Military Review

"He is wearing a triangular hat ..." - the history of a military cocked hat

21

Any item that crowns the head of a warrior must first of all be of some practical benefit to him. In the era of swords and battle axes, preference, of course, was given to metal or leather helmets, which gave a chance to survive, having received a fair blow to the top of the head, and at the same time not "brainwash". With the advent of the world of firearms weapons the championship turned out to be for wide-brimmed hats, well known to all of us from films about the musketeers. Such a headdress did not save from bodily harm, but at least it gave protection from the sun and rain.


On the other hand, as it turned out pretty quickly, the hat had very significant drawbacks, and first of all, just for the shooters. Try to load a musket, pishchal or fusea, and even more carefully aim from them, having on your head a structure creeping over your eyes with wide fields and, in addition, a structure of feathers. Many of these very obstructing fields began to simply fasten or pin them with pins to the crown. If you remember, Porthos sported a hat of exactly this style in the Soviet film adaptation of Dumas ...

However, all this turned out to be nothing more than a half measure. According to historical Evidence that the Italians were finally tired of the eternal struggle with their own hats. It was in the army there that their fields first began to be cut off completely (it turned out terribly unaesthetic - some kind of pot on the head), and then they began to bend them, so as not to interfere, to sew in corners. This is how, in fact, the famous cocked hat was born, for a whole century it became the main headdress not only for military and seafarers, but also for many civilians. It was painfully convenient and practical thing ...

The French, however, dispute the primacy in this matter among the inhabitants of the Apennine Peninsula, claiming that the first "tricorne" was built by them. Well, be that as it may, but in general fashion, including among the military, the cocked hat really entered the time of the French "Sun King" Louis XIV, in the brilliant XNUMXth century. By the way, Frederick II the Great is another great historical figure who glorified this headdress.

In principle, he did not recognize any other cover for his own truly brilliant head, due to which 99% of his known images flaunt in an invariable cocked hat. But the famous lines written by Lermontov about Napoleon: "He is wearing a triangular hat and a gray marching coat ..." are, imagine, a historical mistake. The famous Bonaparte hat was no longer a bicorne hat, which became the next “hat evolution” and replaced its predecessor, including on the heads of the military, in the XNUMXth century. However, I'm getting ahead of myself.

In tricorne, Europe fought, discovered new lands, had fun and was sad. It is clear that this headdress, like everything else in those days, had a completely clear “social gradation”. The tricorne hats of ordinary soldiers or townspeople were made of felted felt or wool of the simplest and most practical colors. Those who deigned to put on their shining heads the commanders, court rakes and other representatives of the nobility, were true works of haberdashery art. They were sewn from such "aristocratic" materials as expensive brocade and satin, decorated along the edge of the fields with lush braid and the number of feathers that depended solely on the taste and financial capabilities of the customer.

The ladies were especially zealous in this matter. Yes, yes ... Young (and not so) beauties quickly appreciated tricorne and included them in their own wardrobes, "slightly" hung with bows and precious stones. By the way, interestingly, cocked hats in women's fashion have been preserved longer than in men's! The reason for this was the coming into fashion of incredibly voluminous and lush wigs. For men, naturally. In the truest sense of the word, the cocked hats did not fit on such a design - so I had to carry them under my arm, using them exclusively in the process of bowing in front of each other.

Longest of all, the cocked hat existed as part of the military uniform, as well as classic suits for hunting and riding in general. Ladies' - first of all. In our Fatherland, this headdress not only appeared, but also took the most solid positions, as you might guess - during the reign of Peter the Great. The first Russian Emperor dressed up the army he was building on the European model in cocked hats. And even their own courtiers - even more so. And the tsar himself, who loved to flaunt in military uniform, most often appeared in public in a cocked hat.

Everything in this world, as you know, follows the path of simplification. About 100 years after the appearance of the tricorne, the same military decided that three corners were too much, more than two would be enough. This is how the two-cornered bicorne appeared, in many armies preserved as part of the ceremonial uniform of the highest command personnel until the beginning to the middle of the twentieth century, or even to this day. The common soldier was in front of the era of shako and caps. No corners at all ...
Author:
Photos used:
Photo from Wikipedia Emperor Frederick the Great in a cocked hat
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  1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
    Kote Pan Kokhanka 10 December 2020 04: 45
    +5
    Alexander invaded the territory of Vyacheslav Olegovich! Well, nothing, although ours is all a hat with earflaps, I would love to read about the three-ear and malachai, the hat and the military helmet of the era of Catherine the Great!
    Advice to the Author playing on the field of uniforms, you still need to fill the article with illustrations and interesting facts!
    All the best!!!
    1. kalibr
      kalibr 10 December 2020 07: 05
      +12
      Only 4985 characters! It was so much to give out on the Repin website and on the Popular Mechanics website! The printed magazine "Secrets of the XX century" requires a minimum of 7.500, and the norm is 8000. The military review, however, does not have a limit on the number of signs, but nevertheless. In my opinion, for a full-fledged article, it would still be necessary to add up to 8000.
      1. Undecim
        Undecim 10 December 2020 08: 44
        +14
        Kharaluzhny is a propagandist, far from compiling large texts with a semantic load. And history is forced. There was simply nothing to put, so they squeezed an article from Wikipedia, without even redoing it. It's a hack, not an article.
        1. Undecim
          Undecim 10 December 2020 09: 14
          +12
          Oh, "klaka Kharaluzhny" pulled up with minuses.
          1. Pane Kohanku
            Pane Kohanku 10 December 2020 09: 46
            +8
            Oh, "klaka Kharaluzhny" pulled up with minuses.

