Military Review

"Big excursion" of the Bulgarian Turks in 1989 and the situation of Muslims in modern Bulgaria

77

Border of Bulgaria and Turkey, Rezovo. Source: Pudelek (Marcin Szala), wikipedia.org


Previous articles talked about the "Bloody Christmas" of 1963 in Cyprus, Operation Attila, carried out on this island by the Turkish army, and the so-called "Cyprus Syndrome" of the General Secretary of the Communist Party of Bulgaria Todor Zhivkov, who was seriously afraid of the implementation of such a scenario in his country. In December 1984, the “Renaissance Process” campaign began in Bulgaria to change Turkish and Arabic names to Bulgarian ones, as well as to ban the exercise of Turkish rituals, the performance of Turkish music, and the wearing of hijabs and national clothes. This led to resistance and protests from ethnic Turks, which were accompanied by massive demonstrations, acts of disobedience, sabotage and even terrorist acts by Muslims and retaliatory repression by the Bulgarian authorities. There were victims on both sides (Turks killed and wounded during the protests, civilians killed and injured as a result of terrorist acts, quite a few wounded soldiers and policemen). Finally, on May 27, 1989, Todor Zhivkov demanded that the Turkish authorities open the borders for the Bulgarian Turks wishing to leave Bulgaria. Thus began the exodus of hundreds of thousands of Turks, known in Bulgaria as the "Great Excursion".

"Big excursion" of the Bulgarian Turks


All this time, the Turkish authorities have been convincing their compatriots in Bulgaria that historical they will be greeted to their homeland with all the cordiality and will provide any assistance in settling in a new place. In large cities, rallies were held, at which one could see posters with inscriptions like “To Sofia - on tanks". Some believe that only the firm position of the USSR then kept Turkey from military intervention in the affairs of the neighboring country. The United States and other NATO countries did not want nuclear war, and the Turkish authorities were warned that if they were the first to start hostilities, they would not be helped.

They did not even think about the fact that they really had to receive hundreds of thousands of people in Turkey: its leaders were sure that the communist authorities of Bulgaria would never open the border for free crossing.

In the Turkish communities of Bulgaria, resettlement to a hospitable and free from persecution Turkey has become a dream. As a result, the news of permission to leave the country caused euphoria among many and literally turned off common sense and the ability to calculate the consequences. At the same time, the decision to emigrate the inhabitants of Turkish villages, as a rule, was taken together, and fellow villagers who did not want to go to no one knows where and it was not clear why, the rest threatened with burning their houses and physical harm (after all, not all Bulgarian Turks were deeply religious, and they lived here, not bad at all). Therefore, not all of the settlers then left Bulgaria voluntarily.

From June 3 to August 21, according to official data, 311 862 people crossed the Bulgarian-Turkish border (journalists sometimes round up this figure to 320 thousand, and some even increase it to 360 thousand).

"Big excursion" of the Bulgarian Turks in 1989 and the situation of Muslims in modern Bulgaria
Bulgarian Turks leave the country

It seems surprising, but by that time the level of anger against the Turks was so high that in some places the local authorities destroyed the houses of emigrants so that they would not be tempted to return to Bulgaria.


Train with Bulgarian Turks departing for Edirne

Since most of the Bulgarian Turks lived in rural areas and worked on the land, the country's agricultural sector suffered heavy losses, having lost about 170 thousand workers. To harvest the harvest, the Bulgarian authorities had to send students that year.

The Turkish authorities were angry with the actions of the Bulgarian authorities and expressed all sympathy for the suffering of their fellow tribesmen, but they were completely unprepared to accept hundreds of thousands of settlers. And no one knew what to do with them at all. In this country, there was already a surplus of workers, and the local Turks were not going to give up their places. Reluctantly, the Turkish authorities allocated an amount equivalent to 85 million dollars for the settlement of the Bulgarian Muslims, the USA added another 10 million, Saudi Arabia forked out 15 million.

Initially, everyone was settled in a large camp in Edirne, then transported to smaller camps in other regions, some even ended up in Northern Cyprus, unrecognized by the world community.


Camp for Bulgarian Turks, Edirne, June 30, 1989


Bulgarian Turks in a camp built to house them, Edirne, June 30, 1989

In the regions, the settlers were also not met very friendly, because rumors spread that the Bulgarian special services intentionally infect them with serious infectious diseases such as HIV, tuberculosis, hepatitis and even leprosy. In addition, the mentality of the newcomers was very different from the traditional Turkish. Bulgarian Muslims were unpleasantly surprised by the archaic nature of public relations in Turkey, the citizens of this country were shocked by the secularity and relaxedness of the "guests", especially women, whose clothes and behavior seemed absolutely indecent to many. It is curious that the spread of women's shorts and short skirts in this country is associated with the appearance of the Bulgarian Muslims in Turkey. Also characteristic are the nicknames that the locals then gave to the newcomers "brothers": "Bulgarians" and "infidels".

Some of the Bulgarian Turks, disillusioned, left the camp in Edirne almost immediately. At the border, they met with new crowds of immigrants and tried to tell them what awaits them in "blessed Turkey." In response, those called them provocateurs and agents of special services, scolded them and just did not beat them.

On August 21, 1989, the Turks could not stand it and closed the entrance to their territory. Many researchers cite socio-economic considerations as the main reason: Turkey's budget was bursting at the seams, local irritation against newcomers was growing, who, in turn, expressed their dissatisfaction more and more loudly. Information about the real situation of the Bulgarian settlers was already beginning to leak into the press, and this negatively affected the international image of Turkey. But there is an opinion that the Turkish authorities decided to close the borders, realizing that they were losing that notorious "Fifth Column", and with it - the opportunity to influence the situation in Bulgaria.

Soon the reverse process of the return of disappointed Turks to Bulgaria began, and there were more than 183 thousand of them. Since the Turkish authorities issued tourist visas for them at the entrance for a period of three months, and more than half then returned back, this tragic exodus of the Bulgarian Turks was given a strange and a little funny name "Great excursion". After Bulgaria's accession to the European Union, the Turks who made the "Great Tour" got an unexpected bonus: since they did not renounce Bulgarian citizenship, now they show a Bulgarian passport when entering other European countries, and in Turkey they use a local one.


Flags of Bulgaria and Turkey

The fall of Todor Zhivkov


The growing tension in society, superimposed on problems in the economy, hastened the fall of Todor Zhivkov.

The Bulgarian secretary general, despite the pressure from Gorbachev and his entourage, tried to resist the "line on Perestroika", announcing that he had already carried it out for a long time - more than 30 years ago, when he came to power (Todor Zhivkov did not respect Gorbachev at all: he said that the Soviet secretary general " in love with himself and is engaged in idle talk ", and behind his back called him" a collective farmer-enthusiast ").

Despite certain difficulties, which were caused by the limitation of assistance from the USSR and the bankruptcy of the debtors of Bulgaria in the countries of the "Third World", in 1986-1989. in Bulgaria there was a steady growth in industrial production, and the life of ordinary Bulgarians could not be called hard.


Bulgarian department store, photograph from the 80s. Source: lostbulgaria.com

In terms of living standards, Bulgaria in 1989 ranked 3rd in the CMEA and 27th in the world (after 10 years of reforms and movement along the capitalist path of development - already 96th). At that time 97% of Bulgarian citizens had their own house or a separate apartment, while in the USA only 50%. And the policy of the authorities towards Muslim Turks among Orthodox Christians did not cause much outrage, especially after the start of the terrorist attacks. Therefore, “environmental activists” were raised to fight Zhivkov. The first anti-government protests were organized in 1987-1988. in the city of Ruse (which, by the way, is called "Little Vienna" and "the most aristocratic city in Bulgaria"). The most interesting thing is that the chlorine plant, against whose activities they protested, was located in Romania - in the city of Giurge. And it was difficult to imagine how the Bulgarian authorities could close it. Break diplomatic relations with Romania? Or declare war on her?


