Military Review

When nails come into play

84
When nails come into play

72 Nail



For the first time I read about them in V. Pikul's novel "Barbarossa":

“And I'm not joking, reader: Mussolini hammered 72 nails into the boot of an Italian soldier - no more and no less, this is exactly what the charter of the fascist army commanded, and General Giovanni Messe, already demoted, argued to Hugo Cavaliero:

- It's good for parades!

But it is absurd in the conditions of the Eastern Front: during periods of Russian frosts, these nails, having frozen, will squeeze the soldier's leg in an icy grip. "

To be honest, I did not attach any importance to this before.

And I remembered only now, when I began to prepare the material.

What is one capacious word to describe the shoes of the Italian infantryman of the Second World War?

The inhabitants of the Apennine Peninsula themselves suggested:

"Cardboard"!

Looking ahead, I will say right away - this is not so.

The losers are just always looking for an excuse.

The Germans attributed the failures on the Eastern Front at the end of 1941 to the autumn thaw and early frosts.

And the Italians blamed obsolescence for the defeat of their 8th army weapons, mules (which they used instead of transport vehicles) and ... boots.

On the Internet, stories are still circulating that Italian soldiers on the Eastern Front got cardboard shoes. In part, these rumors were born due to the fact that it was at that time that artificial materials began to appear in production technology. And not only in Italy.

And mostly Italians grumbled because later in the warehouses were found sufficient stocks of army shoes (which were so lacking on the front line to at least change shoes). The front-line soldiers themselves suspected the intendants of poor-quality supplies.

Boots of the Italian Conquerors


So in what way did the unsuccessful conquerors try to set foot on foreign lands?

В leather boots of medium height. The number of round eyelets is eight. Open lacing. Color - light brown. With darker reinforcements on the toes.

There is a photo where the back had the same color. By the way, it is quite developed, going far to the sides, like the French model of the 1917 model.

All seams are double. The connection of the top and bottom is reinforced with a rivet.

Sole. Leather, with the same heel. It was in it that 72 nails were nailed. And what kind! Three (!) Types. With hemispherical, pentahedral and tetrahedral heads.

The photo will explain a lot. You can count. A couple is missing, but the places of the old mountings are visible.


Frostbitten legs


All this "scrap metal" played a terrible role in the winter of 1942-1943 in the defeat of the Italian expeditionary forces in Russia.

According to the recollections of the participants of that inglorious campaign, through the holes punched with thorns, moisture was collected in the boots, which simply froze in the cold, leading to frostbite of the feet.

Unfortunately, I could not find the text of an article by an Italian journalist, in which the veteran told how that winter he wanted to shake a stone out of his boot that got in there and interfered with his walking. To his horror, his finger fell on the frozen ground! This saved his life - the soldier was evacuated to the rear, and later to his homeland. For him, the war is over.

By the way, not all Italians got cold feet.

The Monte Cervino battalion suffered the least from frostbite. The soles of their shoes were rubber. Vibram firms.

Here we need to make a small digression.

Bramani all-over sole


Vitale Bramani was a mountaineer. In 1935, he led a group of climbers to climb several peaks in the Italian Alps. At first, the weather was favorable for the climbers, but during the ascent of Punta Rasica (a narrow ridge with a height of 3305 m), a strong and prolonged blizzard began. It was the boots that became one of the factors that killed the six members of the group.

In those days, climbers used heavy boots with a hard soles lined with boot nails to cross relatively flat terrain. And for steeper areas - lightweight boots with flexible and thin felt soles.

They made it possible to feel the rocky relief well, but did not provide sufficient protection from cold and moisture. And if the soles got wet, then at subzero temperatures the icy felt simply slipped along the rocky relief. So further ascent and descent became impossible.

After this tragedy, Vitale Bramani decided to create a universal sole suitable for different terrain.

And in 1937 he patented the Carrarmato rubber outsole, which in Italian means "straight ahead."

He started the production of such soles with the help of the Pirelli Tire Company. As a trademark, the inventor chose an abbreviation from his name and surname (Vitale Bramani) - Vibram.

Ready to see the protector?


