Military Review

Battle of Preussisch Eylau or the first victory over Napoleon

65

Napoleon at Preussisch-Eylau. Antoine-Jean Gros (1771-1835). Louvre


“Why are we going to winter apartments? Don't the commanders, strangers, dare to rip their uniforms against the Russian bayonets ?! "

- well, who is not familiar with these lines from Lermontov's "Borodino"?

And do they not mean that at that time they did not fight in winter, but waited for warm weather and dry roads, since battles usually took place in the fields? But be that as it may, but in stories Russian weapons there was a battle in the midst of winter. Moreover, the battle with Napoleon himself, and such that it could be called

"First Borodino!"

I wanted warmth and bread


And it so happened that in 1807, when Russia and Prussia, in alliance with each other, were at war with Napoleon, they were never able to conclude peace with him before the onset of winter. At the same time, the defeat of Prussia by this time had already been practically completed, and was so complete that only the corps of General Lestock survived from the entire Prussian army.


Battle of Eylau. Jean-Antoine-Simeon Fort (1793-1861). Versailles

Meanwhile, in January 1807, Marshal Ney, being very dissatisfied with the poor living conditions in the winter quarters allocated to him near the city of Neudenburg, decided to act independently. And he sent his cavalry to Guttstadt and Heilsberg. But since both of these cities were only 50 km from Konigsberg, the capital of East Prussia, the Russians, in turn, came forward to meet him.

Battle of Preussisch Eylau or the first victory over Napoleon
General of the cavalry L.L. Bennigsen in 1820 George Doe (1781–1829). Military gallery of the Winter Palace. State Hermitage. St. Petersburg

Napoleon also sent his troops against the Russian army and on December 26, 1806 attacked it near the town of Pultusk. And although the Russians retreated after this battle, this clash with them was the first where the troops under his personal command did not achieve an obvious victory.

Russian troops withdrew to the territory of East Prussia in an organized manner. They were commanded by General Leonty Leontyevich Bennigsen, a German in the service of the Russian army.


Lieutenant General P.I.Bagration. Military Gallery of the Winter Palace, State Hermitage. St. Petersburg

"The first column is marching, the second column is marching, the third column is marching ..."


Koenigsberg was the only major city that remained under the rule of the Prussian king Friedrich Wilhelm, so the allies had to keep it at any cost, including for political reasons.

Therefore, the Russian army immediately withdrew from its winter quarters and moved towards the French troops. At the same time, Bennigsen, covered on the right flank by the Prussian corps of General Lestock (up to 10 people), decided to attack the 000st Army Corps of Marshal Bernadotte, located near the Passarga River, and then cross the Vistula River and cut the communications of the Great Army in Poland.


Lieutenant General A.I. Osterman-Tolstoy, who commanded the left flank of the Russian army at the Battle of Preussisch-Eylau. George Doe. Military Gallery of the Winter Palace, State Hermitage. St. Petersburg

Seeing the superiority of the enemy in forces, Bernadotte retreated.

Well, Napoleon, at first, expressed his strong dissatisfaction with Ney's actions. However, at this time frosts set in and the roads, in contrast to December, became passable. Therefore, Napoleon decided to surround and defeat the Russian army.

To do this, he divided the army into three columns and ordered them to march on the enemy. On the right, Marshal Davout was supposed to advance with 20 soldiers. In the center are marshals Murat with cavalry and Soult (a total of 000 thousand people), the guard (27) and the corps of Marshal Augereau (000). And on the left, Marshal Ney (6) - that is, he moved 000 soldiers against the Russian army. They were commanded, as we can see, by the most famous marshals of the Great Army.

However, the success of the maneuver depended entirely on keeping secrecy. But by the will of fate, all precautions were in vain. The courier who was carrying the secret package to Bernadotte fell into the hands of the Cossacks. And Bennigsen learned the plans of the French command.

The Russian army hastily began to withdraw. And, when Soult's corps went on the offensive on February 3, his blow fell into the void - Bennigsen was no longer in place.

Where the Russian army went, Napoleon did not know at first. Therefore, he ordered Davout to cut the roads leading to the east, and sent the main forces to Lansberg and Preussisch-Eylau. Bernadotte was to pursue General Lestock's corps.


Murat is the favorite of Napoleon and the famous leader of the French cavalry. Francois Gerard (1770-1837)

The corps of Murat and Soult nevertheless caught up with the Russian rearguard under the command of Prince Bagration and General Barclay de Tolly. And they tried to attack him.

The battle at Gof on February 6 was especially stubborn. The next day, the fierce battle was repeated at the Ziegelhof. However, the Napoleonic marshals were unable to surround the Russian rearguard or defeat it.

But the position of the army was very difficult. In any case, one of his contemporaries described it like this:

“The army cannot endure more suffering than we have experienced in recent days ... Our generals, apparently, are trying in front of each other to methodically lead our army to destruction.

Disorder and disorder are beyond human understanding. The poor soldier crawls like a ghost, and, leaning on his neighbor, sleeps on the move ...

This whole retreat seemed to me more a dream than reality. In our regiment, which crossed the border in full force and had not yet seen the French, the composition of the company decreased to 20-30 people ...

One can believe the opinion of all officers that Bennigsen had a desire to retreat even further, if the state of the army provided an opportunity for that. But since she is so weakened and exhausted, he decided ... to fight. "

Alien in a strange Fatherland


If you believe these words, it turns out that Bennigsen gave Napoleon a battle out of despair, and in general was not too brave.

However, it is worth getting to know his biography a little more in detail to understand that this is not at all the case.

By the way, it is interesting that both Bennigsen and Kutuzov were born in the same year, that is, in 1745 from the birth of Christ. Here are just Kutuzov in Russia, and Bennigsen in Hanover.