The cities of Ruse and Giurgiu on the map


A bridge across the Danube connecting the cities of Giurgiu and Ruse. Photo: europarl.europa.eu


One of the protests in Ruse

Many years have passed, for a long time there are no communists in power in Bulgaria, and in the city of Ruse there are the same problems associated with the work of the Romanian plant: protesters periodically block the bridge across the Danube, connecting their city with Giurgiu, and the road leading to Varna.


Protest action in Ruse, October 2016

Nevertheless, in 1988, the first large informal organization in Bulgaria was created - the Public Committee for Environmental Protection of Ruse.

In the capital, the rebellion against the Secretary General was led by Bulgarian Foreign Minister Pyotr Mladenov, who on October 24, 1989 called for changes in the country (“Change! - our hearts demand” - remember?) And resigned - just like Shevardnadze. He left, as it turned out, not for long: the supporters of this “people's tribune” in the Politburo on November 10, 1989, dismissed Todor Zhivkov, appointing Mladenov in his place.


P. Mladenov's speech at the plenum of the Bulgarian Communist Party on November 10, 1989

Later, Mladenov became the first president of Bulgaria, but very quickly resigned. The fact is that from somewhere surfaced and was published an audio recording in which this democrat expressed a desire to be supported by tanks in November 1989 instead of the demonstrators (among whom there were many Turks).

The very same demonstration against Todor Zhivkov, at which, according to Petr Mladenov, there was a very shortage of tanks:



Source: year1989.pl

Todor Zhivkov was put on trial on charges of illegal enrichment, usurpation of power and forcible deportation of the Turks (although, as we remember, no one drove them out of the country, and they went to the “Great Excursion” to Turkey themselves). But as he later said in an interview:

It is proven that I was the only government leader who did not have accounts in Bulgarian and foreign banks. I wear old things and have nothing.


Michael Karapaunov. Portrait of Todor Zhivkov

Nevertheless, on September 4, 1991, the court sentenced Zhivkov to 7 years in prison, but due to his illness, the former secretary general was not in prison, but under house arrest. Until January 21, 1997 (when the Prosecutor General's Office replaced house arrest with a recognizance not to leave) he lived with his granddaughter, who, even after getting married, did not fundamentally change her surname. Evgenia Zhivkova achieved success, becoming both a Member of Parliament (in 2001) and a successful fashion designer (she received the Golden Needle award twice), the owner of the Zhenya Style chain of prestigious stores.


Evgenia Zhivkova presents her new collection. Source: bgonair.bg

It was in her modeling agency that the design of the uniform of the stewardesses of Bulgaria Air, a state airline, was developed.


Flight attendants Bulgaria Air

Zhivkov died in 1998 at the age of 87, and the President of Bulgaria, Petr Stoyanov, said then that with his death "the era of Bulgarian communism has ended." Not a bad compliment, by the way: few people are credited with the honor of "ending an era" (or opening a new one). Not so many years have passed since then, but who now outside Bulgaria remembers Petr Stoyanov? And who is interested in it in Bulgaria? Meanwhile, at various rallies and demonstrations, you can still see posters with the inscriptions: “Without Tosho, from den to den stava-losho” (“Without Tosho, it gets worse every day”).

The Bulgarian authorities refused to grant Zhivkov's relatives a funeral with state honors and did not even provide premises where those who wish could say goodbye to him. The stronger was their amazement and even shock when thousands of people came to his funeral, and seeing off the leader of socialist Bulgaria became a kind of slap in the face to the "democratic forces" and an impartial assessment of the activities of the new rulers of this country.


The funeral ceremony of Todor Zhivkov


Tomb of T. Zhivkov at the Central Sofia cemetery

Dimitar Ivanov, professor at the University of National and World Economy, director of the Stefan Stambolov Institute for Theory and Practice of Leadership, said in 2008:

Although only 20 years have passed since the death of Todor Zhivkov, history is already favorable to him. More and more often, remembering Zhivkov and his time, we do not think badly of him. According to sociological studies carried out in recent years, Zhivkov is one of the most successful Bulgarian politicians over the past 140 years. He always ranks among the five most prominent figures, and for half of our citizens he is the main figure in Bulgarian history.

I translated this quote with the help of an Internet translator, literary processing the resulting translation. It seems to me that it is absolutely correct and without distorting the meaning.

Bulgarian readers can check:

And makar da sa minali itself 20 years from smrtt on Todor Zhivkov, history is favorable to him. All honestly, we are missing Zhivkov and not good time, in spite of the historical distance, we are not missed with losho. When you are looking for sociological lessons, prez last years Zhivkov is one of the only ones from find successful balgarski d'rzhavnitsi to modern balgarska d'rzhava prez observe 140 years V'v all cases are the same in petitsata, and for half of the balgari Zhivkov is a figure.

Of course, Dimitar Ivanov served in the state security organs of the People's Republic of Bulgaria, and his opinion may be biased, but his words about the data of opinion polls are absolutely correct. In modern Bulgaria, Bai Tosho (bai - literally "peasant", in rural areas is used as a form of addressing respected men who have not reached the old age, sometimes translated as "uncle", Tosho - a diminutive form of the name Todor) is really sympathetic to more than half population of the country. And even Boyko Borisov (one of the prime ministers of the new Bulgaria) commented in 2011 on the celebration of Zhivkov's centenary in his native village of Pravets (where, unexpectedly for the new authorities, people came from all over Bulgaria):

If we can do at least one hundredth of what Todor Zhivkov has achieved for Bulgaria, and what has been done over the years, it would be a huge success for the government. The fact that no one forgets him 20 years after his departure from power shows how much he has done. We have been privatizing for 20 years what was built then.


Memorial sign in the courtyard of Zhivkov's house in Pravets. The inscription reads: "I, Todor Zhivkov, used all the power I had for the good of my people."

Public organizations, the Hana Arend-Sofia Center, the Anna Politkovskaya Freedom of Expression Association, the Coalition for Fair Governance and the Center for Rehabilitation of Torture Victims, appealed to the President of the European Parliament Yezha with a request to interfere in the internal affairs of Bulgaria and prevent the celebration of this anniversary. Because this, it turns out, is “discrediting the entire democratic process in the country and humiliating the country as an EU member”. Yes, these are the liberals now in Bulgaria, and this is their idea of ​​democracy. But they got one thing for sure: respect for Todor Zhivkov really discredits themselves, and the "achievements" of the reformers, and the "democratic process" in Bulgaria.

Muslims in modern Bulgaria


One way or another, the anti-Islamic campaign was stopped, and in 1990 about 183 thousand of the Muslims who had left for Turkey returned to Bulgaria (but there was also a return flow of economic emigration to Turkey - “for a better life”: in 1990-1997, about 200 thousand Muslims). A decision was also made on the right of the Turks who left in 1989 to a Bulgarian pension and compensation for the property left behind. Some Bulgarian Turks received dual citizenship and still live in two houses. Turkey and Bulgaria even signed an agreement on the mutual recognition of military service. New mosques and madrassas were opened in Bulgaria.


Mosque in the village of Grokhotno, built on the site of the old one in 1992


Madrasah, city of Shumen, Bulgaria

At the official level, three holidays have been established for Bulgarian Muslims - Eid al-Adha, Eid al-Adha and Prophet Muhammad's birthday: according to the Labor Code and the Law on Civil Servants of this country, Muslims these days have the right to arrange a day off at the expense of annual leave, or - no content. But Christmas and Easter are still public holidays and days off.

One of the first parties created after the fall of the communist regime was the party of ethnic Turks, the Movement for Rights and Freedom (DPS). It was headed by Ahmed Dogan, a former employee of the Department of Philosophy of the Sofia University named after St. Kliment Ohridski, previously convicted of terrorism. In the 90s. in the parliamentary elections, this party gained about 7% of the vote, but since 2005 it has significantly improved its results, now gaining from 12 to 15%.