Now look at the soles of your boots ...
Author:
Photos used:
lagranderupe.altervista.org, forma-odezhda.ru, lostiledeglieroi.it, historiaregni.it
84 comments
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  1. Machito
    Machito 16 February 2021 15: 09
    +13
    Barefoot out of greed, the Russians went to seize the snow. And she went to the other world to wait in the heat of Aloizych.
    1. Mister X
      Mister X 17 February 2021 09: 36
      +3
      Quote: Bearded
      Barefoot from greed went Russian snow to capture

      hi
      Interestingly, the fighters of the "Monte Cervino" battalion managed to distinguish themselves in the winter campaign of 1942-1943?
      Did the Vibram rubber-soled shoes help them?
      They also had funny feather headdresses.
      Even on the helmet there is a feather.





      1. kamakama
        kamakama 18 February 2021 10: 17
        +1
        Feathers were worn by bersagliers - they are indeed elite mountain rifle units, there are several regiments of them and they were supplied at the highest level. Moreover, Mussolini himself served in WWI in their ranks and they did not leave their commander when the last days of the fascist regime came https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bersaglieri And they also have a cool marching band, unique in its kind
      2. andretry
        andretry 18 February 2021 10: 57
        +1
        Alpine airborne battalion "Monte Cervino" ("Matterhorn") - a special unit for specific tasks.
        To get into the battalion, you had to be a volunteer, a bachelor and have excellent ski skills.
        The best weapons and equipment were used, including new Vibram sole boots and Persenico skis.
        As planned, in Russia they were used for reconnaissance and patrol operations, but in reality they were like a rescue group, plugging breakthroughs in the defense. On January 16, 1943, the battalion, defending the command of the Alpine Army Corps, was surrounded in the city of Rossosh, and was completely destroyed. Of the prisoners, only fifteen people returned home from the camps.
        here about them
        https://wnjfazs6dw4tl46hkircvant3e--it-m-wikipedia-org.translate.goog/wiki/Battaglione_alpini_sciatori_%27%27Monte_Cervino%27%27
    2. seregatara1969
      seregatara1969 17 February 2021 11: 11
      +2
      Wore boots with such a sole - it holds well for the snow
      1. Civil
        Civil 17 February 2021 11: 57
        0
        Quote: seregatara1969
        Wore boots with such a sole - it holds well for the snow

        There were also boots with this pattern ... wow.
        Author - the article needs to be completed ...
  2. Mustachioed Georgian
    Mustachioed Georgian 16 February 2021 15: 10
    +21
    Interesting, but somehow the article broke off in mid-sentence
    1. Flooding
      Flooding 16 February 2021 15: 17
      +5
      Quote: Mustachioed Georgian
      Interesting, but somehow the article broke off in mid-sentence

      Intrigues the reader. I've already bitten my fingernail to the meat: what's next?
    2. Konnick
      Konnick 16 February 2021 15: 34
      +15
      What's next? Have you looked at the soles of your boots, such soles are used all over the world. If you do not have shoes, then go to the nearest shoe and I am sure that the store will have shoes with such soles. Even our army has such a pattern. I had Hyundai boots with such a sole. I wore it for 10 years at work, I erased the entire drawing, although there was a sole made of high-quality dense rubber, not plastic. Wow, now I will know.
      1. Humpty
        Humpty 16 February 2021 16: 21
        +13
        Quote: Konnick
        Even our army has such a pattern. I had Hyundai boots with such a sole. I wore it for 10 years at work, I erased the entire drawing, although there was a sole made of high-quality dense rubber, not plastic. IN

        Man, the sole pattern is now very common. It is important who produced it. The sole with such a pattern was erased without counting. But with a real Vibram sole, I did not erase a single one, although I tried from the heart.
      2. pmkemcity
        pmkemcity 17 February 2021 05: 54
        +3
        In Soviet times, I overheard the conversation of workers from the Kemerovo state district power station, who had recently arrived in Libya from a trip abroad. We worked at MAZs, which were supplied to the Libyans as well. So, they said that the Libyans praised our cars very much, but they immediately threw out the rubber and put Pirelli on, which ours used, picking up new slopes.
  3. Alien From
    Alien From 16 February 2021 15: 12
    +8
    Thanks to the Leader!) But intriguing as always ..... good
    1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
      Kote Pan Kokhanka 17 February 2021 07: 19
      +7
      I join! Igor is a great fellow, reveals one after another interesting and untouched topics about military shoes.
      Resolve the question, about boots and cloaks will be?
      P.s. Rationalization proposal of the administration of the Military Review - isn't it time to move the author's series of articles to the History section?
      Regards, Kote!
      1. Alien From
        Alien From 17 February 2021 10: 02
        +2
        If the Leader starts writing an article, then everything will be beautiful. We wait!
      2. Korsar4
        Korsar4 17 February 2021 22: 18
        +3
        He looked in by chance now - and admired. One story with a dropped finger is worth it.
  4. Virus-free crown
    Virus-free crown 16 February 2021 15: 15
    +8
    About 72 nails - these are "hot Italian guys" got excited, of course))) It can be seen, at least at minus 25, that now in the Moscow region now, they did not walk on the street laughing