He was a real (and not Baltic) German and entered the Russian service at a fairly mature age, when he was already over 30. Moreover, he began serving in the army even earlier than Kutuzov, that is, from the age of 14, and, having entered to the Russian service in 1777, he already had a rich track record.

When he received an invitation from Russia, Bennigsen was already a lieutenant colonel in the Hanoverian army, and in Russia he began serving with the rank of prime-major, that is, he did not lose anything during the transition. And subsequently he participated in almost all the campaigns that the Russian army waged. That is, he earned all his awards and positions not on the floor, but in battle.

However, he was repeatedly wounded. And, fighting the Turks, he took part in the storming of Ochakov, which was very dangerous and bloody. And Bennigsen did not rise up the career ladder as fast as many of his colleagues.


Battle of Preussisch Eylau, evening. Figure: A. Shepsa

"I don't like night battles!"


Meanwhile, Napoleon, having only a part of his Great Army with him, also did not immediately decide to engage in battle with the Russian troops.

On February 7, he declared to Augereau:

“I was advised to take Eylau tonight, but besides the fact that I do not like these night battles, I do not want to move my center too far ahead of the arrival of Davout, who is my right flank, and Ney, my left flank ...

Tomorrow, when Ney and Davout line up, we will all go to the enemy together. "

However, the position of the French army was also far from brilliant.

In any case, an eyewitness wrote about it like this:

“Never has the French army been in such a sad situation. Soldiers are on the march every day, every day in the bivouac.

They make knee-deep transitions in the mud, without an ounce of bread, without a sip of water, without being able to dry their clothes, they fall from exhaustion and fatigue ...

The fire and smoke of the bivouacs made their faces yellow, emaciated, unrecognizable, they have red eyes, their uniforms are dirty and smoky. "



Marshal Ney. Francois Gerard (1770-1837)


Marshal Davout, Duke of Auerstedt. Lithograph 1830

Napoleon hesitated and did not want to engage in battle until the middle of the day on February 8, waiting for the approach of Ney's corps, which was 30 kilometers from Preussisch-Eylau and Davout's corps, which was 9 kilometers away.

However, already at 5 o'clock in the morning, Napoleon was informed that at a cannon-shot distance from Eylau there was a Russian army built in two lines, the number of which at that time was 67 people with 000 guns.

Napoleon had 48-49 thousand soldiers with 300 guns.

During the day, both sides hoped to receive reinforcements. But if Bennigsen could count only on the approach of Lestock's Prussian corps, numbering a maximum of 9 people, the French expected the arrival of two corps at once: Davout (000) and Ney (15).


Marshal Augereau. Lithograph 1830

"We walked under the roar of cannonade!"


The battle began with a very strong artillery barrage.

The Russian batteries were more numerous than the French ones and brought down a hail of cannonballs on the enemy's battle formations. But, despite all efforts, they could not suppress the fire of enemy artillery.

The effect of Russian artillery fire could have been much greater if the French positions were not covered by city buildings. A significant part of the cores hit the walls of houses or did not reach the French at all.

On the contrary, the French gunners had the opportunity to freely defeat large masses of Russian troops standing almost without cover in an open field outside the city.

Denis Davydov, who participated in this battle, wrote:

"The devil knows what clouds of cannonballs flew, hummed, poured, jumped around me, dug in all directions the closed bulk of our troops and what clouds of grenades burst over my head and under my feet!"


Model of a Russian howitzer from the Bagrationovsky Museum of Regional History in the city of Bagrationovsk


Model of the Russian field cannon from the Bagrationovsky Museum of Regional History in the city of Bagrationovsk. Next to the guns are samples of uniforms of soldiers of the Russian Imperial Army of 1805.


A bomb and a grenade from the Penza Regional Museum of Local Lore.

Left flank attack


Finally, around noon, columns of Marshal Davout's troops appeared on the right French flank. And the Great Army was equal in number to the Russian (64-000 against 65 soldiers).


Battle of Preussisch Eylau, noon. Figure: A. Shepsa

Interestingly, everything went on in almost the same way as later under Borodino.

Davout's regiments deployed in battle formations and moved to attack the left flank of Bennigsen's army. At the cost of heavy losses, the French threw the Russians from the heights they occupied near the village of Klein-Zausgarten and, knocking the enemy out of the village itself, rushed towards the village of Auklappen and the forest of the same name.

For the Russian army, there was a real threat of the French going to the rear. And Bennigsen was forced, gradually weakening the center of his position, to begin the transfer of troops to the left flank.


Battle of Preussisch-Eylau January 27 (February 8) 1807 Napoleon's command post. A.Yu. Averyanov. 2007 year

"What courage!"


Meanwhile, Napoleon noticed that a significant part of the Russian reserves was being concentrated against Davout, and decided to strike at the center of the Russian army, moving against him the corps of Augereau (15 men).

The first to attack were two divisions, but they had to go through a plain covered with rather deep snow to the south of the Preussisch-Eylau cemetery. Then a heavy blizzard hit both armies. And the battlefield was covered with thick clouds of snow. The blinded French troops, having lost the desired direction, deviated too much to the left.

When the blizzard stopped, it turned out that Augereau's corps was less than 300 paces opposite the largest Russian battery, consisted of 72 guns, that is, right in front of the muzzles of its guns.

At such a distance, it was simply impossible to miss, so every shot of the Russian cannons hit the target. One after another, the cannonballs slammed into the dense ranks of the French infantry and mowed whole glades in it. In a few minutes, Augereau's corps lost 5 soldiers killed and wounded.