Ahmed Dogan

Currently, this party, according to Dogan himself, is "the balancer of the political system and the guarantor of ethnic peace in Bulgaria." The fact is that in this country none of the main parties (the Union of Democratic Forces, the Bulgarian Socialist Party, Citizens for the European Development of Bulgaria, the National Movement of Simeon II) can traditionally gain the number of votes required to make their own decisions. Therefore, each of these parties has to conclude an agreement with the Islamic Movement for Rights and Freedom, which uses its unique position with considerable benefit for itself.

On January 19, 2013 in Sofia, at the 8th national DPS conference in Ahmed Dogan, Oktay Yenimehmedov, a Muslim, 25-year-old activist of this party from the city of Burgas, tried to shoot. His pistol turned out to be gas and also misfired, so some consider this incident to be a staged one.


Detention of Oktay Yenimehmedov

Dogan is still the honorary chairman of the DPS and has a lot of political influence. During the protests in Bulgaria, which began in July 2020 and directed against Prime Minister Boyko Borisov (leader of the center-right party "Citizens for European Development of Bulgaria"), Dogan also got hit. The protesters called him one of the main oligarchs in Bulgaria and accused him of corruption and the creation of a number of mafia structures (for example, they claim that almost all tobacco production in this country is under the control of the DPS and Dogan personally).

And in 2016, an absolutely pro-Turkish party "Democrats for Responsibility, Freedom, Tolerance" (DOST, this abbreviation means "Friend" in Turkish) was created in Bulgaria. It was headed by a native of the Bulgarian province of Kardzhali Lutvi Mestan (curiously - a former agent of the Bulgarian state security). He succeeded Ahmed Dogan as leader of the DPS, but was removed and even expelled from the party after he approved the destruction of a Russian front-line bomber Su-2015 by a Turkish fighter in November 24. This position jarred even the founder and honorary chairman of the DPS Ahmed Dogan and other functionaries of this party. But, as you can see, Lyutvi Mestan did not disappear - he “emerged” in his historical homeland, in Bulgaria.


Lütfi Mestan

In 2017, the Minister of Labor and Social Security of Turkey Mehmet Muezzinoglu called on people who also have Bulgarian citizenship to go at the state expense to the border regions of Bulgaria to vote for DOST. Supporters of other parties responded by blocking dozens of buses with "vacationers" at the border. As a result, the new party was unable to overcome the 4% barrier, but, as the saying goes, "the hardest thing is the beginning." In Bulgaria, the threat of such a clear influence from abroad was taken seriously, and in 2018 the Plovdiv Regional Court terminated the activities of the Batu Platform Association, through which Turkey funded the DOST. But I think that Recep Tayyip Erdogan will find another opportunity to help this party for the new election campaign.

Currently, up to 12,2% of citizens of Bulgaria consider themselves Muslims (in France, by the way, already about 9%). Turkish is called their native language by 9,6% (another 4,1% named Roma as such, while the share of Roma in the country's population is 4,7%). For the rest, the native language is Bulgarian. In addition to Orthodox Christians and Muslims, 0,6% of Bulgarian citizens are Catholics and 0,5% Protestants.


Resettlement of Muslims in modern Bulgaria, data from 2011


Settlement of Roma in modern Bulgaria, data from 2001

In the next articles we will continue our story about the Balkan subjects of the Ottoman sultans and talk about Serbs, Montenegrins, Croats, Albanians, Bosnians and the state of Turkey on the eve of World War I.
Author:
Articles from this series:
Bulgaria as part of the Ottoman state
"Cyprus Syndrome" by Todor Zhivkov and "The Renaissance Process"
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  1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
    Kote Pan Kokhanka 30 November 2020 05: 45
    +13
    "Everyone has their own skeleton in the closet."
    An interesting excursion to the unknown events in Bulgaria. Thanks!!!
    1. The leader of the Redskins
      The leader of the Redskins 30 November 2020 07: 37
      +7
      I subscribe to your words. I read it with great interest, since I had never even heard of this "excursion".
    2. Catfish
      Catfish 30 November 2020 16: 27
      +5
      Hello, hello! hi
      I have received fresh information, I hasten to share.
      1. Korsar4
        Korsar4 30 November 2020 20: 41
        +1
        That is, communication with Labradors was not in vain? You can derive benefit from everything.
        1. Catfish
          Catfish 30 November 2020 22: 44
          +1
          I'm already starting to be somehow afraid of the neighbor's labradorite, and suddenly ... Well, you never know what.
          1. Korsar4
            Korsar4 30 November 2020 22: 49
            +1
            And what, in your area there were recent elections with your participation?
            1. Catfish
              Catfish 30 November 2020 23: 27
              +3
              There have been no elections with my participation in the current millennium. And when there was participation, there was no choice. laughing
              1. Korsar4
                Korsar4 1 December 2020 03: 27
                +1
                Then you can walk by the Labradors calmly. And the cat will figure it out.
                1. Catfish
                  Catfish 1 December 2020 03: 33
                  +1
                  The neighbors' dogs are simply afraid of my cat. laughing
                  1. Korsar4
                    Korsar4 1 December 2020 04: 07
                    +1
                    Of course, I'm glad for him. I hope that there is a suitable breed composition: no Airedale Terriers.
  2. tihonmarine
    tihonmarine 30 November 2020 05: 59
    +10
    In terms of living standards, Bulgaria in 1989 ranked 3rd in the CMEA and 27th in the world (after 10 years of reforms and movement along the capitalist path of development - already 96th). At that time 97% of Bulgarian citizens had their own house or a separate apartment, while in the USA only 50%.
    And so everywhere in the post-Soviet space, we all studied the economics of capitalism and the "History of the CPSU (b)" badly.
    "Close the elbow, but do not bite." Repeatedly in Soviet times, I rested on Solnechny Bryag and Zlata Piasts, indelible memories. After the collapse, I repeatedly went to the ports of Burgas and Varna, where I no longer saw that cheerful and cheerful Bulgaria, everything was like us, the former Soviet republics. Tired, angry faces are everywhere, there is no children's laughter, as if we are all from a distant planet. Amen.
  3. Korsar4
    Korsar4 30 November 2020 07: 42
    +7
    It was a little surprising that in modern France, Muslims are only 9%. Visually, there is a feeling that there is more. Down and Out trouble started.

    In general, Europe is changing its face. And it is consolidated at new levels.

    And the countryside not only in Bulgaria is different from the urban one.
    And the main capital is people.

    Just do not forget that people are people, not just capital.
    1. Avior
      Avior 30 November 2020 12: 39
      +5
      It was a little surprising that in modern France, Muslims are only 9%. Visually, there is a feeling that there is more.

      I got the impression that they are not evenly settled.
      There are a lot in Paris, but in some Rouen and in the hinterland, they are rather an exception.
      1. Korsar4
        Korsar4 30 November 2020 13: 02
        +4
        I thought about the same. But urbanization is underway. And the main population growth is in large cities: at least Paris, at least Lyon, at least Marseille.

