against social injustice when the plight of the common people was sharply worsened by the war. Also, the organizers of the "communal revolution" dreamed of spreading the experience of democratic self-government in Paris throughout the country, and then founding a social republic.

For the Versaillese, these were just bandits, robbers and scoundrels who must be burned out with a red-hot iron.


"Bloody week"


The confrontation between two Frances began: "white" and "red". The "Whites", led by Thiers, settled in Versailles and did not intend to retreat. The Germans, interested in stability and preservation of peace in France (the Thiers government concluded a peace beneficial for Germany), helped the Versailles. The Germans released tens of thousands of French prisoners who were sent to replenish the Versailles army.

The confrontation was irreconcilable: both sides actively used terror. The Versailles shot prisoners, the Communards promised that three people would be killed for each executed. Both sides issued decrees on the trial and execution of prisoners, the organization of military tribunals, the execution of deserters, the arrest of prominent figures, etc. Communards identified spies and traitors.

As a result, the Communards, in wartime, were engaged in intrigues, disputes, trifles, nonsense, scattered their attention, could not concentrate all their forces on the war with Versailles. They could not create a full-fledged and efficient Parisian army. The rear structures worked poorly, there were few experienced commanders. A negative role was played by the lack of one-man command: the Military Commission, the Central Committee of the National Guard, the Military Bureau of the Districts, etc. tried to lead. During the battle in the city itself, each community fought on its own. The military leadership headed by Cluseret (from April 30 - Rossel, from May 10 - Delecluse) adhered to passive defensive tactics. In addition, the Commune was unable to establish contacts with possible allies in the province and other cities.

On April 2, 1871, the Versaillese attacked. The communards tried to counterattack and take Versailles. But the counterattack was poorly organized, and the rebels were thrown back with heavy losses. On May 21, the 100-strong Versailles army broke into Paris. Government forces advanced rapidly, occupying one area after another. On May 23, Montmartre fell without a battle.

Arson of government buildings associated with the Second Empire and the government of Thiers began. The Tuileries Palace was badly damaged, the city hall was burned. Many communards were demoralized, weapon, changed into civilian clothes and fled.

The Versailles occupied most of the city. On May 25, the last rebel commander, Delecluse, was killed at the barricades. Versailles shot the captured Communards. On May 26, the revolutionaries shot their prisoners - captured Versaillese and arrested priests. On May 27, the last major centers of resistance fell - the Buttes-Chaumont park and the Père Lachaise cemetery. On the morning of May 28, the last defenders of Père Lachaise (147 people) were shot at the northeastern wall (Wall of the Communards). On the same day, the last groups of insurgents were defeated.

The last week of the fighting for Paris was called "bloody". On both sides, fighters died in the streets and barricades, the detainees were shot out of revenge or on suspicion. On the part of the Versaillese, punitive detachments were active. Mass executions took place in barracks, parks and squares. Then the courts-martial began to operate. Thousands of people were killed.

From the point of view of organization: ideological, military-political, social and economic, the revolution was at the level of a "kindergarten". However, the message about social justice was so powerful that the owners of capital, factories, banks and other large property and their political servants were so afraid that they responded with the most severe terror. Neither women nor children were spared.

Up to 70 thousand people became victims of counter-revolutionary terror (executions, hard labor, prison), many people fled the country.


Bas-relief "Wall of the Communards" in the square near the Pere Lachaise cemetery. Sculptor A. Bartolome. 1899 g.
Author:
Photos used:
https://ru.wikipedia.org/
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  1. Uncle lee
    Uncle lee 31 March 2021 04: 11
    +6
    the message of social justice was so powerful
    Which the bourgeoisie are still afraid of!
    1. Pessimist22
      Pessimist22 31 March 2021 04: 33
      +7
      In Russia, the owners of capital, factories, banks and other large property and their political servants are they really afraid of anyone? Judging by how they and the people live, what sums they take in bribes and steal, they are not afraid of anyone, because in Russia a lot can be decided, they have their own authorities and they do not care about the people.
      1. Uncle lee
        Uncle lee 31 March 2021 04: 38
        +1
        Quote: Pessimist22
        they are not afraid of anyone

        After the collapse of the USSR, they cease to be afraid and the further, the less ... But there is also a limit! hi
        1. apro
          apro 31 March 2021 04: 53
          +4
          Quote: Uncle Lee
          But there is also a limit!