Augereau himself was wounded, and Benningsen immediately took advantage of this. Russian drums beat the attack and four thousand grenadiers rushed to attack the French center. Later it will be called that:

"Attack of 4000 Russian grenadiers",

and it was nearly crowned with success.


"Attack of the Moscow Regiment". A. Yu. Averyanov. 2007 year

There was a moment when Russian soldiers broke through to the city cemetery itself, where Napoleon and all his retinue were.

Several dead from his entourage were already lying at his feet. However, Napoleon understood that now only his composure helps the soldiers to hold on.

Eyewitnesses testify that after seeing this attack, Napoleon said:

"What courage!"

Just a little more and he could be captured or even killed.

But at this moment Murat's cavalry at full gallop crashed into the ranks of the Russian troops. Then a blizzard broke out again. Flintlock rifles could not fire.

Both infantrymen and horsemen, with difficulty distinguishing the enemy in the snow, fiercely stabbed each other with bayonets. And cut with broadswords and sabers. Both sides suffered heavy losses. However, an attack by Murat's cavalry saved the position of the French army. The opponents withdrew their forces to their starting positions, although the fierce artillery duel continued as before.


Finds on the battlefield. Bagrationovsky Museum of the History of the Region in Bagrationovsk

Counterstrike on the left flank


Meanwhile, the left flank moved back and made an almost right angle with the line of the Russian army. That is, the situation again developed exactly the same as later during the Battle of Borodino.


Major General A.I. Kutaisov. George Doe. Military Gallery of the Winter Palace, State Hermitage. St. Petersburg

At this critical moment, on the initiative of the chief of artillery of the right wing, Major General A.I. Kutaisov under Auklappen, three horse artillery companies with 36 guns were transferred under the command of Lieutenant Colonel A.P. Ermolova. And they opened accurate grape-shot fire at the French point-blank.

And then another 6 men from General Lestock's corps came to the aid of the troops of the left flank. A joint attack by the Russians and the Prussians followed, as a result of which the French retreated back to the same positions from which they began their attack.


Lieutenant Colonel A.P. Ermolov. George Doe. Military Gallery of the Winter Palace, State Hermitage. St. Petersburg

End of the battle


On this, the Battle of Preussisch-Eylau actually ended.

The cannonade on both sides lasted until 21:XNUMX, but the exhausted and bloodied troops did not undertake any more attacks.

Meanwhile, already at dusk, Ney's corps approached the place of the battle on the Russian right flank, pursuing Lestok, but never caught up with him. His intelligence met with the Cossacks and reported that Russian troops were ahead.

Having no connection with Napoleon and not knowing how the battle ended, Ney went to bed, rightly judging that

"The morning is wiser than the evening".

The approach of fresh forces to Napoleon could not but alarm Benningsen, and he gave the order to retreat. At night, the Russian troops began to withdraw, but the losses of the French were so great that they did not interfere with it.

They say that Marshal Ney, looking in the morning at tens of thousands of dead and wounded, who were lying in the snow all over the field, interspersed with each other, exclaimed:

"What a massacre, and to no avail!"


Tunic of the French tambour major. Bagrationovsky Museum of the History of the Region in Bagrationovsk


Grenadier of the Pavlovsky regiment in summer uniform. Bagrationovsky Museum of the History of the Region in Bagrationovsk

It is interesting that Napoleon stood in the city for 10 days, and then ... began to retreat.

The Cossacks immediately rushed after the French in pursuit and captured more than 2 wounded French soldiers.

Both the Russian general and the French emperor declared their victory, and Bennigsen received the Order of St. Andrew the First-Called for her and 12 thousand annual pension as the winner of Napoleon himself.

In the spring of the same year, he defeated Marshal Ney at Guttstadt. Then he repulsed Napoleon at Heilsberg, but he himself was defeated in the battle of Friedland.

By the way, Napoleon himself admitted that it was a victory of Russian arms in a conversation with Emperor Alexander I in Tilsit:

"I only declared victory because you yourself wanted to retreat!"


"Monument to the Three Generals" in Bagrationovsk

Denis Davydov, later evaluating the nature of the battle at Preussisch-Eylau, and comparing it with the Battle of Borodino, wrote that

“In the Battle of Borodino, the main weapon used was firearms, in Eilavskaya - hand-to-hand. In the latter, the bayonet and saber walked, lived luxuriously and drank their fill.

In almost any battle such dumps of infantry and cavalry were not visible, although, however, these dumps did not interfere with the assistance of rifle and cannon thunderstorms for them, thundering on both sides and, rightly, sufficient to drown out the calls of ambition in the soul of the most ardent ambitious. " ...

The losses on both sides were really great.

Contemporaries numbered up to 30 thousand on each side, that is, as a result of the battle, almost half of the fighting was out of action. According to updated estimates, the French lost 22 killed and wounded, and the Russians 000.

As for the trophies of the Russian Imperial Army, they consisted of nine "eagles" - banners that had eagle-shaped tops in the French army,

"Expelled from the ranks of the enemy."

The Prussian corps was able to capture two of these eagles.


Below on the slab is the text in Russian ...

A monument was erected on the battlefield at Preussisch Eylau shortly after the celebrations on 20 November 1856. And, fortunately, time has spared him.

Residents of the city of Bagrationovsk (now this city bears this name) love this place very much, and they call it as a monument to "Cannons" and "Monument to the Three Generals".

Indeed, from three sides one can see bas-relief portraits of Lestock, Dirik and Bennigsen.

The inscription on the fourth side reads:

“February 8, 1807. To the glorious memory of Lestock, Dirik and their brothers in arms. "

On either side of it are two Krupp breech-loading cannons of the 1867 model.