        And who voluntarily climbs into Montagniers. Communities are established there.
      2. vladcub
        vladcub 30 November 2020 13: 55
        +3
        They, too: "lip is not a fool" understand that it is better to live in the capital than in Mukhoska.
        I doubt very much about 9%. There are at least 19% of them.
        1. Bolt cutter
          Bolt cutter 30 November 2020 17: 24
          +5
          I doubt very much about 9%.
          The point is that they do not work, but rummage around the streets, that is, they are simply more noticeable. And in the evening, when the French are at home, they just hang out or sit outside in "their" cafes. And the French have work / study-home.
          1. vladcub
            vladcub 30 November 2020 17: 59
            +2
            And this happens
  4. Aviator_
    Aviator_ 30 November 2020 08: 30
    +5
    An interesting series of articles. Respect to the author.
  5. Van 16
    Van 16 30 November 2020 09: 24
    +5
    Liked, interesting, thanks!
    And about Todor Zhivkov it is well written, objectively and without chernukha.
  6. Daniil Konovalenko
    Daniil Konovalenko 30 November 2020 10: 13
    +12
    (Todor Zhivkov did not respect Gorbachev at all: he said that the Soviet secretary general was "in love with himself and was engaged in idle talk," but behind his back he called him "an enthusiastic collective farmer")
    .
    In general, I was right ..
    1. vladcub
      vladcub 30 November 2020 18: 30
      +1
      "Kolkhoznik enthusiast" I myself am from a kolkhoz and I am a little unpleasant of this irony.
      Actually, our country was built on enthusiasm.
  7. KVU-NSVD
    KVU-NSVD 30 November 2020 10: 21
    +1
    At the official level, there are three holidays for Bulgarian Muslims - Eid al-Adha, Eid al-Adha and the Birthday of the Prophet Muhammad:
    New mosques and madrassas were opened in Bulgaria.
    ]
    In the 90s. in the parliamentary elections, this party gained about 7% of the vote, but since 2005 it has significantly improved its results, now gaining from 12 to 15%.
    In 2017, the Minister of Labor and Social Security of Turkey Mehmet Muezzinoglu called on people who also have Bulgarian citizenship to go at the state expense to the border regions of Bulgaria to vote for DOST. Supporters of other parties responded by blocking dozens of buses with "vacationers" at the border
    Currently, up to 12,2% of the citizens of Bulgaria (in
    The given compilation of quotes is an explanation of my conclusions from the read cycle of articles by the author. No abrupt steps lead to the unity and unitarization of society in a state where reverse processes have been going on for centuries, but only stratifies and radicalizes it. And given the active and aggressive support of the ethnic metropolis, coupled with the high demography of ethnic minorities, it gradually leads to an increase in the role of these minorities in the traditional composition of society. Zhivkov, of course, did a lot for Bulgaria, but the beginning of the sharp and violent Bulgarization of the Turks was a mistake that rocked the country and became one of the steps towards the fall ... Although ... After the fall of the USSR, the fall of socialist Bulgaria would still become inevitable, as well as her chosen vector of geopolitical development.
  8. faterdom
    faterdom 30 November 2020 10: 55
    +2
    A very interesting article about things and events absolutely unknown to us,
    Global manipulation, where the masses are still so dark and dark among their people (even with candidate and doctoral degrees - but dark) rushed after the chimeras, and lost what they had.
    How is it in the Old Testament (or in the Torah?)
    Everything has already happened ... and it will still be!
    However, someone specifically manipulates, and continues to do so. Okay, there, the Turkish party in Bulgaria, of course, but what is the "Anna Politkovskaya center"? What is a mawlaw peacock?
    I would like to hope that people are getting wiser from such "bumps" stuffed ... But no, new generations are born and grow up, and again into battle: "You are mossy retrogrades! You don't understand anything! We want lace iPhones and 12th panties ! "
    "Don't skache - that moska l (Turk, Greek, Azeri, Armenian, Kurd, Husit ...)"
  9. Pavel57
    Pavel57 30 November 2020 10: 57
    +3
    The share of Turkish capital is greater than the share of the Turkish population.
    1. Sergey Sfiedu
      Sergey Sfiedu 30 November 2020 19: 32
      0
      We also have a larger share of the Caucasian and Jewish capital than the share of the Caucasian and Jewish population.
  10. Kostadinov
    Kostadinov 30 November 2020 11: 34
    +5
    The most interesting thing is that the chlorine plant, against whose activities they protested, was located in Romania - in the city of Giurgi.

    It should be added that this is a plant with Western technology and equipment.
    The "Big Tour" showed not only all the madness of the "revival process", but also the policy of restricting emigration to the West.
    If they didn’t force people to change their names and let everyone wishing to live in the West, both Bulgarians and Turks and Tsigans, then the entire political situation in Bulgaria could have turned out to be completely different at the end of 1989. The opponents of the government were reduced by a million or more and, moreover, they were active.
    This meant a deep cleansing of society from all anti-socialist and anti-Bulgarian elements at a decisive moment.
  11. dzvero
    dzvero 30 November 2020 11: 39
    +10
    Nice and objective article!
    A few touches (like what I bought for, I sell for that) ...
    The father-in-law had (and still has) Turkish friends. And here one before the "excursion" gives him a knife and says - I should have slaughtered at least one Bulgarian, but I don't hold a grudge against them, take it as a keepsake ...
    The attitude of the Turks towards the Bulgarian excursionists was very negative. Those who returned told how they were robbed and beaten by the military at the border. About the fact that they were called infidels and the Bulgarians were also told.
    We have some of those in power who have made a good deal of buying gold and property for a priceless price. In the 90s, several cases were even initiated, although he was not interested in the result.
    Those who had an education - teachers, doctors, engineers - settled in Turkey ... A classmate from a teacher training college with her husband left at that time. Settled up in Istanbul; about two years ago they were visiting. The attitude is normal, hospitable, kind, but they do not want to remember the details of the "move".
    My classmate also left then; said to have ended up in Northern Cyprus. In fact, quite a few of them did not settle in European Turkey, but scattered around the outskirts. Traveled a couple of times to Audrin and Istanbul; many sellers speak (or at least understand) Bulgarian. Audrina markets even accept our money at the exchange rate.
    Today the Bulgarian Turks are not very eager to get to Turkey. The EU is much more attractive. Whole villages go to work. As for their party, it is an ordinary corrupt structure that makes a profit on its "solid" electorate. The leaders have feudal habits, right. The good news is that competitors for the fodder base cannot stand the spirit and spread rot in a black way.
  12. ccsr
    ccsr 30 November 2020 12: 42
    +5
    An interesting article that deserves attention for those who are interested in Bulgaria and its past. With Zhivkov, the same thing happened as with Honecker - only with time did people begin to understand that these figures cared about their peoples.
  13. APASUS
    APASUS 30 November 2020 13: 10
    0
    (in France, by the way, already about 9%).

    Walking around Paris, I would not say that there are only 9% Muslims in France, at least 20-25%
    1. VLR
      30 November 2020 13: 53
      +3
      According to INED, in 2009, 9% of French citizens were Muslim. According to IFOP (a polling organization) in 2011 Muslims in France were 7%. The 2015 CIA Statistics Yearbook gives figures of 7-9%. In one of the documents of the French government in 2014, the figure is 9%. However, data from independent surveys give a figure of 13-15%.
      In early 2016, l'Obs magazine published data from a voluminous scientific study, during which 9 thousand high school students were interviewed.
      38.8% did not associate themselves with any religion.
      33.2% identified themselves as Christian
      25.5% identified themselves as Muslim
      1.6% are Jews.
      That is, a quarter of French schoolchildren are Muslims (and in the Parisian district of Saint-Denis, more than half of schoolchildren are children from Muslim families).
      At the same time, among those who called themselves Christians, only 40% said that "religion is important to them." But of these, only 22% identified themselves as Catholics, that is, they were actually French: the rest, apparently also children of emigrants - Orthodox, followers of the Armenian Church, Copts-Christians, Protestants. For Muslims, the indicator of "the importance of faith" reached 83%.
      Here is such an interesting picture about the "saturation" of various regions of France with mosques:
      1. Avior
        Avior 30 November 2020 13: 59
        +3
        in Paris, purely outwardly, there are a lot of Arabs and blacks, but if you drive off to the side, their number sharply decreases, again, purely by eye.
        1. VLR
          30 November 2020 14: 06
          +7
          In Paris, if you see "white" in the center - in 99% of cases it is a tourist. I was convinced of this once from my own experience. About 10 years ago I was looking for a metro station in the center (they are there, like "rat holes", completely invisible, if you walk five steps away, you will not always notice the entrance). I looked at people and thought: who can be local? A young couple with backpacks, they look like high school students or students - I think they are from the Czech Republic. Woman with baby carriage - answered in English. Three middle-aged women turned out to be "ours". A business man with a briefcase in his hands - apparently from Germany. And only an old lady, who looks over 80 years old, is a Parisian.
          1. Avior
            Avior 30 November 2020 14: 11
            +6
            French and French women, they have types with a characteristic appearance, there are quite a few of them, student children are often mixed in groups.
            Young people on holidays with a bottle of wine can be found in noticeable numbers on the banks of the Seine - clearly local.
            And so it is understandable that a Frenchman on Concord Square is like a Muscovite on Krasnaya. smile
            1. VLR
              30 November 2020 14: 13
              +3
              Yes, it was nearby, I was heading to Concorde Square (this was the meeting place for the group): I wanted to take the metro stop.
              1. Avior
                Avior 30 November 2020 18: 06
                +2
                This is the part of Paris where tourists concentrate as much as possible :)))
  14. vladcub
    vladcub 30 November 2020 13: 46
    +3
    Valery, I'm not a woman to declare: "You are lovely" or something weirder.
    Let me just say: YOU ARE A GOOD MAN.
  15. pytar
    pytar 30 November 2020 14: 23
    +12
    Nice informative review! Thanks to the author Ryzhkov V.A. hi
    A few words about Todor Zhivkov: Among the rulers of Bulgaria for its 1300 year history, he is in the top ten for the duration of his tenure in power - 33 years and 7 months. In socialist countries, he is in first place. The personality is very ambiguous, but among social leaders, he was distinguished by prudence, pragmatism, not dogmatist. During his reign, Bulgaria achieved both some successes and many mistakes were made, some of them with far-reaching consequences. Revitalizing processes are one of them.
    Tezza that under Bai Tosho, Bulgaria prospered economically, does not answer the facts. In fact, the Bulgarians then lived well and certainly better than the citizens of the USSR, but this was a deceptive prosperity. The socialist economy was extremely ineffective, the country constantly needed loans in hard currency. During the reign of Zhivkov, Bulgaria went bankrupt already 3 times! In the 70s, Todor Zhivkov was forced to sell 30 tons of gold from the gold and foreign exchange reserve in order to pay off creditors to get new loans. At the end of the 80s, Bulgaria turned out to be completely bankrupt - the treasury had only about $ 300 million and by the end of the year, it was necessary to pay $ 1 billion on loans! Declared a default! For comparison, now Bulgaria is in 2nd place in the EU, in terms of the lowest external debt to GDP! Gold and foreign exchange reserves by 2019 $ 28,8 billion! Incomes are growing steadily, a lot is being built, new enterprises are opening! The general deterioration of the economic situation in the world due to the pandemic affects Bulgaria weakly. For example, in the EU, Bulgaria is the only country whose budget deficit will be below 3%! And the economy, according to forecasts, will reach a pre-pandemic level by 2022.

    For a general idea of ​​how the country's economy developed - a table with GDP 1970-2020.


    The revival process did not achieve the goals that the authorities set for themselves. He split the society, gave weighty propaganda arguments into the hands of the Pan-Turkists. There were bloody terrorist attacks, people fell into stress and confusion.

    Ultimately, when we evaluate the Renaissance process, we must put it in comparison with the unimaginable atrocities, the endless terror that the Turks of the 5th century repaired in Bulgaria!
    1. vladcub
      vladcub 30 November 2020 18: 12
      +2
      Boyan, thank you for your illustrative illustrations. It's good when there is a TC "look from the inside".
      You have been to Serbia, Montenegro and it would be great if you continue to complement Valery.
    2. iskanderzp
      iskanderzp 30 November 2020 20: 56
      +1
      Boyan! You, of course, know better on the spot. But when I visit your country, I communicate with ordinary people as much as I can: drivers, police officers, sellers, etc. And the current economic situation, in their words, is far from the most rosy. As I was told, only the coast lives well. The further inland, the worse. Young people work abroad. The industry is in decline. The general conclusion, from their words: "The EU gave us something, took something away." Although, in fairness, I did not hear any frank complaints, they say, "everything is bad". So, fifty-fifty.

      P.S. Valery! Thanks for the interesting cycle. I learned (and continue to learn) a lot of new things!
      1. pytar
        pytar 30 November 2020 23: 32
        +5
        I will reveal a little secret of the Bulgarian mentality! No matter how they live, my sonarists will always complain. Even if a person is prosperous, who has succeeded in life, he will not brag, but rather complain about something, but he would not be jinxed! The political and economic system, in which everyone was conditionally equal, and some were "more equal", is long gone. Nostalgia among the older generation, and the less educated, due to their less adaptability, is present, and this is normal. The new system has its drawbacks, such as social division. But in comparison with the beginning of the transition period, now life has actually improved in general, especially after joining the EU. Membership in the Union is supported by 2/3 of the inhabitants of Bulgaria, and this is the part that is economically active, educated, people in the young and middle age. I am already elderly, at one time I even held a rally against the EU, but from the standpoint of time and results, I believe that membership in the EU is the best thing that happened in the history of Bulgaria! hi
        1. nedgen
          nedgen 3 December 2020 23: 49
          +2
          Sorry Boyana, but for example, although I live in the EU (unfortunately not in Bulgaria), I do not think that the EU in its present form should exist. Yes, according to statistics, Bulgaria now lives better, but I'm not absolutely sure about it. Education is many times worse than before 1989. I don’t want to talk about healthcare. Abusive words are not enough. About the political class (rather the mafia) you know better than me. You're much closer to him than I am. As for the fact that all Bulgarians, all the more possible, will always complain, you are right. But you may not believe me, but people who have less money and property complain less. They rather complain about the state machine and the political class and are absolutely right about it. In addition, the criminogenic situation is not even several times, but an order of magnitude worse than before dermocracy. I am also middle-aged, although not yet old. I do not think that I am economically inactive, I do not think that I am not educated. And all the same, I don't think that the loss of national sovereignty is a blessing. And in the EU, we are no longer a sovereign state. Yes Bulgaria got access to the EU market. Received some funding that will soon run dry. And yes, young people and highly educated personnel will always be happy to join the EU because of the opportunity to flee to the west to receive a normal salary. This is what is happening now. There is already a shortage and a considerable number of qualified and not only personnel. And it's okay if, for example, a novice doctor in Germany, France, etc. receives 5-10 times more than an ordinary surgeon in a provincial hospital. Not to mention the ordinary workers. For example, a common fund at a construction site in Britain receives 70 pounds a day after taxes, and in Bulgaria in the provinces of 30 leva a day. Despite the fact that Labor in Britain, in fact, does almost nothing on large construction sites. The funny thing is that even the prices of goods in Britain so far (before Brexit), excluding fuel, have eaten. Energy and gas at the level and even for a number of points LOWER than in Bulgaria. Of course I agree that progress in Bulgaria is visible to the naked eye, but this is only when compared with the devastation of the 90s. We didn't even come close to the level of livestock production until 1989. For a number of points, such as the production of vegetables and fruits, we are not even close. I'm not talking about mechanical engineering and everything connected with them. If we exclude the production of components for Western Europe and military production, then almost nothing will remain. Do not consider the production of furniture for the domestic market to be a serious industry. All that is now developing is auxiliary production for the concerns of Germany and other developed countries. Koneno wine production is developing, but it also does not reach the indicators of 1989. And the main production of grapes has not yet reached 1989. Of course you have IMHO. But me too. They argued before, and everyone remained unconvinced. hi
          1. pytar
            pytar 4 December 2020 01: 00
            +2
            Everything you write would be 10 times worse if Bulgaria did not join the EU! I don't understand what is the alternative? If you know, tell me? And the fate of the EU will be what it will be. Currently Bulgaria has more crawl than harm. The EU collapses, what's the problem? This is a voluntary union, for the difference from all the previous ones!
            1. nedgen
              nedgen 4 December 2020 02: 13
              +2
              Quote: pytar
              Everything you write would be 10 times worse if Bulgaria did not join the EU! I don't understand what is the alternative? If you know, tell me? And the fate of the EU will be what it will be. Currently Bulgaria has more crawl than harm. The EU collapses, what's the problem? This is a voluntary union, for the difference from all the previous ones!

              Well, in one Boyana (if possible on you) you're right. Yes, it could have been not 10 times worse, of course, but it could have been, but it could have been better! Who knows? I'm not Vanga, Uncle Vlaicho or Baba Srebra. There is no if in history.
              But I know one thing 100%. It was not buy Tosho who brought us to bankruptcy in 1989, but the actions of the world behind the scenes. I don't think I need to remind you of the consequences for Bulgaria from the charge of assassination of the Pope! And in 1985 Bulgaria had $ 1 billion of external debt. at the beginning of 1989 there were 4 billion and they were invested in factories in the west. You probably know this too. But at the end of 1989 it suddenly turned out that they owed 8 billion !!! And if I am not mistaken, at the end of 4 these extra 1989 billion ended up in the hands of people like Ognyan Doinov, and not in the hands of the state along with the rest invested in factories and companies. How much is Bulgaria's external debt now? In real money? Nobody answers that question. Even Borisov. All to speak about the percentage of GDP. Yes, and they do not name percentages. And the domestic debt? Somewhere I came across a figure of 96 billion leva !!!! This is, of course, not only the national debt, but the entire debt of Bulgaria and the entire population. Something like these figures to me, unless of course they are correct, do not inspire optimism. As for the external debt, they said something like 25 or 30 billion euros. And where is there something good for the country? They also said that if we enter the euro zone (of course, not officially), the lion will be exchanged for the euro at the rate of 4: 1. And also the largest currency inflow in the country is money transfers of people working abroad to relatives. somewhere around $ 1 - $ 1,5 billion per year. And you call this a good situation? Easy night hi
              P.S. And about the voluntariness of the EU, the grandmother said in two. Tell you how much the EU wanted Britain to pay to get out? (And this is despite the fact that Britain has always contributed more money to the EU budget than it received!) It is as voluntary as NATO membership. Remind you how many countries have left it? And when France tried what happened in it? And what about what could have been, but no one would have allowed this to be a completely different matter. We could follow the Czech or Chinese path without destroying our economy almost to the ground and then start over. (Despite all the tales about very ineffective social economy, there were and are methods to make it work efficiently). It was simply not necessary to strangle the factories with 65% per annum projections before forcing all factories to surrender all funds to the budget, and then forcing them to purchase mobilization reserves at their own expense !!! In this way, ALL companies in the world, without exception, can be bankrupt. So have an easy night. Yours faithfully
              1. pytar
                pytar 4 December 2020 10: 15
                0
                Yes, it could have been not 10 times worse, of course, but it could have been, but it could have been better! Who knows? I'm not Vanga, Uncle Vlaicho or Baba Srebra. There is no if in history.

                Of course we can only guess! But "from Bulgaria outside the EU" would definitely be much worse! You have listed the disadvantages, but you did not mention the advantages! I do not intend to unleash a discussion on this topic here, but Bulgaria is not such a strong economically and resource-based country that could develop outside of a powerful economic union like the EU! And the other, unfortunately not!
                It was not buy Tosho who brought us to bankruptcy in 1989, but the actions of the world behind the scenes.

                You know "The world behind the scenes is to blame for everything, and the Earth is flat and the Americans were not on the Moon ...". laughing And the fact that under Bai Tosho, the country went bankrupt 3 times? Inquire about the bankruptcy that happened in the 60s! 30 tons of gold, etc. And there is nothing, what was happening in the socialist countries? World behind the scenes? No! The system was defective! For a crooked prick, prv pt nyama!
                We could follow the Czech or Chinese path without destroying our economy almost to the ground and then start over.

                I remember that analyzes showed that more than $ 100 billion was needed for restructuring and modernizing the economy !!!! Unthinkable! Will build an energy-intensive and severely-intensive industry, in a country in which there are no energy and raw sources at all, it was bkp-shnoe madness! For such an economy to be competitive, its efficiency must be higher than the world average! Technology? They also cost billions, and who will give them? In the Czech Republic and China, the situation, the conditions are completely different! Not taking into account local conditions guarantees total bankruptcy!
                And about the voluntariness of the EU, the grandmother said in two. Tell you how much the EU wanted Britain to pay to get out? (And this is despite the fact that Britain has always contributed more money to the EU budget than it received!)

                Every Union is a kind of compromise! You cannot crawl only goods, there are obligations! Take an interest, on what principle is the system of mutual assistance in the EU arranged! And Great Britain has always been a separate entity, its presence in the EU has always looked unnatural to me! Great Britain has its own British community of nations!
                1. nedgen
                  nedgen 4 December 2020 23: 44
                  +1
                  Everything is your opinion. As I said it is pointless to argue. If you still believe in America's victories in space, that's your business. The fact that something is repeated 1000 times does not become true, although it is perceived by the majority as true. Glory to Comrade Gebels. Otherwise, you have your own opinion, I have my own. And we are both unlikely to change our opinions, especially since from the fact that you wrote you have a rather warm place in Bulgaria (do not be offended, I just meant that you can afford a lot) and I only had a job and an old mokvich. Even for the renovation of the bathroom of my father's house, I could not scrape together the money, although I had quite a decent salary for 2003 (by local standards, of course) for my city. She was 3 times higher than the minimum, and I don't smoke and hardly drink. That is why I am an emigrant and I think that the so-called. democracy kicked us out, and you like it. And here, although not new ones, I have a car and a bead with which I work (a bunch of tools that I could only dream of in Bulgaria) and my work is in demand, but at home I would get a pittance for the same work. (people didn’t have and don’t have money, probably in Sofia a little differently, but in my city it’s like that). So our argument is like a debate between a deaf and a blind. hi
    3. Renator
      Renator 1 December 2020 10: 49
      0
      Quote: pytar
      There were bloody terrorist attacks, people fell into stress and confusion.

      What city do you live in?
  16. pytar
    pytar 30 November 2020 14: 53
    +6
    By the way, in the first photo there is a section of the Bulgarian-Turkish border of Rezovo / Rezovskaya river /.

    Since the border runs along the farwarter of the river, the Turks from year to year put in an embankment from their banks and lengthened the spit, changing the course of the river, gnawing through parts of the Bulgarian territory. This technique changed the continuation of the border into the Black Sea even more. The Bulgarian authorities forced the mayor to undertake to strengthen his bank and now the Rezovskaya river narrowed to 20 m. To the mouth.
  17. vladcub
    vladcub 30 November 2020 14: 57
    +6
    "The usurpation of power and the forced deportation of the Turks" is of course a conspiracy, but why not assume
    1984 "youth" Mladenov (born in 1936) and Co. decided to shove "grandfather" Todor Zhivkov (born in 1911) and let him tell horror stories. Zhivkov got scared and the foolishness began when an ethnic Turk was made into a Bulgarian in half an hour. If the names of a thousand Turks are changed, this does not mean that there are immediately a thousand more Bulgarians. At least a naive solution.
    If some of the Turks have begun to greyhound, then it is necessary: ​​"to show who is the boss." Here I agree, but changing names and stuff is stupid
    1. nedgen
      nedgen 3 December 2020 23: 04
      +1
      Sorry, Svyatoslav, but not knowing all the ins and outs, the change of names really looks stupid, but this change has transferred the vector of the struggle of the Turkish (Musulman) Maltsinism from the struggle for autonomy to the struggle for the return of names. And after the arrival of dermocracy, everything goes exactly to autonomy. Moreover, in fact, the DPS is an ethnic party (and ethnic parties are a priori FORBIDDEN by the Bulgarian constitution) Even the regional court does not remember which city at one time prohibited its registration, but the absolutely politicized constitutional court overturned this decision and now, in fact, the DPS is running Bulgaria from behind the scenes. for over 25 years. Often this time, I even participate directly in power.
      1. vladcub
        vladcub 4 December 2020 07: 29
        +1
        Do you want to say that changing names is good? As far as I understood from Boyan and Valery: you have the Turkish intelligence service. In this case, it was necessary to identify the "troublemakers" and not add fuel to the fire. Until the names were taken from the Turks, they were mostly indifferent to subversion, and now they began to listen to Turkish propaganda
        1. nedgen
          nedgen 4 December 2020 08: 25
          +1
          Quote: vladcub
          Do you want to say that changing names is good? As far as I understood from Boyan and Valery: you have the Turkish intelligence service. In this case, it was necessary to identify the "troublemakers" and not add fuel to the fire. Until the names were taken from the Turks, they were mostly indifferent to subversion, and now they began to listen to Turkish propaganda

          Hi Svyatoslav, Turkish intelligence is always Shkodil laughing all the more so now when he does it without cringing. And it is impossible to identify the troublemakers if there are no agents. And how much can one trust such agents to say that Ahmed Dogan and almost all the leaders of the Turkish parties in Bulgaria are former agents of the KDS (the State Security Committee was such when they did the terrorist attacks). And I still think that this should have been done only much earlier. Even after 1885. And it has been done several times, but dermocracy has such a bad trait as inconstancy. Each time a Muslim's names were changed, the next première returned the names to earn votes. hi
          1. vladcub
            vladcub 5 December 2020 09: 01
            +1
            Is the CDS the Bulgarian state security? If so, then you had treason to the state security itself and at a high level
  18. Astra wild2
    Astra wild2 30 November 2020 17: 32
    +2
    Valery, I regret that I cannot kiss you. You know how to write wonderful works.
    I like today's work better. There were no dubious statements like: "Zhivkov was scared"
  19. Astra wild2
    Astra wild2 30 November 2020 17: 51
    +2
    "he resigned very quickly" or rather he quickly "left" so as not to block the road to new businessmen from politics
  20. Cure72
    Cure72 30 November 2020 17: 51
    +4
    Very interesting, thank you very much !!! You have excellent articles, a lot was unknown to me.
  21. vladcub
    vladcub 30 November 2020 18: 40
    0
    "I surfaced in my historical homeland - Bulgaria" here I did not understand a little: DPS is a Bulgarian party and DOST is also in Bulgaria, where else can it be?
  22. Keyser soze
    Keyser soze 30 November 2020 19: 02
    +6
    Yes, the author will excuse me, but some kind of chaotic and superficial article - Zhivkov's song of glory mixed with old or incorrect information and information about parties and party life ten years ago. Some parties no longer exist - NDSV, for example.

    According to Bulgarian statistics, 380 thousand left. Returned - nobody. You can't fool around with the communists - they closed the borders and dosvidos. Some were allowed back only under democracy, but they did not return to a permanent basis. When leaving, they sold all the property - where will you return?

    Statistics - Bulgarian Statistical Institute, 2019 - Ethnic Turks in Bulgaria - 8,8% of the population.

    And in general, the article does not describe anything - when and how and why the problems occurred, what attendees took place (terrorists blew up the train), what the army did, how the BKP Politburo and the army reacted to Turkish threats, and so on and so forth.
    1. Astra wild2
      Astra wild2 30 November 2020 20: 34
      0
      Colleague Keuser, give the details that Valery missed.
      How do they assess the "operation" Renaissance "in Bulgaria now? I did not find this with Valery.
      1. Keyser soze
        Keyser soze 30 November 2020 21: 38
        +4
        Colleague Keuser, give the details that Valery missed.


        Hello Astra,

        I would start with a name - not Operation Renaissance, bad translation - it was called the Renaissance Process.
        Valery missed the deep reasons and why the BKP decided to get involved in this. I dumped everything on Cyprus and how, after 20 years, the BKP got scared and did a stupid thing, although they began to think about it in the seventies.
        I missed information about the work of Turkish intelligence in Bulgaria at this time, the creation of terrorist cells and their activities - explosions in trains, railway stations, etc. What thoughts did the BCP lead to and how did the Renaissance process begin - it lasted for several years. Or its active phase.
        Then - how, where and why the process escalated and how the Bulgarian army acted in Turkish villages. There were cases this way and that - sometimes they just passed, sometimes they surrounded the village and waited for surrender and to prison.
        Where and how the riots were declared on the territory of Bulgaria. How many people suffered (15 in the camps, 000 killed).
        What were the threats from Turkey, which units it put on alert and when. How the Bulgarian army reacted and what it did.
        Why are there so many Turks in Bulgaria, what did the country do to them after 1878, and what did the neighbors - Serbia, Greece do ...
        The numbers are not very accurate.
        National Statistical Institute, 2019 - 8,8% of Turks in Bulgaria.
        Zhivkov and his daughter and her career are very redundant in democracy. The topic is not about them.
        Passages about the industry and the development of the country are completely superfluous - they are episodic and not in the subject.
        Information about the pro-Turkish party, especially about DOST, is incorrect - it is a opportunistic party with several people. Information about the traffic police is also not relevant.

        Well, something like this. Sorry, I like the author, I read with pleasure an article about Cyprus, but I did not approach this topic seriously.
      2. Keyser soze
        Keyser soze 30 November 2020 21: 44
        +5
        How do they assess the "operation" Renaissance "in Bulgaria now? I did not find this with Valery.


        I forgot to answer this. Well, how, how .... differently. You know, although we are a conservative Balkan country, we live in a bad neoliberal world. In which it is customary to kneel and not for that ... and we have rightly dented ethnic Turks seriously. There are neoliberals who say this is bad. There are nationalists who say that this is good.

        My opinion is that this is neither good nor bad - it just happened. This is a state policy and at that time, in those circumstances, it worked. Turkey got a good kick in the face, tucked its tail and broke off. Turkish intelligence in Bulgaria received a huge blow and their people were rolled into a thin pancake or shot. Nationalists, among ethnical Turks, were exiled to Turkey. Actually it turned out. Good or bad - we will never understand.

        How do new generations perceive it? - Yes, they don't care ... they are purple - they grow up in a different, digital world and what happened 30-40 years ago does not interest them. So ... everything is ambiguous.
        1. Astra wild2
          Astra wild2 1 December 2020 15: 13
          +1
          I gave you +: I appreciate it when they answer the question I + to a colleague faferdom ': voiced my thoughts
  23. faterdom
    faterdom 30 November 2020 20: 25
    +3
    Quote: Keyser Soze
    In general, the article does not describe anything - when and how

    So add, be so kind.
    Immediately, it is not a textbook that you are invited to learn, by which you then take an exam, here is an article on a topic that is generally little known to us, Russian-speaking forum users.
    Thoughtful comments with details and details, other points of view are welcome.
    The minus is not mine, because I cannot judge - how much you are right or wrong.
  24. Keyser soze
    Keyser soze 30 November 2020 21: 38
    +4
    Quote: faterdom
    So add, be so kind.


    Hello colleague,

    Above answered in detail.
  25. Sergej1972
    Sergej1972 30 November 2020 21: 44
    +2
    We should mention the Pomaks, that is, the Muslim Bulgarians.
    1. Keyser soze
      Keyser soze 30 November 2020 21: 50
      +3
      We should mention the Pomaks, that is, the Muslim Bulgarians.


      Ladies, they were also "prevented" not childishly.
  26. faterdom
    faterdom 30 November 2020 22: 33
    +3
    Quote: Keyser Soze
    Quote: faterdom
    So add, be so kind.


    Hello colleague,

    Above answered in detail.

    Thanks. Added, although, in my opinion, opportunistic and biased. About Zhivkov.
    And we also have a layer of people for whom Stalin is exclusively black paint, other points of view have no right to exist.
    So it is with you: G.M. Dimitrov - nobody, T. Zhivkov - nobody remembers, everything is bad.
    Anti-communism is such, and not constructive, but simply anti- and that's it!
    I would like to know the winners of the "Name - Bulgaria" contest, if one could hold one with a vote (we held this "Name - Russia", where, despite the many years of efforts of our authorities, starting with Khrushchev and not ours, directly from Churchill - Stalin won , but was neatly moved in favor of A. Nevsky.)
    Baba Vanga - 1st place, but who is the second? Suddenly Zhivkov, and you say that he was almost never there, and no one remembers?
    1. Keyser soze
      Keyser soze 1 December 2020 11: 31
      +6
      Baba Vanga - 1st place, but who is the second? Suddenly Zhivkov, and you say that he was almost never there, and no one remembers?


      Well, among the older generations Zhivkov is certainly gaining approval. If memory serves, in 2017 he garnered about 55% of approval, among people of age who lived at that time. And among the younger generations, those that grew up after 1989, his popularity is close to zero. If you ask me when life was quieter and I will answer that under Zhivkov, but I would never have returned at that time. But our heroes are different - Stambolov, Levski, Botev, the Vazov brothers .... Zhivkov is not the character who will attract votes in a potential competition.
      The same is with Dimitrov - for Russians he is a symbol of the communist struggle. For Bulgarians - a traitor to national interests, an agent of the Comintern, Yugoslavia and a drunkard. No one will forgive him that he wanted to stick us into Yugoslavia and that he gave Macedonia, Belomoria, and perhaps not yet.

      The fact is that communism did not arise in our country and it was introduced, so to speak, by force. That is why it is understandable that our ideas had very tiled roots. And your "white" and "red", as I see, have not yet finished with the showdown and are breaking swords on various issues and for a foreign look they are very irreconcilable, it seems to me.
      1. pytar
        pytar 1 December 2020 12: 29
        +2
        Neither add nor subtract! Everything is exactly said! good
    2. pytar
      pytar 1 December 2020 12: 46
      +3
      Baba Vanga - 1st place, but who is the second? Suddenly Zhivkov, and you say that he was almost never there, and no one remembers?

      Dear Andrey hi , I will supplement Eugene's answer, with one help! In the period 09.06.2006 to February 2007, BNT / Bulgarian National TV / conducted a social poll on the topic "Great Bulgarians"! Result on the table down:

      Vanga in 13th place, and Todor Zhivkov in 14th. Georgy Dimitrov at 38th.
      Who is ahead?
      1.Vasil Levski - Fighter, revolutionary, leader and organizer of the struggle for Freedom of Bulgarians from Turkish slavery! Apostle Freedom, we call! An undeniable, pure, holy person!
      2.Petar Danov - Philosopher, founder of religious and philosophical doctrine.
      3.Asparuh - Kanasyuvigi, founder of the Bulgarian state in 681
      4 Simeon I - Simeon the Great, the Bulgarian Tsar, under whom Medieval Bulgaria reached the zenith of its state and cultural power! This reign is called the Golden Age of Bulgaria!
      5.Hristo Botev - revolutionary, fighter against Ottoman rule.
      6 Boris I - the father of Simeon the Great. During the reign of Boris I, Bulgaria adopted Christianity and under his tutelage in Preslav and Ohrid, the Cyrillic alphabet was created!
      7.Konstantin-Cyril the Philosopher and Methods - creators of Glagolice.
      8.Stefan Stambolov - Bulgarian revolutionary, one of the brightest and most prominent Bulgarian statesmen, politician, poet and writer. Regent of Bulgaria during the periods 26.08 - 24.10.1886 and 01.11.1886 - 02.08 1887.
      9.Ivan Vazov - A classic of Bulgarian literature and poetry.
      10 Paisius Hilendarski - OK. 1722 - Enlightener, saint, hieromonk of the KPTs, creator of "Slavonic-Bulgarian History", which played a huge cultural role in the life of the Bulgarian nation. Considered one of the founders of the Bulgarian revival, he called for the liberation of the Bulgarians from the Turkish yoke.
      11 John Atanasov - computer inventor, US citizen, Bulgarian father, Irish mother.
      12.Christo Stoichkov is a footballer who made Bulgaria famous all over the world.
      13.Wanga - a prophetess gaining worldwide fame.
      14.Todor Zhivkov..
      1. faterdom
        faterdom 1 December 2020 12: 53
        +3
        So they expanded the topic, and at times!
        Well done and brothers.
        But about the poll ...
        For me personally, Asparukh Khan, Boris I, or Levski, Cyril and Methodius are understandable.
        But footballer Stoichkov is ahead of Vanga and T. Zhivkov ...
        This is possible in Brazil or Argentina, Ecuador there ...
        But the French will never put their Ziza higher than Napoleon or Charlemagne - imperial thinking because.
        1. pytar
          pytar 1 December 2020 18: 10
          +1
          So they expanded the topic, and at times! Well done and brothers. But about the poll ... For me personally, Asparukh Khan, Boris I, or Levski, Cyril and Methodius are clear. But the footballer Stoichkov is ahead of Vanga and T. Zhivkov ... This is possible in Brazil or Argentina, Ecuador there ... But the French will never put their Ziza higher than Napoleon or Charlemagne - imperial thinking because.

          I literally quoted the poll results! I will explain more ...
          Stoichkov - he is so popular because thanks to his prof. successes, Bulgaria has become positively known in the world, in a crisis period for the entire society. Then the Bulgarians did not feel well, oh here Stoichkov brought a national, everyday positive!
          Vanga is known all over the world, but in Bulgaria there are many others with psychic abilities. Some of them are more developed than Wanga, as she herself said.
          Here I will also say about Vanga's opinion about the Renaissance process! It is told by the cleaning lady of her house - a neighbor, a Turkish woman. Vanga said that the Renaissance processes are necessary and correct, people must be returned to their roots! Probably she meant that the majority of the Bulgarian "Turks" are descendants of the Turkified Bulgarians, they did not come from Asia, as many think.
          Todor Zhivkov is an extremely controversial and controversial personality. Assessments about his activities are polar, the topic does not dull people, but tears them apart!
  27. Kostadinov
    Kostadinov 1 December 2020 13: 04
    +4
    The socialist economy was extremely ineffective, the country constantly needed loans in hard currency. During the reign of Zhivkov, Bulgaria went bankrupt already 3 times!

    It is difficult to think of more stupidity. Economically, bankrupting also means a grave economic crisis, which has never been hit in Bulgaria under socialism.
    The economic crisis in Bulgaria began with the restoration of capitalism.
    For a general idea of ​​how the country's economy developed - a table with GDP 1970-2020.

    I don’t know where this table was taken from. It contains some kind of ratio between the left and the dollar taken from the black market. There are national statistics (NSI) and there the GDP of Bulgaria in 1989 hit 49 billion leva in prices from 1990 then and it can be compared with about 100 billion leva today 2020, scolding about 3 times less purchasing power of the lev in 2020 to 1990 (NSI). Or Bulgaria's GDP in 2020 is much less than in 1989 and not much less per capita since the population fell from 9 million in 1989 to 7 million today.
    There are also estimates on the GDP of Bulgaria from 1870 to the present day, making Madison's students known in 1990 dollars, scolding the depreciation of money from 1990 to 2020 as it should be done with such comparisons.
    1. pytar
      pytar 1 December 2020 18: 30
      +3
      Kostadinov, it is impossible to prove anything to the adherents of the totalitarian system! They have such a decay of mind! Anything that obeys their installation is "stupidity" for them. I lived half my life in those times, let them remain in the past! You cannot dig them out with the grave!
      The table is compiled on buzz purchasing power parity, as far as I know. In 1989, the lion was not convertible. Ego official rate at times differed from the real one. Levs were unsecured securities.
      I just looked at the table, for 1989 the GDP was 22 billion dollars, and according to the NSI, which you mentioned 49 billion levs. Since the beginning of 1988 of. The currency rate at which the enterprises operated was changed from 1,50 to 2,00 leva per 1 currency lev. