Military Review

Why the project to create the Russian-Polish empire failed

24

M.M. Antokolsky. "Tsar Ivan Vasilyevich the Terrible". 1875 g.


During the time of Ivan the Terrible in Poland, a project arose to create a union of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and the Russian Kingdom. The prospect looked tempting. The Polish-Russian alliance could occupy a dominant position in Europe already at the beginning of the XNUMXth century. Knock out the Swedes from the Baltic States, defeat the predatory Crimean horde, recapture the Northern Black Sea region with the Crimea, thereby taking strong positions in the Baltic and Black Seas. Then launch an offensive in the Balkans.

Polish project of the enslavement of Russia


Lithuania and Poland in the XIV century captured the vast Western Russian regions - Galicia-Volyn, Kiev, Chernigov-Seversk, White, Smolensk Rus and other lands.

Lithuanian Rus was a Russian state with a Russian state language, a Russian elite and a state-forming Russian population.

In 1385 the Union of Krev was adopted. The Lithuanian Grand Duke Jagiello became the Polish king, and promised to annex a number of Russian-Lithuanian regions to Poland, convert the top of the Grand Duchy to Catholicism first, and then the people.

The process of creating a unified state begins.

In 1567, the Union of Lublin was adopted, the confederal Rzeczpospolita was created. The vast territories of Rus were transferred to Poland: Podlasie, Volyn, Podolia and Kiev region.

The Polish Catholic elite did not begin to create a project of the Polish-Lithuanian-Russian state, in which all religious communities and peoples would flourish. On the contrary, in indigenous Poland they decided to use the West Russian lands as colonies. Destroy the Russian-Lithuanian statehood, convert to Catholicism and polonize the Lithuanian and Russian nobility, and then the people.

At the same time, the overwhelming majority of Russians turned into dumb, powerless slaves-slaves. Indians of Eastern Europe. Poland planned to expand its "colonies" in the East. Take Pskov, Novgorod, Smolensk, Tver, and possibly Moscow.

Thus, the Vatican and Poland created a project for the enslavement of Eastern Russia (Western Russian lands were already occupied).

He was a copy of Western European civilization based on slavery and social parasitism. The Polish gentlemen-pans were supposed to convert Russians to Catholicism (for a start, union was also good), destroy and polonize the Russian nobility. The Russian people turned into the Indians of Eastern Europe and would provide wealth, luxurious existence and military power for Poland.

The prince is not a girl to give a dowry for him


The rise of Moscow, which claimed dominion over all Russian lands, caused a permanent conflict with the Polish-Lithuanian state.

The Russian state tried to solve the Polish problem, that is, to complete the unification of Russia and the Russian people. Therefore, in Moscow, the possibility of adopting a personal union with the aim of reuniting with Lithuanian Rus was studied.

Since the monarchs of Poland and Lithuania (Jagiellons) at that time were elective, the possibility of uniting all of Eastern Europe under the rule of the Moscow sovereign by his election to the throne of the Jagiellons opened up. So, already in 1506, after the death of Alexander Jagiellonchik, the Russian sovereign Vasily III proposed his candidacy for the Lithuanian table (but not the Polish one).

In the 1560s, a new perspective appeared for the Russian sovereign to occupy the table of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. Its ruler Sigismund II was childless.

At first, the Russian plans extended only to the Lithuanian throne.

But in 1569 the situation changed. Now, instead of two different states with one ruler from the Jagiellonian dynasty, a federation was created - the Commonwealth. The Moscow tsar could also become the king of Poland.

At the same time, in the Commonwealth, many supported this idea. In this case, Protestants and Orthodox Christians could receive equal rights with Catholics. Lithuanians and Russians of Lithuania could have enlisted the support of Moscow to resist the pressure of the Poles. Small nobles wanted to curb the arbitrariness of large feudal lords, lords and magnates with the help of the Russian tsar. Rzeczpospolita with the help of the Russians could take dominant positions in Europe.

The creation of a triple federation (Slavic empire) opened up interesting military-political, economic and cultural prospects. This political alliance could achieve dominance in the Baltic (pushing back the Swedes), in the Northern Black Sea region (by defeating the Crimea and Porto), in the Danube.

After the death of Sigismund II in 1572, a struggle for power began in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.

The throne was claimed by the Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian and his son Ernest, the Swedish king Johan or his son Sigismund.