    But the Vibram protector impressed me personally !!! I want these !!! good
    1. Simargl
      Simargl 17 February 2021 05: 15
      +1
      Quote: Corona without virus
      It can be seen, at least at minus 25 that it is now in the Moscow region now, they did not walk on the street
      The frost itself is not so terrible as the moment of crossing zero: it is not the nails that freeze, but the holes through which the water enters the boot: I somehow cracked the sole in winter, at -25C I did not even notice ... but as soon as it got warmer down to -5C somewhere - it's just torment: the foot is wet.
  5. Gato
    Gato 16 February 2021 15: 17
    +5
    Here they are - the descendants of the caligae, in which their ancestors (Italians, not shoes) conquered half the world laughing
    1. Flooding
      Flooding 16 February 2021 15: 22
      +5
      Quote: Gato
      Here they are - the descendants of the caligae, in which their ancestors (Italians, not shoes) conquered half the world laughing

      Ecumene.
      1. Gato
        Gato 16 February 2021 15: 32
        +3
        Ecumene.

        Well, yes, peace in the then sense.
    2. kamakama
      kamakama 18 February 2021 10: 27
      +2
      I am personally deeply concerned about the question - how to stand in such sandals in the garrison in winter, say, on the Upper Rhine, in Helvetia (now Switzerland)? Well, or Nizhny, this does not change the essence, I am silent about the Adrian shaft in Britain. I understand the climatic optimum and everything, but at a temperature of +10 and below it is uncomfortable in sandals
      1. kamakama
        kamakama 18 February 2021 11: 26
        +1

        Here is such a reconstructed shoe of Roman legionnaires. It looks better than on a bare leg, but questions still remain. Until the first serious rain at +5 - +10 degrees, then - trench foot and disability
        1. Gato
          Gato 18 February 2021 12: 13
          0
          As you can imagine, this is not the only reconstruction. There are also other archaeological finds and their reconstructions. By the way, footcloths (fascia) and lice, so beloved by personnel, are also probably a Roman invention:


          1. kamakama
            kamakama 18 February 2021 12: 23
            0
            In the middle picture there is something like a gaiter, already much better. It is a pity that the fur does not live long and it will not work to dig it out of the ground. I think the localities did not bother with uniforms and used "footcloths" with fur inside. It's inconvenient to run, but that's why the concept of "winter apartments" existed.
  6. Flooding
    Flooding 16 February 2021 15: 21
    +5
    But Igor did not write anything about shoe sizes. And suddenly it became interesting to me.
    1. Mordvin 3
      Mordvin 3 16 February 2021 16: 07
      +6
      Quote: Flood
      But Igor did not write anything about shoe sizes. And suddenly it became interesting to me.

      Yes, I also wondered why it was my 44st size under the USSR, and XNUMX under capitalism
      1. Simargl
        Simargl 17 February 2021 05: 18
        +3
        Quote: Mordvin 3
        why was it my 44st size under the USSR, and under capitalism it became XNUMX
        It's okay! Once I changed my sneakers - the Chinese 49th came up to my 433rd ...
        There are at least a dozen size lines. By the way, we do not have a full foot, but the real bourgeoisie do.
        1. Mordvin 3
          Mordvin 3 17 February 2021 05: 22
          +1
          Quote: Simargl
          the Chinese 49th came up to my 433rd ...