But, naturally, they have nothing to do with this battle.


One of the cannons near the monument.
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  1. Lech from Android.
    Lech from Android. 16 January 2021 05: 49
    +5
    This Napoleon ... a small nondescript Frenchman ruined so many people with his plans to conquer Europe that you think it would be better if he did not appear at all.
    1. apro
      apro 16 January 2021 06: 04
      +2
      Quote: Lech from Android.
      This Napoleon ... a small nondescript Frenchman ruined so many people with his plans to conquer Europe that you think it would be better if he did not appear at all.

      Interesting ... and when the brilliant feudal rulers put a lot of people for their plans of conquest ... is this normal?
      1. Lech from Android.
        Lech from Android. 16 January 2021 06: 22
        +7
        . and when the brilliant feudal rulers put a lot of people for their plans of conquest ... is this normal?

        And Bush, who unleashed a war with Iraq and killed a bunch of people there, fits this definition? smile
        Alas, nothing has changed since those times ... the plans of conquest of various rulers remained ... people are also sent to the next world in batches in the name of their interests. hi
        1. apro
          apro 16 January 2021 06: 28
          0
          Quote: Lech from Android.
          Alas, nothing has changed since then

          Well, this is how to present it ... here you consider Napoleon to be the culprit, but I don't think how many coalitions were created against him? What were their goals? Clearly peaceful ...
          1. Lech from Android.
            Lech from Android. 16 January 2021 06: 40
            +4
            you think Napoleon was the culprit. But I don’t think. How many coalitions were created against him?
            And that Russia gave Napoleon a reason for the invasion of the united armies of Europe led by Napoleon into its territory?
            A coalition of countries in NATO has also been created against us ... but this is not a reason for us to start a war.
            Napoleon, on the other hand, began a war against Russia at the peak of his power with a 600000th army without any threat to France from Russia ... he is directly guilty ... undoubtedly guilty of the deaths of hundreds of thousands of people (genius killer) ... this could have been avoided if desired.
            1. apro
              apro 16 January 2021 06: 47
              0
              Quote: Lech from Android.
              And that Russia gave Napoleon a reason for the invasion of the united armies of Europe led by Napoleon into its territory?

              What did Asuvorov do in Switzerland? Rimsky Korsakov near Zurich? Kutuzov under Austerlitz? And take into account the topic of the article ... obviously out of the kindness of his heart they passed by ... and the villain Napoleon insidiously attacked ... thousands of miles from the holy r ...
              Of course I did ... we agreed with Anliya not to trade ... but the ruler is a deceitful and deceitful master of his word ... I want to give, I want to take ...
              1. Lech from Android.
                Lech from Android. 16 January 2021 06: 59
                +6
                What was Asuvorov doing in Switzerland? Rimsky Korsakov near Zurich? Kutuzov under Austerlitz?

                What was Napoleon doing there? smile Is it that his territories were? Suvorov and Rimsky-Korsakov did not invade France ... Kutuzov reigned in his heaven only after Napoleon's campaign in Russia moved to France and then died from the hardships of old wounds.
                1. apro
                  apro 16 January 2021 06: 59
                  +3
                  So they declared war on him ... if anyone did not know.
                  1. Lech from Android.
                    Lech from Android. 16 January 2021 07: 08
                    -2
                    So they declared war on him ...
                    if anyone did not know.
                    Who! Russia or what? smile
                    Napoleon had graters with the British ... that's who was the provocateur in Europe, and Napoleon, as a little child, was led on their dirty tricks.
                    1. apro
                      apro 16 January 2021 07: 12
                      +1
                      Quote: Lech from Android.
                      Who! Russia or what?

                      So what was she doing there ???? went to the center of Europe for what purpose ????
                      Quote: Lech from Android.
                      graters with the British

                      And the Russians are the British? Or they fought for the Unles for the Babos?
                    2. Elturisto
                      Elturisto 16 January 2021 18: 06
                      +7
                      Yes, Russia declared war on Republican France - did not know? All the priestly-noble offspring of Europe, including the French emigrants, went to war in unison on the French Republic. And the revolutionary troops, all poured on the very tomatoes. In Italy, the French invaded to take resources from the Austrians and create they are threatened from the south, facilitating the struggle of the Republican Rhine army. But why the hell did Russia, led by the bald degenerate Alexander 1, constantly fight on the side of England, Austria and Prussia? These are now NATO countries :)
                2. Kote Pan Kokhanka
                  Kote Pan Kokhanka 16 January 2021 08: 48
                  +9
                  Quote: Lech from Android.
                  What was Asuvorov doing in Switzerland? Rimsky Korsakov near Zurich? Kutuzov under Austerlitz?

                  What was Napoleon doing there? smile Is it that his territories were? Suvorov and Rimsky-Korsakov did not invade France ... Kutuzov reigned in his heaven only after Napoleon's campaign in Russia moved to France and then died from the hardships of old wounds.

                  Greetings colleagues!
                  Beginning with Louis XIV, France tried to realize its "fix" idea - to have borders along natural boundaries. From here grow the "legs" of all continental wars of the 17-20 centuries.
                  For the first time, this happened in Revolutionary France, but "neighbors, both near and far" did not accept. By the way, the “coalition” described by Vyacheslav Olegovich was already numbered “5”, and that means something !!!
                  So it is not surprising that Napoleon wanted to create a bunch of "buffer" small states on the field of Europe, and he almost succeeded!
                  By 1812, from continental Europe, only Russia and Portugal remained outside the zone of Napoleon's influence!
                  The rest were either the fiefdom of the relatives and associates of the French emperor (Murat, Bernodot) or tied by dynastic or allied relations (Austria, Prussia). He was the first to widely practice the creation of litomorphs with various forms of government, but in which there was a single legal field, "Napoleon's Right"!
                  So everyone had ambitions and it was not a pity to shed blood for them.
                  Napoleon's mistake, as well as the mistake of our Alexander I, was that they went beyond the natural or ethnic boundaries.
                  This is my private opinion, but somewhere like that!
                  1. Elturisto
                    Elturisto 16 January 2021 17: 57
                    -5
                    Enough of lying then. Was it the Jacobins that attacked first? What were the British doing in Toulon and Vendée. Louis France and the French Republic are different countries, and their goals were different, it was a crime to keep such amateurs at the expense of the state.
                    1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
                      Kote Pan Kokhanka 16 January 2021 18: 30
                      +10
                      Enough of lying then. Was it the Jacobins that attacked first?

                      Well, this is rudeness, my friend, and a lie. Where did I write that the Jacobins attacked first?
                      What were the British doing in Toulon and Vendée.

                      The same thing that was done at Poitiers, Quercy and Agincourt. They killed a political competitor in the struggle for sales markets, territories and other interests.
                      Louis France and the French Republic are different countries, and their goals were different,

                      At the last stage, the French Republic resolved issues similar to the French kingdom of Louis, and having turned into an empire at the request of the first concentration camp, it actually implemented the maximum Louis 14 program!
                      contain such amateurs for the state account a crime.

                      If I name my salary, you will go and drown yourself in the outhouse.
                      And if I also call my quota for an academic hour, then you will go drowning yourself in the outhouse for the second time on a noose in a causal place! wink
                      1. Elturisto
                        Elturisto 17 January 2021 10: 16
                        +1
                        Louis attacked first — revolutionary France defended itself.
                        Yes, the code of Napoleon, the abolition of serfdom and the destruction of the feudal-absolutist order in Europe is the program of Louis 14, of course. What other markets in the 14-15th century, in the era of natural economy :). England became a leading trading power in 17-18 vek.All theses are false and anti-scientific. The fact of the matter is that any payment for the "works" of such a "scientist" is a waste. Who generally allows such specialists to teach?
                  2. Trilobite Master
                    Trilobite Master 16 January 2021 20: 20
                    +7
                    Greetings, Vlad.
                    I wondered what the "natural boundaries" are in relation to Europe.
                    But for the reasons of the wars in this period, then, I think, there was simply an elementary rivalry for dominance on the European continent. After the final and irrevocable defeat in the Hundred Years War, England, by and large, abandoned its continental ambitions and began to build a naval empire, leaving the continental powers to sort out among themselves and at the same time supporting in these showdowns someone who, in their opinion, represented a lesser danger.
                    Napoleon was building not a nation-state, but a European empire, and the British were close at hand with an immediate threat, a natural enemy. They simply could not but collide.
                    Russia, represented by Alexander I, needed to determine whom it would support in this battle. Did Russia need a united Europe on its western borders, which would arise in the event of Napoleon's victory over Britain? I think Alexander I just imagined the world after the joint victory of Russia and France over Britain and realized who would be the next victim of Napoleon. And when he began, even without winning, to dictate to Russia with whom to negotiate, with whom to trade, etc., Alexander's last illusions on this score disappeared. He was destined for the role of a junior partner and resource base for the United Europe, nothing more.
                    It seems to me that there is nothing to do with ethnic boundaries. The point is precisely the imperial ambitions of Britain, Russia and France.
                    1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
                      Kote Pan Kokhanka 16 January 2021 21: 26
                      +9
                      Good evening Michael!
                      About France. The state in natural boundaries is in the report of General Vauban to Louis XIV. I first heard from Vivatenko. At least this version is adhered to by the majority of French historians.
                      From the south and southeast, France was to be covered by the Pyrenees and the Alps, from the west by the Rhine, from the north by the canals of the Netherlands and Belgium, and from the west by the Atlantic Ocean.
                      Louis and his descendants did not solve this problem. Napoleon - went further You are right - the ambition that led to the collapse. Then the next round of events and today France is conditionally within the boundaries of the sun king paradigm!
                      To be honest, I prefer the position on the great French revolution of Catherine II, who "hurried-unhurriedly", having launched a stormy activity, looked at the quarrel in Europe from the outside. Pavel could not resist - intervened. Alexander? With him the hardest. His behavior towards France can be called both a subtle political game and an inexplicable phobia! In his place, I would become related to Napoleon and flawed pieces of Turkey, solving the issue with the straits and Constantinople. We climbed up to fulfill allied obligations. Why the heck "goat button accordion"?
                      Between us and France, the rumpled and plucked Austria and Prussia! Together with the Swedes and Turkey, they were not friends and did not become.
                      Ultimately, Alexander crushed France, created the preconditions for the emergence of a more powerful and geographically close Prussia.
                    2. Kwas
                      Kwas 18 January 2021 16: 32
                      0
                      Quote: Trilobite Master
                      Russia, represented by Alexander I, needed to determine whom it would support in this battle.

                      Like Vladislav, I like Catherine's position the most. Why support one of the belligerents when you can be friends and trade with both? While solving their own minor problems, like taking control of the straits and the Balkans in general.
                      By the way, in this situation, most likely the British would have made a compromise with the French, instead of a stubborn war. The prototype of the Vienna Congress but with different layouts. More profitable for us.
              2. Ryazan87
                Ryazan87 16 January 2021 12: 24
                +2
                I'm really curious why you put these dots after each word? As if you are suffering from shortness of breath.
          2. Cartalon
            Cartalon 16 January 2021 07: 14
            +8
            Of course, what could be more peaceful than world domination.
            1. apro
              apro 16 January 2021 07: 23
              -5
              Quote: Cartalon
              Of course, what could be more peaceful than world domination.

              Yes ??? and whose? If not a secret ..
              1. Cartalon
                Cartalon 16 January 2021 07: 34
                +6
                The invincible Emperor, whose else, what did he want there, full control over Europe plus India, the Middle East for communication, and then the appetite comes with eating, you look and would get to China, a genius. And he was bored to sit at home ((
                1. apro
                  apro 16 January 2021 07: 35
                  -4
                  Quote: Cartalon
                  And sitting at home he was bored ((

                  And how did you know this ??? not the British accidentally told ???
                  1. Cartalon
                    Cartalon 16 January 2021 07: 40
                    +8
                    Of all his activities, such as the campaign of 1812, where not a single person in his army understood, but why do we climb into this Muscovy.
                    1. apro
                      apro 16 January 2021 07: 42
                      -4
                      Quote: Cartalon
                      but why are we climbing into this Muscovy.

                      Just as the Russians did not understand what kind of hell they were trying to fight the French 10 years before this event ... You don’t understand either? Or do you have your own version?
                      1. Cartalon
                        Cartalon 16 January 2021 07: 44
                        +3
                        They did not even understand that they would not allow the French to seize all of Europe, nor any understanding was observed there.
                      2. apro
                        apro 16 January 2021 07: 47
                        -2
                        Quote: Cartalon
                        They did not even understand that they would not allow the French to seize all of Europe,

                        As I understand it, declaring war on Napoleon. European emperors wanted to capture their own countries ???? logical ...
                      3. Cartalon
                        Cartalon 16 January 2021 07: 50
                        +5
                        And yes, they had to sit and wait for him to remove them by his decree and put one of his brothers in prison.
                        Can you tell the king of Spain when he declared war?
                      4. apro
                        apro 16 January 2021 07: 55
                        -3
                        Quote: Cartalon
                        Can you tell the king of Spain when he declared war?

                        Do not overdo it ... I do not have time. The Austrians. Germans. Russians decided to intervene and overthrow Napoleon. And if he beats them. Then why are they ??? I understand correctly?
                      5. Cartalon
                        Cartalon 16 January 2021 08: 00
                        +7
                        What do you mean do not skip, the King of Spain was a loyal ally, he did everything he was told to and under the knee in the ass.
                        And the Germans and the Russians knew perfectly well who would be next after the British.
                      6. apro
                        apro 16 January 2021 08: 05
                        -2
                        Quote: Cartalon
                        And the Germans and the Russians knew perfectly well who would be next after the British.

                        I don't understand your thoughts, that is, declaring war ... they expected to lose, and how did the British fight in Europe? Or fought for them ...
                      7. Cartalon
                        Cartalon 16 January 2021 08: 16
                        +6
                        They hoped to win while there is an opportunity to win, in fact, why should the Germans consider it normal, then France captured all of Italy, Holland and German lands beyond the Rhine.
                        And again I ask, what about the king of Spain?
                      8. apro
                        apro 16 January 2021 08: 20
                        -3
                        Quote: Cartalon
                        They expected to win while there was a chance to win

                        That is, they deliberately went to war with Napoleon? They were the first to choose war?
                        France fought on the territory of Italy, Holland as there were Austrians on their territories.

                        Quote: Cartalon
                        And again I ask, what about the king of Spain?

                        Study history. Pzhlsta. So that there were no stupid questions. What was how it was. And for what purpose ...
                      9. Cartalon
                        Cartalon 16 January 2021 08: 28
                        +3
                        Napoleon was the first to choose the war, he went to Egypt and showed what his goals were, he came up with the idea of ​​destroying states that were not hostile to him by his decree, the monarchies of Europe saw perfectly well that either they would fight or others would take their place, before the proclamation of the empire it would be a republic with a cunning name, after some kind of relative of the great genius.
                        Why should Austrians wait like sheep for their fate?
                        And I still didn’t understand what exactly I had to learn in order to consider a kick in the ass to a loyal ally and the occupation of his country justified.
                      10. apro
                        apro 16 January 2021 08: 35
                        -1
                        Quote: Cartalon
                        Napoleon was the first to choose war, he also went to Egypt

                        Yes, you are jumping here and there .... did not choose but was sent to war by the French convention. He was a general then.
                        Quote: Cartalon
                        Why should Austrians wait like sheep for their fate?

                        This is from the series I'm afraid of you ??? I'll go down myself ...
                        Quote: Cartalon
                        And I still didn’t understand what exactly I had to learn in order to consider a kick in the ass to a loyal ally and the occupation of his country justified.

                        What can I say ... study the goals of the French and Spaniards in the Pyrenees. About Portugal. And the British. About the continental blockade ... useful.
                      11. Kwas
                        Kwas 18 January 2021 16: 42
                        +1
                        Quote: Cartalon
                        Why should Austrians wait like sheep for their fate?