Also, even two pro-Russian parties were formed, one nominated Ivan the Terrible, the other - his son. Fedor was a profitable candidate for the Lithuanian tycoons. Due to his poor health and character, he did not at all fit for independent government. He did not have the mind and will of his father, he was gentle, kind and pious, he was not interested in state affairs (a monk, not a future sovereign). It suited the Panamas.

The Poles immediately began to put forward proposals unacceptable to Moscow. To avoid the "infection" with a tendency to despotism from his father and older brother, Fedor was offered to be transported to Poland. There he would have been properly educated by Polish nobles and Jesuits. Also, Moscow was supposed to transfer Polotsk, Pskov, Novgorod and Smolensk to the Polish-Lithuanian state so that Fedor could take the Polish table.

Fyodor, even during the life of Ivan Vasilyevich, was supposed to take the Moscow throne. And half of the kingdom was transferred to him by will. After the death of Ivan the Terrible, this half was part of the Commonwealth. And Fedor would have received the second half as flax of the Polish-Lithuanian state. After the suppression of the male line of Tsarevich Ivan (and this was easily provided by the "knights of the cloak and dagger" - the Jesuits, the first global special service), these lands would also become part of the Commonwealth.

Thus, the Poles suggested that Moscow itself begin the dismemberment and abolition of the Russian state. And the Russian lands would become the fiefdoms of the Polish lords, the basis of the enrichment of the Polish feudal lords. As a result, Russia was simply abolished, becoming a colony of the Polish state.

Ivan the Terrible, one of the wisest and most educated people of the era, understood this perfectly. The Polish plan was rejected. Grozny put forward his proposals. Answered that

The prince is not a girl to give a dowry for him.

There are many lands for the king in Poland and Lithuania. It should not be crowned by a Catholic bishop, but by a Russian metropolitan. If Fedor is elected, then the crown should not become elective, but only hereditary. And if the clan is interrupted, then the Polish-Lithuanian state joins Russia.

But the king considered this option weak, and soon abandoned it.

He knew that Fedor would be made a toy for tycoons. Therefore, he proposed to elect him, but on the terms of hereditary power. At the same time, it is best to accept the table of only Lithuania, and to concede to the emperor, corrupted by the "gentry democracy".

Also, Grozny was ready to cede the entire Rzeczpospolita to the emperor, but Russia received part of Livonia and Kiev. Then it was possible to conclude a military alliance between Russia and the Commonwealth against the Crimean Khanate and Turkey.

Ivan the Terrible did not get involved in Polish "democracy". The Polish "mess" spun the interests of Sweden, France, Rome, the Jesuit Order, the Holy Roman Empire and Turkey.

Promises, money and furs poured in generously. Wine flowed like a river. Henry of Valois was elected king. However, upon learning of the death of his brother Charles, the French king, Heinrich fled Poland.

As a result, Poland was led by the Transylvanian prince Stefan Batory. He led one of the "crusades" of the West against Russia.

In the course of the hardest war, Russia withstood.

Slavic Empire of Sigismund III


The next time the topic of union was raised after the death of Stephen Batory (December 1586).

The Swedish prince Sigismund Vasa (future King Sigismund III), raised by the Jesuits in the spirit of militant Catholicism, claimed the throne.

For Moscow, there was a threat of the emergence of the Polish-Swedish union.

In the Commonwealth itself, Sigismund had many opponents. The pro-Russian party was headed by the sub-chancellor (then chancellor) of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania Lev Sapega and the powerful Radziwill family. The Radziwills wanted to restore the independence of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania with the help of Russia.

Boris Godunov, who was the actual ruler of Russia (Tsar Fyodor the Blessed was weak in health and mind), decided to nominate Fyodor.

However, this time they could not agree.

Fedor, having taken the Polish table, had to accept Catholicism and agree to the union of the Catholic and Orthodox churches. This was unacceptable.

In 1587 Sigismund was elected king.

He set as his main goals the fight against

"Enemies of the Faith of Christ"

- the Orthodox Russian Kingdom and Protestant Sweden.

In Rzeczpospolita itself, he planned to crush Orthodoxy and Protestantism. Sigismund Vasa planned to start a war with Russia, to continue the work of Stefan Batory.

Crown Chancellor Zamoyski's party also wished for war. Chancellor hatched a plan

"True connection"

Commonwealth and Russia. The idea of ​​the development of the entire Slavic world (Pan-Slavism) under the auspices of the Polish-Lithuanian state. Poland was to become the core of the entire Slavic world, to rid the South Slavs from the Ottoman yoke, and the Eastern Slavs (Muscovites) from "barbarism."

The first step in the implementation of this global project was union with the Russian kingdom. The Russians had to be persuaded to an alliance either by peace or by military force.

After the death of Tsar Fyodor Ivanovich (according to Zamoysky's plans), the Russian table was to be occupied by the Polish king. But at this time, relations between Poland and Turkey worsened, and Krakow had to postpone plans for a war with the Russians. Peaceful Polish-Russian negotiations resumed. In January 1591, a 12-year truce was signed.

The treaty noted that the two powers would negotiate

"About the big deal ... about the eternal union."

The question of the union of the two powers was raised again.

In the meantime, Poland was distracted by Swedish affairs. The Swedish king died (1592), the father of Sigismund. Sigismund came to Sweden and was crowned with the Swedish crown.
The Polish-Swedish union arose. But he could not rule two powers at once. He returned to Poland. And he appointed his uncle Karl, Duke of Södermanland, who was supported by the Protestant party, as regent of Sweden. Many Swedes were unhappy with Sigismund's policy, his attempt at the Counter-Reformation in Sweden.

The unsuccessful Russian-Swedish war of 1590-1595. also did not contribute to the popularity of Sigismund. In 1599, Sigismund was removed from the Swedish throne, and his uncle Charles was proclaimed king. Sigismund did not want to give up his rights to Sweden, which involved Poland in a long conflict with the Kingdom of Sweden. The main military theater between the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and Sweden was Livonia (the Baltic States).

The Swedish-Polish confrontation played into the hands of Moscow.

The government of Boris Godunov planned to continue the war with the Swedes and return free access to the Baltic, lands in Livonia.

In this situation, Warsaw (the capital was moved from Krakow to Warsaw in 1596) decides to resume negotiations with Moscow on an alliance.

In 1600, Chancellor Lev Sapega was sent to Moscow. It was proposed to create a confederation with a single foreign policy: a joint struggle with the Turks and Tatars (in the south) and with the Swedes (in the north). Autonomy in domestic politics.

Warsaw proposed a consistent Polonization (Westernization) of Russia: the construction of churches in the Russian kingdom for Poles and Lithuanians (who will enter the Russian service), and Polish diplomats. Polish-Lithuanian feudal lords, who received lands in Russia, also received the right to build Catholic and Uniate religious structures in their estates. Catholic schools were allowed at churches, where Russians could also enter.

Russian noble youth could study in educational institutions of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. The Polish gentry received equal rights with the Russian, it was given access to Russian lands. In the event of the death of the Russian tsar, the Polish king could be elevated to the Russian throne. And vice versa, if the Polish monarch died, the Russian tsar received the opportunity to be elected as the Polish king (that is, the Diet had to choose him).

It is clear that Boris Godunov rejected such impudent conditions.

Why the project to create the Russian-Polish empire failed
"Presentation of the captive Tsar Vasily Shuisky to the Senate and Sigismund III in Warsaw", painting by Jan Matejko

Russian Troubles


When the Troubles began in Russia, caused by the struggle for power of Russian boyar families, Poland decided to use the favorable moment to establish Catholicism in Russia.

False Dmitry became an instrument of the Polish elite, the Jesuits and Rome. And he had to subordinate the Russian Church to the papal throne.

In exchange for Polish aid, the Russian impostor promised Poland half of the Smolensk land and part of the Seversk land. Conclude an eternal Russian-Polish alliance. Give permission for the construction of Polish churches and the entry of Jesuits into Russia. Help Sigismund in the war with the Swedes.

To make it easier to achieve its goals, Warsaw planned to support the turmoil in Russia. And shatter the country.

False Dmitry refused to be a Polish puppet.

He was a smart man and understood that such a policy would destroy him. He introduced freedom of conscience in the state. And he granted rights not only to Catholics, but also to Protestants of all persuasions. False Dmitry denied the Poles the right to start churches. Introduce the Roman clergy into the country, and especially the Jesuits.

He hid his conversion to Catholicism. He also refused to transfer the promised lands to Poland. False Dmitry was not a parsley and Russian boyar families. By this he signed his own death warrant.

Polish magnates supported False Dmitry II, who in the first period of his activity was under the complete control of the Poles.

In 1609, Sigismund III began an open war against Russia. In 1610, Polish ambassadors arrived at the Tushino camp, which controlled a large part of Russia. Tushintsy recognized the Polish prince Vladislav as their king. But while maintaining the inviolability of the state and class structure and Orthodoxy.

"Seven Boyarshina" - the Moscow boyar government that overthrew Tsar Vasily Shuisky, also swore allegiance to the Polish prince. Moscow put forward its own conditions: Vladislav had to accept Orthodoxy. And to rule in accordance with the Boyar Duma and the Zemsky Sobor. As a result, Moscow was sworn in to the Polish prince.

Here the Polish king overestimated his successes.

I decided it was a complete victory. His troops are in Moscow. And you can dictate your terms. A military dictatorship is being established in the Russian capital. And Sigismund decided to sit on the Russian throne himself.

Russia responded with a national liberation movement.

Moscow was liberated. In 1613, Mikhail Romanov was elected to the throne. But the Troubles continued, as did the war with Poland. The Poles did not recognize the legality of Mikhail's election.

Vladislav was considered the legitimate king. And Vladislav, as the Russian tsar, undertook to transfer Smolensk and the Seversk land of the Commonwealth. And to conclude an indissoluble alliance between Russia and Poland.

Vladislav's campaign to Moscow in 1617–1618. failed.

According to the Deulinsky truce concluded in December 1618, Vladislav did not recognize Mikhail as the legitimate king. The Poles claimed the Russian throne until the end of the Smolensk War of 1632-1634.

Why Moscow did not go to rapprochement with the Commonwealth


This proposal was from "another world" and in the interests of that world.

Russia and Poland represented different civilizations.

The Russian kingdom is an Orthodox, Russian civilization. "Third Rome", inheriting from Byzantium, and at the same time "Great Scythia" and "Horde", the direct heir to the tradition of the ancient northern civilization.

Poland is an instrument of the Western, Catholic world, which tried to suppress and enslave the Russian, Slavic world, to become the "king of the mountain" on the planet. Russia was viewed by the Western world as "India" - a rich land to be plundered and colonized. The Russian faith (the unity of the ancient Russian faith, paganism and Christianity) and culture were striving with all their might to "smooth out" and destroy.

The Polish proposals were aimed at the gradual assimilation, Catholicization, Polonization and Westernization of Russia. The emergence of Catholic churches in Moscow, the implantation of the idea of ​​union with the papal throne, with the gradual subordination of the eastern branch of Christianity to Rome. The training of the boyar sons by the Jesuits. Mixed marriages, with the transition to Latinism. Further - a Catholic on the Russian throne. And the recognition of the supremacy of the papal throne.

Therefore, Polish attempts to create a unified state (with the consistent Westernization of Russia) were rejected.

However, their plan was eventually implemented.

The Russian Empire will return the West Russian lands - the Partitions of the Commonwealth under Catherine the Great. Moreover, after the wars with Napoleon, Russia will annex part of the ethnic Polish lands. Will create the Kingdom of Poland. There will be an opportunity to restore the Slavic world through consistent Russification, elimination of the instruments of influence of the West in the person of Catholicism and the Polish gentry lost to the Slavs.

Following the results of the First World War, Russia could expand the Kingdom of Poland by returning the Slavic lands from Germany and Austria-Hungary. However, the revolution ruined these plans.

A new attempt to restore the unity of the Slavic world and the brotherhood of Russians and Poles (the western glades, relatives of the eastern glades - the Kievans) was made already under Stalin.

Russians and Poles together finished off the Third Reich, took Berlin. Thanks to Stalin, Poland received the western border along the Oder and Neisse, part of West Prussia, Silesia, East Pomerania, Danzig and Szczecin.

Poland became an important member of the Warsaw Pact and the socialist camp.

As a result, Stalin neutralized the millennial weapon West directed against the Russian world.