          Four hundred and thirty-third size? That's cool!
          1. Simargl
            Simargl 17 February 2021 08: 40
            +1
            Quote: Mordvin 3
            That's cool!
            Himself in shock: the 43rd, it seems, was ... hands are probably shaking.
  7. Avior
    Avior 16 February 2021 15: 21
    +15
    Italians have boots made of nails with a small addition of other materials.
    Good article. Soon we will be the shoe specialists from WWII smile
    1. Uncle lee
      Uncle lee 16 February 2021 15: 39
      +7
      Quote: Avior
      made of nails

      A long time ago, Bath was given a blank for chrome boots. He gave the order to a shoemaker, and he himself prepared WOODEN nails, from aspen ... These are the lame ones they sewed for him, who could not be demolished ...
  8. Destiny
    Destiny 16 February 2021 15: 22
    +16
    I'm not kidding, reader: Mussolini hammered 72 nails into the boot of an Italian soldier

    Well, they began to hammer them even before Mussolini, this is a model of the First World War, 1912. 72 spikes in the sole, completely leather, low. Ordinary units had windings for their boots. The bootlegs were worn by those who, on duty, had to fiddle with mechanisms - the gunners , motorcyclists, cyclists, tankers. They (not artillerymen with cyclists - boots))) are made of tanned 3-millimeter leather, they protect their legs well. them to Russia, after all, these shoes are for more familiar TVDs in Europe and Africa, so they froze in our place. By the way, I did not see "to be continued."
    1. The leader of the Redskins
      16 February 2021 15: 30
      +23
      There will, I hope, be continued. Submitted for editing today)
      Well, thanks to everyone who commented - I always try to take into account the comments.
      1. tihonmarine
        tihonmarine 16 February 2021 15: 48
        +9
        Quote: Leader of the Redskins
        There will, I hope, continue.

        Thanks for the article, we are waiting for the continuation.
      2. Doctor Evil
        Doctor Evil 16 February 2021 15: 53
        +9
        Quote: Leader of the Redskins
        There will, I hope, be continued. Submitted for editing today)
        Well, thanks to everyone who commented - I always try to take into account the comments.

        Thank you for the article. Will there be anything on Romanian shoes? They did not come to conquer us in bast shoes.
      3. Virus-free crown
        Virus-free crown 16 February 2021 16: 21
        +4
        Quote: Leader of the Redskins
        There will, I hope, be continued. Submitted for editing today)
        Well, thanks to everyone who commented - I always try to take into account the comments.

        Thank you for the article!!! drinks
        I have a simple question, who thought of boots from the camp of the enemy in WWII? repeat
        1. The leader of the Redskins
          16 February 2021 16: 40
          +8
          Both the Germans and the Italians had options, but the latter turned out sadly - while the ossified supply machine was swinging, no one needed them in the cold lands. And, judging by the images, that shoe was still there - it is understandable, for the first time they were "molded".
      4. Phil77
        Phil77 16 February 2021 19: 33
        +5
        Thank you Igor! I am reading your cycle with great interest.
        Traditional I look forward to continuing! hi
      5. Avior
        Avior 16 February 2021 21: 13
        +4
        Thank you for the interesting topic, and its systematized and complete coverage in the form of a whole cycle - everything is on the case and without "water".
  9. Gato
    Gato 16 February 2021 15: 25
    +10
    During World War II, the Italians were beaten by all and sundry. Only the Ethiopians were lazy, so only with them the "new Romans" fought almost on an equal footing.
    If it were not for the X flotilla, the pacifism of macaroni would become a household name. wassat
  10. Petrik66
    Petrik66 16 February 2021 15: 43
    +10
    The Italians in WWI ran from the Austrians and the Germans across the Alps, there was a lot of snow, and were there frosts? In general, even those wars. Only the Borghese swimmers were fine, but they had fins,))))
    1. Humpty
      Humpty 16 February 2021 16: 32
      +4
      Quote: Petrik66
      The Italians in WWI ran from the Austrians and the Germans across the Alps, there was a lot of snow, and were there frosts? In general, even those wars. Only the Borghese swimmers were fine, but they had fins,))))

      You are simply not personally acquainted with anyone from the Borghese family. But the joke is that among the Borghese over the past 150 years there have been many well-known climbers. There is also a living one. Lives in Vaduz.
      1. Petrik66
        Petrik66 16 February 2021 17: 21
        +4
        Hmm, I confess - not familiar. Then it is strange that two hybrids were not born in the inflamed minds of the Italian military: fins with cats and mountain boots transformers for swimming.
        1. Humpty
          Humpty 16 February 2021 17: 52
          +2
          Quote: Petrik66
          fins with crampons and mountain boots transformers for swimming.

          They probably lacked humor. We had a pair of old clipped fins with clipped "toes". Walk on wet sand or snow. Yeti tracks were very believable.
  11. Catfish
    Catfish 16 February 2021 15: 45
    +8
    Now look at the soles of your boots ...


    Abbaldet !!! How many years have I been carrying different shoes of different companies with a similar sole, for thirty years already I have heard "Vibram", and only now I know what it is.
    Thanks Igor! smile drinks
    1. The leader of the Redskins
      16 February 2021 16: 03
      +12
      When I found out myself, I remembered two pairs that I was wearing with such "patterns")))
      1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
        Kote Pan Kokhanka 17 February 2021 07: 33
        +6
        Igor, surprisingly, you managed to sincerely interest members of the forum in the "shoe topic". Almost a day later, not a single negative comment !!!
        Thank you very much!
  12. tihonmarine
    tihonmarine 16 February 2021 15: 47
    +5
    Now look at the soles of your boots ...

    I have English boots (not combatant) the sole is identical, only the front part with 10 screws, 4 in the center, and the heel 8. The relief is one to one, but the release of 1998.
    1. 113262a
      113262a 16 February 2021 22: 51
      +2
      Yes. On English summer deserts, just such a protector! One to one!
  13. Doctor Evil
    Doctor Evil 16 February 2021 15: 57
    +7
    "Now look at the soles of your boots ..."
    That's it, Mikhalych ... I have some ankle boots with such a sole. Everything is fine, only sometimes small pebbles get stuck. Then you clatter like a horse with horseshoes.
    1. boris epstein
      boris epstein 16 February 2021 16: 40
      +4
      Not only you clatter, but the anti-icy fine gravel first knocks out the grooves between the protuberances of the tread, and then pierces the sole itself, if you do not poke it out in time.
    2. Catfish
      Catfish 16 February 2021 16: 53
      +8
      And you are friends with large Pebbles, or better with Lenka or Tanya, let them clatter their hooves. wink drinks
  14. Fitter65
    Fitter65 16 February 2021 16: 40
    +5
    Now look at the soles of your boots ...
    It's cool, on my taiga "boots" the protector is one-to-one, though Chinese, but this year there will be 3 season ...
  15. Free wind
    Free wind 16 February 2021 16: 51
    +5
    Felt is a felt made of goat or rabbit down, the material is expensive and delicate, I don’t understand how to make shoe soles from it. All these problems with nails and frostbite are treated simply with a warm insole. And there were no frosts from 0 to -20 degrees until the new 1942. How could you feel a pebble in a shoe and not notice that your toe fell off? Before frostbite, pain is usually very severe. Most likely the Italian shot himself a finger so as not to fight.
    1. ycuce234-san
      ycuce234-san 17 February 2021 13: 59
      +1
      At the beginning of its history, two categories of people were actually engaged in mountaineering: the Italian poor, for example, shepherds or highlanders, who could climb the rocks barefoot, and the rich and wealthy aristocrats, for whom the shoe was a consumable at a time and which was given after the ascent to the shoemaker for repairs or thrown away. The tires of their modern ideological followers, too, can be used only once in auto racing. Felt rock shoes were needed by crowned climbers for safety reasons - in order to feel the rock with their feet and not injure them.

      But, of course, technological solutions for shoes from a modern point of view are more than strange: ancient wooden nails that swell in water could be used and wire ice drifts could be used. In those days they were familiar with barbed wire for a long time, but they did not guess that from such a wire it is possible to industrially complete bare shoes with anti-slip knitted wire ice drifts (removable and replaceable, simple and maintainable).
  16. businessv
    businessv 16 February 2021 17: 01
    +3
    Now look at the soles of your boots ...
    Class article! Too bad it's short! Igor, thank you very much! good
  17. Nikodim
    Nikodim 16 February 2021 17: 59
    +4
    Thanks for a very interesting shoe cycle. good
    On my own behalf, I would like to add that, to summarize, the military boots of the European armies were made according to the classical design - the welted method of connecting the top with the sole, a leather sole, a stacked heel made of several layers of leather. In combat conditions, such footwear, as they say, "did not go" - it turned out that a rubber sole is better than a leather one, welt fastening is expensive to manufacture, etc. At present, according to that classic, one might even say archaic design, only classic shoes of the middle and high price range are sewn - from $ 150 and above
  18. Dimide
    Dimide 16 February 2021 18: 02
    +2
    Rather, Italian boots were designed for a completely different theater of operations. If I am not mistaken, Italians have always fought in warmer regions.
    I myself prefer Timberland, boots for the fourth season and at least the same amount pass
    I don’t remember who said that I’m not rich enough to wear cheap shoes
    Respect to the author for broadening his horizons!
  19. mmaxx
    mmaxx 16 February 2021 18: 05
    +6
    Wow, I found out where the name of the company came from. For 15 years I have been trying to buy boots with vibram soles, but from different companies. I haven't demolished one yet. Boots are torn, become unusable, but the sole is difficult to kill. True, there are still light vibrams. They are not as durable. One pair of these was hit precisely on the sole. But it was easier. And it didn't last long under the backpack.
    There used to be no normal rubber for the outsole. So they used all kinds of nails and so on for the leather soles. General Frost took revenge. Yes, and in such shoes, once to climb into the snow and not warm up later in the room = frostbite. What are they thinking about in Europe?
    Being there and seeing Europeans here, I see their frivolous attitude to the cold. I got the impression that they think that it is enough to be patient a little and the cold will end. And we are the opposite. When it gets colder, we dress even stronger. And when it gets warmer, we wear warm for a long time. Going out into the cold in light clothes is the norm. We have been taught by life wink laughing
    The Italians, seeing -25 degrees on our thermometer, laughed that at -5 children were not allowed to school, and at -10 adults could already sit at home (take administrative leave), warning their superiors at work. But they walked in their jackets, not speeding up their pace. They froze like tsutsiki, but did nothing to make it warmer.
    1. ycuce234-san
      ycuce234-san 17 February 2021 14: 37
      +1
      For the pros, an easy attitude to the cold does not apply - it is enough to review the photo with Umberto Nobile.
      And in general, there are much more Italian polar explorers of the early 20th century than they think - there is even an article about them on the net - "Towards the Strategy of the Italian Republic in the Arctic". Italians are a nation of travelers; it's just that their great travelers of the past obscure almost our contemporaries.
  20. Pamir
    Pamir 16 February 2021 21: 14
    +6
    Duce, was an odious and impulsive figure in Italy. His bersagliers were shod in boots with 72 nails, no more, no less, which cost many feet. When he was shown not the model winter shoes of the Red Army, felt boots, he laughed heartily, but the IRGC there was no laughing matter.
    From the memoirs of Franz Zapp (Austrian) from the 44th Infantry Division, communications company, in the book "Prisoner of Stalingrad", the beginning of the third winter in captivity,
    "Winter came. Every night it got colder. The Russians gave us winter clothes: real Russian felt boots without a single piece of skin, quilts, wadded trousers and fur hats. I got a white Siberian sheepskin hat and a German flight jacket with a hood, which; In severe frost and blizzard, he pulled on a quilted jacket and a fur hat, only the eyes, the tip of the nose * and part of the cheeks remained open. For the shag I bought mittens made of hare fur. All the prisoners were dressed very warmly. Despite the good equipment, winter gave me a lot of trouble and anxiety. Again I started having diarrhea, I ended up in the infirmary and lost my job as a camp electrician. " And further ,"
    Once I was sent to the apartment of the camp commandant, Captain Barbasov. There the "boiler" had to be repaired. However, I did not know what kind of device it was. Sepp went with me, his help might be needed. The captain's wife was already standing at the door and waiting for me. She had a small child, she wanted to bathe him, but there was no hot water, the "boiler" deteriorated. She showed me a sheet metal structure, a bakelite pad and a wire with a plug. It was a Russian invention that I had only heard of until now - ingeniously simple, effective, but also dangerous if mishandled. She kept repeating the words: "Kaput boiler". I took a close look at this thing and realized that a bakelite spacer was separating two tin plates, each of which was attached to an insulated
    wire If this device is placed in a vessel with water, the current passes through the water and heats it due to resistance: At this time, you must not ignite a fire, as the oxyhydrogen gas formed during heating can flare up. Omit in. hand water is also impossible - you will get under the current. The Russians knew this and were careful. I fixed the contacts on the plates, and the young mother (she was about twenty years old and her husband about forty) was happy. She immediately turned on the device, and soon the water in the bucket began to boil. Now we are all convinced that it is serviceable, but I warned about precautions.
    We learn? Bulbululator by students? Highly cultured, sometimes lost in inventions in their opinion low cultured.
    Sometimes, brilliant, simple. Interesting and instructive memories of Zappa's captivity. He apparently went through his Calvary with teaching.
    1. Avior
      Avior 17 February 2021 08: 42
      +2
      this is not a bulbulator
      Bulbululator is a bong, smoking device
      And in this case, the electrode boiler is described.
      https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Электродный_котёл
      in the army, we made this from 2 shaving blades, thread, several matches and a piece of wire - boil tea in a jar or mug
      The Germans in the army called them Atomino
      https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atomino_(Kocher)
      known for a very long time, he did not represent any novelties during the war, they were known long before the war, and were produced industrially, including both large and small boilers. in those days it was especially widely used

      this is 1940 release.
  21. certero
    certero 17 February 2021 02: 13
    +2
    Quote: Humpty
    But with a real Vibram sole, I did not erase a single one, although I tried from the heart.

    It is erased in a year or two. The northface track shoe only has a vibram outsole. Washable in 2 seasons or in 1 intensive
    1. Humpty
      Humpty 17 February 2021 09: 04
      0
      Quote: certero
      It is erased in a year or two. The northface track shoe only has a vibram outsole. Washable in 2 seasons or in 1 intensive

      Nordface has seen only Chinese for many years. On the sole there is an inscription "Vibram", but no sense. Lorries used to wear 2 pairs per season. Then I began to wear better shoes. But the most modern is not. Old Reichl, Dachstein skiing model, yellow boots, Alpina as an easy mountain version, and Vansport almost finished off. In Vansports, honestly, nowhere did my feet get cold.
    2. Ben Gunn
      Ben Gunn 17 February 2021 12: 08
      +2
      Because there are a lot of fakes now. You try to demolish the American army Vibram, you will be surprised) Given that I spend a lot of time on my feet and the weight is well over 100 kg, this sole does not demolish.
    3. mmaxx
      mmaxx 17 February 2021 15: 30
      0
      Heavy vibram is worth it. But I don't walk on stones. And I abandoned my backpacks long ago.
  22. Glory1974
    Glory1974 17 February 2021 09: 11
    0
    Sole. Leather, with the same heel. It was in it that 72 nails were nailed.

    I don't understand how it was possible to walk on nails. In school, I stuffed horseshoes on chrome boots for force. I walked clatter on the concrete parade ground. But it was uncomfortable to walk, the "springy" effect of the heel was lost. On the ground, this was not felt.
    Moisture penetrates through the nail holes. Even in Italy, temperatures are below zero in winter. The foot will get wet and freeze, no insole will save you.
    1. your1970
      your1970 17 February 2021 12: 34
      +3
      Quote: glory1974
      I don't understand how one could walk on nails

      In CA, the rubber soles of tarpaulin boots were also on nails.
  23. certero
    certero 17 February 2021 09: 23
    +1
    Quote: Humpty
    Nordface has seen only Chinese for many years. On the sole there is an inscription "Vibram", but no sense.

    What's the difference? Almost everything is made in China .. However, northface is produced in China and Vietnam and Malaysia. It doesn't matter, the firm is the firm.
    1. Humpty
      Humpty 17 February 2021 13: 58
      0
      Quote: certero
      However, northface is produced in China and Vietnam and Malaysia. It doesn't matter, the firm is the firm.

      Once we had 6 Nordface tents, the British left them until the fabric was completely burned out. I know the local dealer Nordface, she filled up the NATO bases in Afghanistan with these clothes and shoes, naturally made in China, the Italian hucksters quickly realized and began to resell it in Italy. Send complaints from buyers to England.
      It turned out that the license was sold to the Chinese somehow cleverly with the right to sell the goods only in Asian countries. The joke went about the Chinese gortex - it doesn't blow, doesn't get wet, doesn't breathe.
      The Czechs have Hannah production in China, but they do it well, especially clothes with "welded" seams.
      Of the specialized shoes, I still prefer Italian ones, they fit well on my feet.
    2. mmaxx
      mmaxx 17 February 2021 15: 32
      +1
      Something I was not lucky with Northface. Now I have nothing to do with her. Simply put: not worth the money.
  24. wow
    wow 17 February 2021 12: 50
    +2
    I was surprised not by the number of nails on the sole, but by the presence of feathers on the helmets! Pancake peacocks !!!
  25. Ben Gunn
    Ben Gunn 17 February 2021 12: 56
    +4
    Thanks to the author for another interesting material. It turns out a very good cycle of articles, I read it with pleasure.
    In practice, he himself is familiar with the relatively modern Italian military shoes, namely, with the boots of Italian parachutists. These are the following (photo taken from the Internet for example):