          There is no limit. Success in brainwashing is breaking records. The active part of the population is successful. The rest are driven into the framework of economic enslavement.
          1. Mother Theresa
            Mother Theresa 31 March 2021 22: 14
            +1
            Grandpa, and when the retirement age was raised, did you protest?
            Yes, I went outside and shouted !!!!
            What did you shout?
            GOAL!!!!!!!
      2. Private89
        Private89 31 March 2021 17: 32
        +4
        This is their weakness, they saw the branch on which they sit. Just imagine they have been sawing, sawing, sawing, sawing for more than 30 years, but nothing comes and doesn’t come to them, so they believed that this would go on forever, but nothing is eternal.
    2. Far B
      Far B 31 March 2021 04: 40
      +9
      They are afraid of something ... But now the technology of brainwashing is so developed that even people who understand that they are being brazenly robbed manage to almost pray for the chieftain of the gang of robbers. And someone - and the robbers (performers) themselves are considered quite decent people. Actually, you don't need to go far for an example - just look around.
      1. Uncle lee
        Uncle lee 31 March 2021 04: 52
        +2
        Colleague hi I completely agree with you ... One thesis of "getting off your knees" is worth it.
      2. Pessimist22
        Pessimist22 31 March 2021 04: 53
        +1
        What to do and who is to blame? To plunge Russia into the chaos of a civil war? No one will give up power just like that, in the sense that the capitalists will not give it up legally.
        1. Far B
          Far B 31 March 2021 05: 01
          +6
          For a civil war, two opposing sides are needed, at least approximately equal in strength. Do you think there will be admirers of Adramovich's yachts and Rottenberg palaces on one of these sides? I strongly doubt it.
          And then, the revolution is not a civil war. These are phenomena of a different order. Although, of course, it would be better to take power from the oligarchy peacefully - however, Ilyich still doubted that this was possible.
          But if you do nothing, then the only thing left is to watch how they rob you and ... pray to the robber. Well, so what? It's just some kind of masochism.
          1. Andrey VOV
            Andrey VOV 31 March 2021 18: 22
            +2
            Basically I agree, but Abramovich made his capital under EBN, under Putin he stupidly went into the cash and lives over the hill, having nothing in Russia, but plus him, he did a lot on his own in Chukotka and, in general, did much smarter along the way. from his teacher Berezovsky
          2. Mother Theresa
            Mother Theresa 31 March 2021 20: 27
            0
            In vain you doubt, on the other hand, there are enough units for shedding blood:
            1. "Fizruks" those who in 90 squeezed and robbed and survived, they dream of returning the saints 90 as they were encouraged when the civil war began in Ukraine, the country house of one of them was taken by storm.
            2. Thieves in law are not enough, they are not afraid of the power of blood.
            3. Those who have settled well, deputies of all levels with assistants, members of election commissions and others who are named legion.
            4. Service staff.
            5. Youth who hums me the problem of lyab or fer.
            6. The punitive apparatus Majors Evsyukovs is not an isolated phenomenon.
            And they are all ready to act, they are not amorphous, they will tear with their teeth for the current government.
            The position of national minorities is not clear.
        2. apro
          apro 31 March 2021 05: 10
          +3
          Quote: Pessimist22
          To plunge Russia into the chaos of a civil war?

          And what can a civil war solve? To kill some. To put others in their place. So there will be no really revolutionary changes until a layer of really conscious and prepared anti-capitalists is created, when the level of society itself wards off bourgeois thinking.
          1. wkat
            wkat 31 March 2021 12: 13
            +4
            It's strange that they give you cons. It is rightly said that it is not necessary to change the power, but human consciousness.
            1. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
              Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 31 March 2021 14: 53
              +2
              Quote: wkat
              It's strange that they give you cons. It is rightly said that it is not necessary to change the power, but human consciousness.

              Oh, what matters ... And how, let me know, do you see such a mental correction?
              As for the Commune, read the correspondence polemic between Strakhov and Herzen "in hot pursuit." The prejudices of the romanticist of the social revolution Herzen and the philosophical noir of the pragmatist Strakhov - 150 years later, someone here passes everything chewed on by theorists as some kind of innovation inherent only in us and our time.
              1. wkat
                wkat 31 March 2021 14: 57
                +3
                In reality, nothing. People, that 2000 years ago, that now, have not changed much and it is unlikely that something will change. And thanks for reading.
                1. Private89
                  Private89 31 March 2021 17: 49
                  -2
                  Those. how does it not change if a person remains the same, whence the development of society and the transition from the primitive communal system to slaveholding, then to feudal, then to capitalism, and then to socialism. And that man was the same everywhere? I understand people have now been reduced to such a state that it seems there will be no lumen. Do not be discouraged, nothing stands still and there is nothing eternal, no matter how today's bourgeois authorities want it.
                  1. wkat
                    wkat 31 March 2021 19: 40
                    0
                    I mean, deep down. That then only riches were interested, what now, what they hated each other, what they hate today.
                2. ivan2022
                  ivan2022 April 2 2021 15: 00
                  +1
                  Quote: wkat
                  People that 2000 years ago, that now, have not changed much and it is unlikely that something will change


                  Heh .. heh ... as one of my friends used to say; "It depends from what position to look at you ..."
                  This can be seen even if you look at the evolution of religious beliefs. They started with complete barbarism and the wildest paganism with human sacrifice "according to the folk custom", and came to highly developed religions.

                  But if you look from Russia, for sure - time goes differently here. How did Dostoevsky write? "In Russia, time passes quickly, in prison they say it goes even faster."
                  Perhaps once again I will quote from A.M. Gorky ("On the Russian peasantry" / 1922)
                  "The Grand Duke Sergei Romanov told me that in 1913, when the three hundredth anniversary of the Romanov dynasty was being celebrated and Tsar Nikolai was in Kostroma, Nikolai Mikhailovich was also a Grand Duke, a talented author of a number of solid historical works," he said to the tsar, pointing to a crowd of thousands of peasants :
                  “But they are exactly the same as they were in the XNUMXth century, choosing Michael for the kingdom, the same; is it bad, do you think? "
                  ........ A long time ago I read a book under the ominous title: "Progress as the Evolution of Cruelty." But - I must note that there seems to be no evolution in Russian cruelty, its forms do not seem to change.

                  The chronicler of the beginning of the XNUMXth century says that in his time they tortured him like that: “they put gunpowder in their mouths and lit it, and for others they stuffed gunpowder from below, cut through the breasts of women and, having threaded ropes into their wounds, hung them on these ropes”.

                  In the 18th and 19th years, the same was done in the Don and the Urals: by inserting a dynamite cartridge into a person from below, they blew it up.

                  I think that the Russian people exclusively - just as exclusively as the Englishman have a sense of humor - a feeling of special cruelty, cold-blooded and, as it were, testing the limits of human patience for pain, as if studying the tenacity, resilience of life.

                  A devilish sophistication is felt in Russian cruelty, there is something subtle and refined in it. This property can hardly be explained with the words "psychosis", "sadism", words that, in essence, do not explain anything at all.
          2. Ka-52
            Ka-52 31 March 2021 12: 48
            +3
            until a stratum of truly conscious and trained anti-capitalists is created.

            I put a plus, but the problem of the opposition is not that he will re-read the "God-chosen" government (that is why it is the opposition, this is its role). And the fact is that our opposition is stupid, lazy, idealess and spineless. The most that she was worthy - found the only irritant in the face of the president and now chews stereotypes, like a cow chewing gum. There is no goal, no system, no program.
            And while none of this is there, then it is hoped that some kind of class or stratum will be born - it is doubtful. In any case, this is a long process, for decades (I would like to believe). Let's look at history: world capitalism as a formation is more than 300 years old (taking into account the period of the beginning of the accumulation of primary capital). And to face a man, he turned only 50-60 back from the moment of the inception of the trade union movement. Before that, social rights were nothing more than fiction.
        3. lis-ik
          lis-ik 31 March 2021 13: 45
          +2
          Quote: Pessimist22
          What to do and who is to blame? To plunge Russia into the chaos of a civil war? No one will give up power just like that, in the sense that the capitalists will not give it up legally.

          There is no capitalism in the Russian Federation, as such, but there is a thieves' feudal-oligarchic system, which is much worse. And yes, you can forget about the legal path in the absence of an equal law for everyone. Not for the purpose of privatizing the resources of Russia, so that they could give away the flood. "Guarantor" has repeatedly said that the results of privatization are not subject to revision. What can I say, even the constitution is treated like a corrupt girl.
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  2. Vladimir_2U
    Vladimir_2U 31 March 2021 04: 17
    +2
    And mind you, no "sealed carriage" or "German gold"! If an unsuitable government does not cope, then the people do not obey it and follow those who can. In France, the Communards, and in Russia, the Bolsheviks could, and the people followed them.
    1. Lech from Android.
      Lech from Android. 31 March 2021 04: 45
      +1
      The help of the Germans to the counter-revolution helped Versailles defeat the Communists ... The Parisians did not have their own Lenin, Trotsky, Frunze, Budyonny.
      Having limited themselves to the enclave of Paris, the Communards naturally doomed themselves to destruction.
      smile Macron can be safely kicked by the bloody regime of the Versailles tyranny of counter-revolution.
      1. bober1982
        bober1982 31 March 2021 07: 49
        +3
        Quote: Lech from Android.
        The Parisians did not have their own Lenin, Trotsky, Frunze, Budyonny.

        The Parisian Communards had a very motley audience: petty bourgeois, anarchists, socialists. That is, a rabble who could not lead the new "proletarian" state. This whole Parisian commune, a bloody circus, nothing more.
      2. Daniil Konovalenko
        Daniil Konovalenko 31 March 2021 08: 08
        +6
        The Parisians did not have their own Lenin, Trotsky, Frunze, Budyonny.
        ... Those about whom you write were members of one party of the RCP (b), the Commune, was a bunch of eccentrics who represented various leftist movements, which had different views, there was no unity on many issues. power, if Lenin, after October, would go to create a broad socialist coalition: communists, social democrats (Mensheviks), people's socialists, etc., I think not.
        1. place
          place April 19 2021 15: 12
          0
          Quote: Daniil Konovalenko
          The commune was a bunch of eccentrics who represented various leftist movements,


          Rather, the comments to the article characterize the crowd of such ".. udaks".
          Heh ... heh .... the opinion of the Commune of such "eccentrics" as Karl Kautsky, Lenin, Plekhanov, Stalin is not counted ...
          In the domestic "ward No. 6" they are simply full of them ... and in this case I am probably dealing with Napoleon.
      3. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
        Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 31 March 2021 12: 00
        +2
        Quote: Lech from Android.
        The Parisians did not have their own Lenin, Trotsky, Frunze, Budyonny.

        They had Cluseret. However, he, like Dombrowski and Rossel, was accused of treason. The proletariat did not believe in the professional military and saw treason everywhere.
        1. Daniil Konovalenko
          Daniil Konovalenko 31 March 2021 12: 49
          +3
          They also had Garibaldi, there was no party.
    2. apro
      apro 31 March 2021 04: 53
      -1
      Quote: Vladimir_2U
      And mind you, no "sealed carriage" or "German gold"!

      And it was generally ???
      1. Vladimir_2U
        Vladimir_2U 31 March 2021 04: 55
        -1
        Quote: apro
        And it was generally ???

        That's it! Was not there, then why would he be here.
    3. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
      Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 31 March 2021 09: 39
      +6
      Quote: Vladimir_2U
      And mind you, no "sealed carriage" or "German gold"!

      funny remark) Well, consider the "sealed carriage" was the passage of the Prussians of the Versailles troops through their lines to the northern outskirts of Paris. And the Rouen Convention on March 28 can be considered "German gold".
      1. Vladimir_2U
        Vladimir_2U 31 March 2021 10: 39
        -2
        Quote: Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
        Well, consider the "sealed carriage" was the passage of the Prussians of the Versailles troops through their lines to the northern outskirts of Paris
        The February Revolution, one big "sealed carriage", but not a German one.
        1. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
          Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 31 March 2021 10: 49
          +3
          Well, if we are to draw analogies, then the "February" was, rather, the revolution of 1848. )
  3. bober1982
    bober1982 31 March 2021 05: 14
    +2
    Discontent of the people regime Emperor Napoleon III escalated into mass unrest .......
    In my opinion, it is unacceptable to speak like that, it can be creative and fashionable, as now they like to express themselves in certain circles.
    Poor Frenchmen, real guinea pigs, how many experiments have they put on them, and they are still practicing to this day.
  4. parusnik
    parusnik 31 March 2021 06: 16
    +8
    About the Paris Commune, in France, they write negatively, as now in Russia about the October Socialist Revolution, where the capitalists are in power, in our country, is it any wonder.
    1. Lech from Android.
      Lech from Android. 31 March 2021 06: 45
      +1
      The winner writes history ... it has always been that way.
  5. Olgovich
    Olgovich 31 March 2021 07: 47
    +1
    The commune took a number of measures to alleviate the material situation of the common people. In particular, the cancellation of arrears on rent, installments for 3 years for the repayment of commercial bills

    at the same time they did not say, but who will be for all this to pay..

    Where to get for all social events facilities.

    All the same, taxes and rent, etc. will have to be taken.

    The abolition of the army (replacement of the so-called general arming of the people) and the police, judges, all the same, eventually led to the beginning of the creation of the army, police and courts - without these tools the state does not exist.

    Huge casualties, destroyed Paris, destroyed monuments, terror only increased the already huge losses of France from the war ...
  6. Konnick
    Konnick 31 March 2021 07: 56
    +5
    this could cause great public uproar and interference from England or Russia.

    No, it could not, Russia remembered the participation of France in the Crimean War and the non-participation of Prussia in the intervention. Thanks to the defeat of France, Russia won a diplomatic victory in the London Convention in the spring of 1871, annulling the Paris Treaty of 1856 and regaining the right to have a navy in the Black Sea.
  7. Daniil Konovalenko
    Daniil Konovalenko 31 March 2021 08: 11
    +5
    What can we say about the Paris Commune - the first pancake is lumpy. The second pancake was better, but they ate themselves.
    1. bober1982
      bober1982 31 March 2021 09: 05
      +1
      Quote: Daniil Konovalenko
      What can be said about the Paris Commune - the first pancake is lumpy.

      They just piled up corpses, on both sides, like pancakes.
    2. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
      Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 31 March 2021 10: 24
      +5
      Quote: Daniil Konovalenko
      the first pancake is lumpy.

      For France, this was the third pancake.
      1. apro
        apro 31 March 2021 11: 45
        0
        Quote: Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
        For France, this was the third pancake.

        And what does it change ????????????? ????????????????????????????????? ??
      2. Daniil Konovalenko
        Daniil Konovalenko 31 March 2021 12: 14
        +2
        No, the first socialist pancake. And before that, the working class and the petty bourgeoisie were the driving force, the leading was the bourgeoisie. And she was more organized.
  8. BAI
    BAI 31 March 2021 12: 46
    +2
    Bas-relief "Wall of the Communards" in the square near the Pere Lachaise cemetery. Sculptor A. Bartolome. 1899 g.

    Is this the shot "Freedom"?
    1. Catfish
      Catfish 31 March 2021 17: 16
      +3
      Greetings colleague. There is a lot of talk about freedom, but I have not yet met an absolutely free person. smile
      1. alsoclean
        alsoclean 31 March 2021 19: 22
        +1
        Therefore, we are often talking about the substitution of concepts. For example, about the replacement of the concept of Justice by Freedom. But here, too, not everything is simple ...
  9. Private89
    Private89 31 March 2021 17: 09
    +1
    “A cool bourgeoisie with a brutal temper.
    The shadows of the great-grandfathers, the Parisian communards, torn to pieces by tyriers, howling and groaning, and now screaming like a Parisian wall:
    - Listen, comrades! Look, brothers! Woe to loners - learn from us! Explode together! Hit the party! Fist
    gathering the working class alone. "
    V.V. Mayakovsky
    1. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
      Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 31 March 2021 18: 24
      +2
      Quote: Private 89
      V.V. Mayakovsky

      For Vladimi Vladimych (not to be confused with ...) - definitely a plus! hi
  10. A. Privalov
    A. Privalov 31 March 2021 17: 16
    +2
    A huge number of documents related to the history of the Paris Commune are today in the Russian State Archive of Social and Political History (formerly the Central Party Archive of the Institute of Marxism-Leninism under the Central Committee of the CPSU). The fact is that the Paris Commune was at one time an important symbol of state propaganda in the USSR. The documents were brought in by the French communists in the 20s and 30s. A lot of things got into the USSR and through the Comintern. Almost all documents have been digitized today. Access to them is free. Well, almost free. There are some simple bureaucratic procedures, but in general, everything is fine. So, if someone writes a monograph, dissertation, or even just interested in history, you can contact. hi
  11. Charlie
    Charlie April 2 2021 09: 06
    0
    Quote: Mother Teresa
    Grandpa, and when the retirement age was raised, did you protest?
    Yes, I went outside and shouted !!!!
    What did you shout?
    GOAL!!!!!!!

    Didn't you turn the fins?
  12. place
    place April 19 2021 15: 15
    0
    The author's remark that the Commune was a NEW KIND, a NEW STEP IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF DEMOCRACY - remained without the attention of commentators. The descendants of serfs are generally not interested in such topics ... 17th century .......
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