Unfortunately, after 1991 Poland was returned to the camp of Russia's opponents. And again aimed at the Russian world.
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  1. Far B
    Far B 24 March 2021 04: 52
    +10
    The prospect looked tempting. The Polish-Russian union could take a dominant position in Europe
    For whom did she look tempting? For the one on top? What the fuck is the Polish-Russian union ?! The union presupposes equality, in a single Russian-Polish state no equality could exist by definition. History has proven this.
    Again, citizen Samsonov has some fantasies. Either Baron Ungern turns into a romantic character for him, or the Russoarians inhabit half the earth ... In short, the author needs to switch to books in the genre of alternative history. Moreover, it is urgent. Wanguyu: he can cut down a lot of banknotes on this, patamushta, firstly, the genre is in demand, and secondly, there is nothing to limit the author's imagination at all (although here, it seems, there are no limiters).
    1. parma
      parma 24 March 2021 08: 34
      +5
      I'm more interested in what articles the author will write about Eastern Europe in the 17th century)) when Russians, Tatars, Poles, Swedes and Cossacks slaughtered each other in different coalitions, and the Cossacks were often on both sides)) this is where the revelry for alternative creativity)) )
    2. WHAT IS
      WHAT IS 24 March 2021 10: 40
      +7
      Quote: Dalny V
      What the fuck is the Polish-Russian union ?!

      Ah, I see: to whom fate
      The turmoil of life is destined,
      He stands alone before the storm,
      Don't call your wife.
      It’s not possible to harness one cart
      Horse and quivering doe.
    3. Mother Theresa
      Mother Theresa 24 March 2021 21: 28
      +1
      So the information of the article is taken from the Polish press. Gazeta Wyborcza (Poland): why the Polish-Lithuanian-Moscow union did not appear? 22.03.2021/XNUMX/XNUMX and presenting Poland's view on this issue. The publication presents a fragment from the book “Poland - Russia. History of obsession, obsession with history ", in which the professor of history talks about how the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth made an attempt to come to an agreement with Moscow and create a single state. Why did Moscow not want rapprochement with the Commonwealth and refused this proposal?
  2. apro
    apro 24 March 2021 05: 00
    +4
    Unpromising education, even if we discard the religious components. If John 4 was building a centrolyzed autocratic state, then Poland was stuck in a feudal turmoil, where the strong power of the king became across the throat of the gentry and blocked any state building, even if it infringed on her interests.
    1. Revolver
      Revolver 24 March 2021 08: 27
      +3
      Quote: apro
      Unpromising education, even if we discard the religious components.
      Religion is not to be discarded, because it lies at the root of all contradictions. Poland would not tolerate a non-Catholic king, and Moscow, accordingly, a non-Orthodox king. If not for religion, they would have found a way to come to an agreement, because the geopolitical benefits were too tempting. And Crimea would pay for any compensation and kickbacks, because the first campaign of the united power would be against the khan, and would come to the khan of the khan.
      1. parma
        parma 24 March 2021 09: 41
        0
        Quote: Nagan
        Quote: apro
        Unpromising education, even if we discard the religious components.
        Religion is not to be discarded, because it lies at the root of all contradictions. Poland would not tolerate a non-Catholic king, and Moscow, accordingly, a non-Orthodox king. If not for religion, they would have found a way to come to an agreement, because the geopolitical benefits were too tempting. And Crimea would pay for any compensation and kickbacks, because the first campaign of the united power would be against the khan, and would come to the khan of the khan.

        Tell the Finals and Poles about the problem of religion, who, by the way, were part of the Republic of Ingushetia)) but better study the history of the 17th century - Orthodox Ukrainians quite lived in Catholic Poland, they served in the army, fought with the same Orthodox Russians, and most of the Cossack uprisings because of the register )) if the Cossacks won this year, the register will be expanded, if they lost, they will be reduced)) next year there will be another uprising)) and the Crimean Tatars - this year they are driving Cossacks into slavery in conjunction with the Poles, next year Poles in conjunction with the Cossacks ) on the third, in general, the Poles with the Cossacks go to rob the Tatars)) Eastern Europe of the 16-17th centuries is generally a delicate thing))
        1. depressant
          depressant 24 March 2021 15: 38
          +5
          Cossacks ...
          It was not smooth with this. Yes, there was an area on the outskirts of Poland, where the population was a service class - the Cossacks. Moreover, mostly Orthodox. But if you are Orthodox, then your career opportunities are limited. The preference was given to the Catholic Pole. Discrimination on religious grounds in Poland was present and was a source of disunity among the population.
          At the same time, in the Russian Empire, only the tsar was obliged to be Orthodox. Dignified representatives of all other religions were promoted to generals and ministers. This led not only to a calm neighborhood of peoples of different religions, but also to powerful assimilation processes.
          As for Poland, it could not find a common language even with conditionally "its" Cossacks for hundreds of years. Imagine how the Poles would behave, for example, with the peoples of Siberia and the Far East.

          That is why so?
          Because each type of religion is created (chosen) for the created type of monarchy. Religion cannot be created under any other type of government, except for a monarchy. And people create a monarchy. Initially, perhaps, quite tolerant. But Catholicism is a religion that corresponds to an aggressive expansionist state. Catholicism nourishes this principle in man. It turns out the mutual reinforcement of the aggressive principle in religion and the state. Orthodoxy looks like the opposite of Catholicism in essence. It contains an unwillingness to quarrel. Only when they attack, we fight back. We don't have the principle "Hit first, Freddie!" )))
        2. Revolver
          Revolver 24 March 2021 20: 09
          +2
          Quote: parma
          Tell the Finans and Poles about the problem of religion, who by the way were part of the Republic of Ingushetia

          Well, the kagbe did not ask either one or the other if they wanted to enter, they simply presented it with a fact. The Finns reacted calmly to this, because until then they did not have their own statehood, and they were always ruled by either the Swedes or someone else. The Poles, on the other hand, regularly rebelled against the Russian government. However, they always rebelled against any government, including their own Krul, the right to rokosh was even introduced into the lords' freedoms.
          1. parma
            parma 25 March 2021 08: 00
            +1
            Quote: Nagan
            Quote: parma
            Tell the Finans and Poles about the problem of religion, who by the way were part of the Republic of Ingushetia

            Well, the kagbe did not ask either one or the other if they wanted to enter, they simply presented it with a fact. The Finns reacted calmly to this, because until then they did not have their own statehood, and they were always ruled by either the Swedes or someone else. The Poles, on the other hand, regularly rebelled against the Russian government. However, they always rebelled against any government, including their own Krul, the right to rokosh was even introduced into the lords' freedoms.

            Well kagbe have Poland in the 16-17 century a little more power (oh, those Swedes, Germans, Turks, Tatars, Cossacks and their own lords), the Russian people would not really be asked what they want)
            Well, by the way, Russian Orthodox people constantly rebelled against the Russian and Orthodox tsars)) the problem is not at all in religion, but in the social reality of a single state))

            Quote: depressant
            Cossacks ...
            It was not smooth with this. Yes, there was an area on the outskirts of Poland, where the population was a service class - the Cossacks. Moreover, mostly Orthodox. But if you are Orthodox, then your career opportunities are limited. The preference was given to the Catholic Pole. Discrimination on religious grounds in Poland was present and was a source of disunity among the population.
            At the same time, in the Russian Empire, only the tsar was obliged to be Orthodox. Dignified representatives of all other religions were promoted to generals and ministers. This led not only to a calm neighborhood of peoples of different religions, but also to powerful assimilation processes.
            As for Poland, it could not find a common language even with conditionally "its" Cossacks for hundreds of years. Imagine how the Poles would behave, for example, with the peoples of Siberia and the Far East.

            That is why so?
            Because each type of religion is created (chosen) for the created type of monarchy. Religion cannot be created under any other type of government, except for a monarchy. And people create a monarchy. Initially, perhaps, quite tolerant. But Catholicism is a religion that corresponds to an aggressive expansionist state. Catholicism nourishes this principle in man. It turns out the mutual reinforcement of the aggressive principle in religion and the state. Orthodoxy looks like the opposite of Catholicism in essence. It contains an unwillingness to quarrel. Only when they attack, we fight back. We don't have the principle "Hit first, Freddie!" )))

            That's not necessary about evil Catholics and good Orthodox Christians)) all religions and monarchies (forms of government in principle) are the same .. Persians, Greeks, Romans, Western Europe, Eastern, Middle East, China, Japan - everywhere, regardless of religion, attempts to devour neighbors ... In Japan, the censure of selfishness, envy, etc., is generally put at the head of the corner, but even under the shoguns there were attempts to conquer Korea and China))
            Again, the Cossacks (any-that on the Don, that in Zaporozhye, that in the Urals) - they are considered to be Orthodox (although in Zaporozhye there was generally a mess, I saw statements that there were 40% Orthodox, 30% Catholics, 20% Muslims and up to 10 % of Jews!), but the main occupation was “going for zipuns”, those banal robberies ... where there were + - formed and strong states (Crimea, Turkey, Poland, etc.) - just robbery, where the state was under-formed / weak ( Ural, Siberia, later Central Asia) was the seizure of territories ... do you think Ermak and company brought light and enlightenment? Yes, even in civil war, the Cossacks wanted more to rob the Reds (and not only) than to defeat them, from what they got what they got instead of victory ...
  3. parusnik
    parusnik 24 March 2021 06: 33
    +8
    The Russian kingdom is an Orthodox, Russian civilization. "Third Rome", inheriting from Byzantium, and at the same time "Great Scythia" and "Horde", the direct heir to the tradition of the ancient northern civilization.
    Old songs, about the main thing. laughing
  4. kalibr
    kalibr 24 March 2021 07: 53
    +7
    What can you write? The idea is clear - everything is positive - Stalin. For the author, the idea is fix and it is not worse than others. But ... execution. Not very good. For example, in the last 5 sentences "Stalin" is repeated 4 times. This is overkill. People themselves must come to this idea. No need to "drip on their brains". All advertisers and PR people know that a person needs 7-8 information contacts to make a decision. Then rejection begins. But only if they are smeared over the text of 5000-8000 thousand characters. Here he is commemorated 4 times for 643 characters. This is overkill. It is clear that one cannot know everything in the world, but there are books on the theory and practice of propaganda ... Further. Writing material with "chopped phrases". This was typical of journalism in the past, when people were "hammered" information into the brain. Now they are used to thinking, unobtrusive presentation. To make a decision for yourself ... Taking this into account means writing more or less good materials. Do not take into account - the effect will be exactly the opposite. Judging by most of the comments, the latter is happening.
  5. Daniil Konovalenko
    Daniil Konovalenko 24 March 2021 08: 22
    +3
    Another historical project, according to Samsonov smile
  6. Glory1974
    Glory1974 24 March 2021 09: 38
    +2
    From the point of view of geopolitics, the project had a right to exist. In the end-ends, all of Europe was united in the EU, despite religious and other contradictions.
    But nationalist Poland in those days could not build an equal alliance with someone.
    Currently, from the point of view of geopolitics, Poland needs to build an alliance with Ukraine, then from an economic and military point of view, they will represent something. But the same nationalist prejudices will hinder both Ukraine and Poland.
  7. north 2
    north 2 24 March 2021 10: 39
    +3
    First.
    It was from the time of Ivan the Terrible that Russia began the demise of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, the Kingdom of Poland and then the Commonwealth, as one of the greatest dangers, after the Tatar-Mongol yoke, for Russia. As a result, and after Poland wanted to shove its Sigismund III on the Russian throne, in less than a hundred years from the largest state of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and from the Kingdom of Poland, only memories were obtained, for which Russia from the small Moscow Kingdom grew to the largest and powerful empire in the world. This is a reminder to today's Poland and Lithuania of how their plans for a campaign against Moscow or a coup in Russia end. To what microscopic sizes Poland and Lithuania will shrink if they again decide to march on Russia, one can only imagine ...
    The second one.
    Only when the Jagiellons came to power in Poland, only since then did the relationship between the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, Poland and Russia become clearly hostile, with the plans of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and Poland to deprive the Moscow Kingdom of independence, thereby putting an end to both the Russian state and the plans for the Russian Empire. But while the Gediminovichi were in power in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. then there was no such enmity between the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, Poland and Russia. Although the case of the case of the princes of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and fought with the princes of Russia and Moscow. This is evidenced by the majestic monument TO THE MILLENNIUM OF RUSSIA in Novgorod. On it, among the most famous and honored people in the construction of the Russian state, among the figures of Rurik, Vladimir Svyatoslavovich, Dmitry Donskoy, Ivan the Third, etc., there are figures of the Gediminovichs, the princes of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania Gedimin, Ogerd, Vitovt. Keistut.
    The third.
    It was Jagiello who baptized the Grand Duchy of Lithuania into Catholicism, and Poland was baptized into Catholicism long before Jagiello. So any project of the empire of Poland-Russia under the rule of the Jagiellons in Poland would mean the end of Orthodoxy in Russia and the end of the statehood of Russia
    1. ANB
      ANB 24 March 2021 19: 03
      0
      Note: Yagailo, in fact, was also a Gedeminovich.
      1. north 2
        north 2 24 March 2021 19: 51
        0
        Jagiello was the founder of the Jagiello dynasty. Being from the Gediminovich family, Jagiello founded a dynasty of his own name, and after that, in order to separate these completely different and in many ways even opposite dynasties, the history of the dynasty from Jagiello began to be called Jagiellons. Although Jagailo himself was the grandson of Gediminas, the founder of the Gediminovich dynasty. So on the MILLENNIUM OF RUSSIA monument there are four representatives of the Gediminovich dynasty among the most honored and greatest in the creation of the Russian state, and not a single one from the Jagiellonian dynasty. And what the Jagiellons and Poland and Lithuania under the Jagiellonian rule "annoyed" Russia, I wrote in my comment above, and you yourself know
  8. Maks1995
    Maks1995 24 March 2021 11: 15
    +6
    Again all sorts of idealistic fantasies.