                        Dear, tell me bluntly, in your opinion, who attacked whom first - France against Austria, or is it Avastia against France? I am of the opinion that Austria was the first to stifle the French Revolution. Through military intervention. And the Napoleonic Wars are a direct continuation of the revolutionary ones.
                      12. Cartalon
                        Cartalon 18 January 2021 18: 26
                        0
                        Oh, and the revolutionary, direct continuation, the wars of the cabinets, and those of the religious, Italian, Burgundy and so on.
  • Korsar4
    Korsar4 16 January 2021 07: 34
    +9
    For example Pinky and Brain. They almost succeeded.
  • Connor MacLeod
    Connor MacLeod 16 January 2021 16: 57
    +2
    Great commander ...
  • Tavrik
    Tavrik 16 January 2021 21: 50
    +3
    The war, however, was started by Prussia, but, of course, Napoleon is still to blame. wink
  • Crowe
    Crowe 16 January 2021 06: 16
    +16
    Thank you, as always interesting! But here I was thinking a little - and the first defeat of Napoleon at Preussisch-Eylau, is it the first in chronology, significance? There was also an Egyptian campaign, where he besieged the city of Akka with a thirteen thousandth army. He managed to surround the city, but He could not take the fortress. After almost two months of siege, the French finally managed to break through the fortress wall.
    But when they rushed inside, they found an even more massive and solid inner wall built by the defenders under the command of Haim Farhi. Realizing that he could not take possession of the fortress, and his resources were depleted, Napoleon lifted the siege and went back to Egypt. Defeat, I think that By the way, what is interesting - this story is in some way a reflection of the Napoleonic campaign against Moscow, or, rather, a kind of harbinger of the result of the latter - he had to retreat through the devastated country back to Egypt, from where, leaving his army, he withdrew to France. by the time of the invasion of Russia, Napoleon, apparently, had completely forgotten about the lessons of his campaign against Damascus and the siege of Akka.
    1. kalibr
      16 January 2021 07: 36
      +13
      Well, first of all, this meant not just defeat, but defeat associated with our Russian history ...
  • Korsar4
    Korsar4 16 January 2021 07: 33
    +8
    The grenadier attack is famous. But I was just passing through Bagrationovsk.
    1. kalibr
      16 January 2021 08: 32
      +6
      I was there, as is clear from the article, walked around the museum, the monument, looked at the house where Napoleon slept ... everything seemed to me so ... poor, small. I imagined how people live there ... And there would not be a day.
      1. Korsar4
        Korsar4 16 January 2021 08: 34
        +8
        Kaliningrad itself and Baltiysk are good. I haven't been to Svetlogorsk and Zelenogradsk for a long time, but I always want to return to the sea.
        1. kalibr
          16 January 2021 08: 36
          +9
          I really like Zelenogradsk, and the spit that begins there ... I walked from it to the wind turbine battery along the beach. It was a memorable walk. And what kind of raspberries from Poland, Polish beer and smoked eel ...
          1. Korsar4
            Korsar4 16 January 2021 08: 57
            +9
            Yes. Eel is remembered from food.

            And the braids are good. Curonian is world famous.
            And the Baltic Spit (Frische Nerung) too.
            Dunes, pines, rose hips.
            1. Crowe
              Crowe 16 January 2021 10: 38
              +16
              Quote: Korsar4
              Baltiysk Baltic Spit (Frische Nerung)
              Dunes, pines

              Quote: kalibr
              beer and smoked eel ...

              Well ... They took it, but roused it ... Nature is there, of course - there are few such beauties ... I really liked it, and not only the coast - we had a favorite place there not far from Ozerkov, as I remember the picture now - heavy leaden clouds , the trees are already without foliage (autumn), the pond is small and there are a couple of swans in it with bright white spots on a gray-blue background ... We sit by the fire, admire ... Our beer was not bad, but we preferred GDR's more (Radeberger, Wernesgruner) , but not Polish - the water is sour. And the eel right in the base from the board could be taken - something with something to beer! Then I got used to our river fish for a long time, the eel would now, they say, and not a roach ..Beautiful there..
              1. Korsar4
                Korsar4 16 January 2021 11: 53
                +8
                And also - pines and heather. It's not on the dunes anymore.
                But in general I love heathers: even Karelian, even Kaliningrad.
              2. vladcub
                vladcub 16 January 2021 21: 28
                +9
                I never left Russia.
                "but not Polish" I have not tried Polish. As a kid, we sold without age restrictions, loved: "Velvet", but fresh, and in bottles with the letter G. Then we dried the crackers ourselves, and now: "kirieshki" and what not.
                Later I switched to: "dark" bottled, but we had "diphcite". And "Riga" was more often. We have it "German", and on the label was drawn a semblance of an ear
        2. kalibr
          16 January 2021 22: 32
          +4
          There is also a very picturesque village of Yantarny. And there is a plant for processing amber, and with it a museum, more interesting than a museum in Kaliningrad! But it takes a long time to go there ... And there is an amber quarry there. Previously, it was possible to "pick up" yourself ... interesting.
          1. Korsar4
            Korsar4 17 January 2021 06: 35
            +3
            After a storm, pieces of amber are found along the seashore.

            Kaliningrad "Amber Museum" is a compulsory program.
  • Olgovich
    Olgovich 16 January 2021 12: 00
    +2
    And do they not mean that at that time they did not fight in winter, but waited for warm weather and dry roads, since battles usually took place in the fields?
    probably. no:
    it was in the winter of 1813 (December-February) that the Russian army made great brilliant transitions, battles in Prussia, the Duchy of Warsaw, the Vilnius region, capturing Konigsberg, Warsaw, by oneself , brought Prussia and Austria out of the war. Poles.

    That winter laid the foundation for the defeat of Napoleon in Europe ...
  • IGOR GORDEEV
    IGOR GORDEEV 16 January 2021 14: 58
    +4
    When the blizzard stopped, it turned out that Augereau's corps was less than 300 paces opposite the largest Russian battery, consisted of 72 guns, that is, right in front of the muzzles of its guns.