    Shoes of amazing quality and comfort, I had to keep it on for a long time and at the same time my legs felt very good. I could not get them wet even in frankly bestial conditions. But how cold they are) It would seem that the skin is in two layers, but just below zero - and in them it is already really sad and in general I don't want to fight with anyone)
    1. mmaxx
      mmaxx 17 February 2021 15: 35
      +3
      Still, warm footwear is primarily a normal sole - thick and with a warm insole and an upper that provides heat transfer. Another would be to remove this lousy gortex from modern shoes and that's it. What enemy came up with this?
      1. Ben Gunn
        Ben Gunn 17 February 2021 15: 52
        +2
        Marketers. They shove him everywhere in order to raise the price, to the place and out of place. And if the shoes are made of really high quality leather - then the fuck is not needed at all.
        1. mmaxx
          mmaxx 17 February 2021 16: 34
          +2
          I have already spoken about this to sellers many times. They start singing songs about how wonderful it is. And then I spoil this song for them. A piece of this film increases the price by one and a half times. And spoils everything. Once upon a time it was still possible to buy the same model with and without a membrane.
          1. Ben Gunn
            Ben Gunn 17 February 2021 18: 17
            +3
            It is especially wonderful that even manufacturers admit that gortex in shoes lives for a year, two at most. But the price tag lifts bless you.
    2. Mikhail3
      Mikhail3 18 February 2021 09: 10
      +1
      Are these skydiver's boots? As far as you can see, there is no support for different shins. Very strange. That is, if the top of the boot is not filled with muscle, you cannot pull them down, as in ordinary ankle boots? If I am higher than the standard for which the boots were made, and my muscle is located higher, then the shin of the boots no longer protects? Brilliant.
      1. Ben Gunn
        Ben Gunn 18 February 2021 11: 38
        0
        This in the photo the bootleg seems so wide, in reality everything is pulled there normally.
  26. Mikhail3
    Mikhail3 18 February 2021 09: 04
    +2
    Builders have a concept - "cold bridge". That is, a metal rod, a part of a metal structure passing through a layer of thermal insulation material. It quickly equalizes the external and external temperatures inside the protected object, transferring heat energy from a warm volume to a cold one.
    At the time when shoes were made, it was in principle not accepted to contact specialists in related fields. The guild approach prevailed - a craftsman must know literally everything about his niche. And in the 20th century it was already impossible to know EVERYTHING. But literally a few people realized this. Grabin, who turned to physiologists to make aiming and shooting from his guns convenient (and thus speed it up), was a black sheep, they envied him, but no one was in a hurry to adopt the experience.
    By the way, having seen thousands of bolts piercing through the hatches and lining of the "descent vehicles" of some American space programs, it is easy to understand that these vehicles have never been in space, and they have not slowed down the atmosphere. Otherwise they would have brought only coal dust inside, and not funny "astronauts". But this is so, by the way)
    1. Dmitry V.
      Dmitry V. 18 February 2021 11: 00
      +2
      Quote: Mikhail3
      - these devices have never been in space, and they have not slowed down on the atmosphere. Otherwise they would have brought only coal dust inside, and not funny "astronauts". But this is so, by the way


      By the way: why should they slow down with bolts / rivets?
      When it is enough to make the descent vehicle self-centering in the flow and deceleration will be performed exclusively by the heat shield, which occupies 10-15% of the surface of the descent vehicle.
      What is a disconnected seal jump, you probably are not familiar either?

      Our first descent vehicle was generally spherical, this was not the optimal shape for a controlled descent, they did it as best they could at that time, the heat shield occupied a monstrous surface area - then there were no materials for active aerodynamic braking that could withstand the descent mode, a heat shield the first ships, weighed extremely much.
      1. Mikhail3
        Mikhail3 18 February 2021 12: 47
        0
        I love theorists. Where did the hot plasma go from the braking mirror?) What was the temperature around the module? Hehe ...
  27. AB
    AB 18 February 2021 10: 29
    +2
    These Italians are funny. In the USSR and in Europe at the beginning of the 40s there was no shortage of galoshes. Yes, not in shape, but when there is a choice between frostbite legs and real, beautiful, shiny galoshes. In them, although you want, you won't get your feet wet. The choice is obvious.
  28. Dmitry V.
    Dmitry V. 18 February 2021 10: 46
    +1


    In Italian cities, in the center (usually not far from municipalities) there are memorial plaques to those who died in World War II.
    Usually on such a list are several people who died on the eastern front, but most of all civilians who died in the liberation of Italy.
    This is the plaque of the civilian deaths in Pisaro.