    But in fact, look at Poland, look at Russia, or look at Lithuania - everyone fought with everyone around.
    And all sorts of pretexts - the unification of lands, were then invented to whitewash the bloody squabbles and robberies.

    That Poland - Germans, Swedes, Moscow, Turks, Austrians, Novgorod, formerly Lithuania - fought among themselves, and smaller feudal vassals came running.

    That Russia is in a circle.
    That Lithuania, Kazan, Crimea, Turks - all are cut in a circle with others ...
  9. iouris
    iouris 24 March 2021 13: 30
    -2
    The project of creating a Polish-Russian empire failed. Poland is not allowed to create an empire. The Russians are destroying their empire all the way. They create and destroy. Like a child in a sandbox. But this cannot be done endlessly: there are other projects as well.
  10. nnm
    nnm 24 March 2021 19: 22
    0
    There are a lot of factors left outside the article. Well, what kind of union can we talk about, keeping in mind how Poland tried to get Novgorod (one of the richest cities in Europe at that time) with intrigues and bribery? Well, what kind of union can we talk about, if it was Poland of that time that launched Russophobia by ordering, paying and publishing the "memoirs" of world-scale crooks about the "horrors" of the oprichnina. About Russian - Polish 1577-1582 practically silent. Sigismund only tried to arrange for himself the appearance of negotiations, but absolutely no serious negotiations on an alliance were conducted.
  11. smaug78
    smaug78 24 March 2021 21: 04
    +2
    Reading the Samsonovs and other Irins, a strong feeling arises that Topwar is working off the money of the United States and other enemies .. Since to manage to slander the history of your country in this way, you have to try ...
    1. north 2
      north 2 24 March 2021 22: 08
      -1
      that's right, the history of Russia is not what the Samsonovs told, but what happened. And what happened is evidenced by the archives and historical works of the most famous academicians. And the Samsonovs did not rummage through the archives and does not rely on the works of the great academicians. In any case, the article does not contain more than one reference to this. But if you read, watch and listen to lectures by such historians as Spitsyn or the recently deceased Pyzhikov, then there are either links to which archive the material was found in or links to historical works and conclusions of their great academic colleagues.
      And why shouldn't Topwar pamper us with articles by at least the same historian Spitsyn?
      1. Essex62
        Essex62 25 March 2021 13: 18
        -1
        Academicians are holding on to false fabrications about the reliability of "historical events" with their teeth. For often having false primary sources. Written centuries ago, it is impossible to believe by definition, because the system of power, a society built on the principle of primogeniture is deceitful and disgusting. That the tsar, the prince-godfather of bandyukov needs to draw. There is no such science, history, something that cannot be confirmed by factual material, and this is possible only if there is a time machine and the transparency of the data from it, not science. Not physics, not chemistry, or even oceanography. The maximum they are capable of digging shards and arrowheads. And even then these are archaeologists, practitioners from history. Obsalyutno accurately designated these comrades Kalibr-propagandists.
  12. Sychev Vitalii
    Sychev Vitalii 28 May 2021 21: 27
    0
    West is West, East is East, and they will not leave their places ...