            I corrected it as best I could. Victor Nikolaevich, I agree with you ... About the content. hi
            The first Russian Emperor dressed up the army he was building on the European model in cocked hats.

            Not at all.

            In addition to cocked hats and grenadiers, there were other types of hats.
            1. Undecim
              Undecim 10 December 2020 10: 21
              +12
              Yes, this is not a minus question. It is surprising that someone likes hack.
              1. Pane Kohanku
                Pane Kohanku 10 December 2020 10: 43
                +9
                Yes, this is not a minus question. It is surprising that someone likes hack.

                I agree.
                We disassemble in fact.
                Well, be that as it may, but in general fashion, including among the military, the cocked hat really entered the time of the French "Sun King" Louis XIV, in the brilliant XNUMXth century.

                A French infantry textbook from 1696 shows the different shapes of the cocked hat.
                "Classic" by the captain. Pay attention to the shape of the esponton blade!

                The pikemen have a somewhat unusual shape.

                Longest of all, the cocked hat existed as part of the military uniform, as well as classic suits for hunting and riding in general. Ladies' - first of all. In our Fatherland, this headdress not only appeared, but also took the most solid positions, as you might guess - during the reign of Peter the Great. The first Russian Emperor dressed up the army he was building on the European model in cocked hats. And even their own courtiers - even more so. And the tsar himself, who loved to flaunt in military uniform, most often appeared in public in a cocked hat.

                This is where a great addition could be made, but the author did not.
                As far as I understand, the second time in our army among the privates, the cocked hat was massively introduced under Paul I.

                Moreover, here you can still recall the emperor's decrees regarding civilian clothes. That you can not wear "round hats", but cocked hats - you can.
                That is ... all this could be written! But this was not done ...
            2. Looking for
              Looking for 10 December 2020 18: 02
              +1
              that's how they revise the story, start with the little things.
              1. Pane Kohanku
                Pane Kohanku 11 December 2020 11: 24
                +1
                that's how they revise the story, start with the little things.

                Alexander, I have a feeling that history should be dealt with with little things. What they ate, how they dressed, what they thought about ... Then there will be a clear idea of ​​the events taking place. Here, on a branch, Vladislav wrote how he tried on a cocked hat with curls - but for his historical feeling it is just a treasure ... yes With respect, Nicholai. drinks
      2. ee2100
        ee2100 10 December 2020 12: 01
        +2
        An attempt to take away the glory of a fashion historian! am
  2. Catfish
    Catfish 10 December 2020 04: 56
    +11
    Frederick, he is, of course, the Great, no one argues, but our Peter Alekseevich is Great, no less, and perhaps even more will be. And he also wore a cocked hat. smile
    1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
      Kote Pan Kokhanka 10 December 2020 06: 19
      +10
      Hi Konstantin!
      The tricorne hat became fashionable in the last quarter of the 17th century! As an element of the uniform of officers, it appears in our patronymic in the regiments of the new order. Then in the amusing troops of Peter and the soldiers' regiments of a new set.
      Swedes, French and other Europe have been dressing their armies in cocked hats since the middle of the 17th century, that is, a century before Frederick the Great and a quarter of a century before Peter!
      He personally tried on this headdress (the era of Peter III) with curls and powder. Tin.
      Although show-off or charter is more expensive than money!
  3. Mavrikiy
    Mavrikiy 10 December 2020 06: 09
    +7
    and three- and two-cornered are the same round musketeer hats, with differently laid brims. request Fashionistas, fool pulling comfort over the head.
  4. parusnik
    parusnik 10 December 2020 06: 20
    +8
    Well-known data ..
  5. Undecim
    Undecim 10 December 2020 09: 13
    +12
    According to historical evidence, the Italians were finally tired of the eternal struggle with their own hats.
    According to historical evidence, the "hat fight" was started by Spanish soldiers during the 1667 Devolutionary War with France over the Netherlands. French soldiers appreciated the "modernization" and also began to use it. So the cocked hat came to France, to the royal court of Louis XIV, the European trendsetter. Further, it is already clear - French fashion quickly spread throughout Europe.
    1. Corsair71 (Anatoly)
      Corsair71 (Anatoly) 3 March 2021 22: 00
      0
      Hello. Do not give the link by whom the cocked hat was introduced, I can not find it in your text.
      1. Undecim
        Undecim 3 March 2021 23: 34
        0
        Do not give the link by whom the cocked hat was introduced, I can not find it in your text.
        Albert Castells: Los tercios viejos y la presencia española en Flandes. Espasa, Madrid (1997)
        1. Liam
          Liam 3 March 2021 23: 46
          +1
          All right. It should only be noted that the cocked hat appeared on the "civilian" earlier, in the first half of the 16th century. Used by priests in Spain and Italy
  6. bandabas
    bandabas 10 December 2020 14: 35
    +7
    A headdress is a tricky thing. The same garrison cap is still used in many armies, though more as a daily form of clothing. And, the Soviet one could be pulled over the ears. Like the Germans.
    1. andrewkor
      andrewkor 10 December 2020 17: 41
      +7
      I will supplement you from my own experience. If you turn the cap to the end, you get a capacity for half a bucket of mushrooms.
      1. bandabas
        bandabas 12 December 2020 17: 38
        0
        Respected. Half a bucket of potatoes won't fit?