    The weather played a role in this battle - and I think she was on our side.
  • Engineer
    Engineer 16 January 2021 15: 29
    +7
    So where is the victory?
    Just a fight with an indecisive result. There are many such Napoleonics.
    Retreated? It means we have formally lost. At least tactically.
    I'm not an expert on that period, but it seems like the first undoubted victory over Boni-Aspern
  • BAI
    BAI 16 January 2021 15: 33
    +4
    But be that as it may, but in the history of Russian weapons there was a battle that happened in the midst of winter

    The author wants to say that in winter conditions the Russian army had not fought before?
    1. Battle on the ice (even though it's spring here).
    2.
    Evpatiy Kolovrat with the "little squad" hastily moved to Ryazan (Staraya). But he found the city already devastated "... the sovereigns were killed and a multitude of people perished: some were killed and beaten, others were burned, and others were sunk." Then he was joined by the survivors "... whom God kept outside the city", and with a detachment in 1700 [3] the man Yevpatiy set off in pursuit of the Mongols. Having overtaken them in the Suzdal lands, with a sudden attack, he completely destroyed their rearguard. "And Evpatiy beat them so mercilessly that the swords were dulled, and he took the Tatar swords and whipped them." The amazed Batu sent against Evpatiy the hero Khostovrul, the brother of his wife, "... and with him strong Tatar regiments." Hostovrul promised Batu to bring Evpatiy Kolovrat alive, but died in a duel with him. Despite the huge numerical superiority of the Tatars, during the fierce battle Evpatiy Kolovrat "... began to whip the Tatar power, and beat many famous heroes Batyevs here ...".

    There is a legend that Batu's envoy, sent to negotiations, asked Evpatiy: "What do you want?" And I got the answer - "Just die!" According to some legends, the Mongols managed to destroy the Eupatius detachment only with the help of stone-throwing guns designed to destroy the fortifications: "And navadish had many vices on him, and began to beat him with numerous vices, and barely killed him." Struck by the desperate courage, courage and martial art of the Ryazan hero, Batu, saying “Oh, Evpatiy! If you had served me, I would have kept you close to my heart! ”, Gave the body of the murdered Evpatiy Kolovrat to the surviving Ryazan soldiers and, as a sign of respect for their courage, ordered them to be released without causing them any harm.

    Some (not early) editions of the "Tale" indicate the patronymic Evpatiy - Lvovich and tell about his solemn funeral in the Ryazan Cathedral January 11, 1238 [4] [5].

    3. Passage of Suvorov through the Alps.
    September. But at that height above sea level it is already winter.
    1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
      Kote Pan Kokhanka 16 January 2021 18: 43
      +9
      Quote: BAI
      The author wants to say that in winter conditions the Russian army had not fought before?


      I forgot a little which of the Rurikovichs the Novgorodians butchered after crossing the ice. But I remember exactly that there is a scalar a boyar nicknamed Wolf Tail.
      Almost all the Tatar-Mongol invasions from Batu to Nevrey were in winter. So do not hesitate to ratify.
      The first trip to the Kamen was also skiing in winter, even a century before Ermak.
      The Russian-Swedish war under Boris Godunov, the battle of Narva also took place in the snow in winter.
      The siege of Tula by Tsar Sheremetyev, the ramparts were poured with water so that they froze over.
      In the Northern War, the Aland Islands were taken over the ice, etc.
      If where I missed, then not on purpose, I'm angry and drunk !!!
      1. vladcub
        vladcub 16 January 2021 20: 36
        +6
        Namesake, I wish you a good rest. It happens to me myself: you get worn out at work and from 100 gr. Is already good, but if you are not tired and from 350 you will not be okose.
        True, I'm only "little white" only on big holidays (health is not that), and so I dabble in "home". I won't poison myself.
        1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
          Kote Pan Kokhanka 16 January 2021 21: 28
          +6
          Good night Vlad!
          I indulged in cherry tincture, I drink vodka very rarely, especially tomorrow at work.
          1. vladcub
            vladcub 16 January 2021 21: 30
            +5
            I feel good: 2 days at home.
    2. ee2100
      ee2100 16 January 2021 22: 47
      +2
      You can remember both Racovor and Kaporier
  • Polymer
    Polymer 16 January 2021 19: 59
    +4
    It seems like not a typical topic for Vyacheslav Olegovich. Even the style has barely changed.
    Although the comments rightly point to some flaws, I am plus. It's still better than throwing dirt into the past - your own and your homeland.
    1. kalibr
      16 January 2021 22: 24
      +5
      Quote: Polymer
      It seems like not a typical topic for Vyacheslav Olegovich. Even the style has barely changed.

      For me, Sergei, there are no uncharacteristic topics, there are topics "according to the mood", "weather", "season". For the first time my article about this battle was published in History Illustrated magazine after my trip to Kaliningrad and Bagrationovsk in 2012, a year later. But recently I was sorting out old magazines, found it and ... since there was a blizzard outside the windows and there was a "winter snowy mood" - I took it and ... copied it over again. And as you can see, everything worked out ... However, if you look at the profile, you will see that there are many articles about battles. A "book of reversals" was planned about battles - on one side of the reversal one, on the other - others, the battle itself and the outcome. But the book market sank and ... everything was covered with a copper basin.
  • vladcub
    vladcub 16 January 2021 20: 26
    +5
    Quote: apro
    Quote: Lech from Android.
    Alas, nothing has changed since then

    Well, this is how to present it ... here you consider Napoleon to be the culprit, but I don't think how many coalitions were created against him? What were their goals? Clearly peaceful ...

    If "peaceful" then what are hostile?
  • Tavrik
    Tavrik 16 January 2021 22: 38
    +5
    Quote: Lech from Android.
    And that Russia gave Napoleon a reason for the invasion of the united armies of Europe led by Napoleon into its territory?

    Believe it or not, Russia participated in a number of anti-French coalitions when nothing threatened it at all from France. They already wrote about Suvorov in Italy and Switzerland. And Kutuzov in 1805 too.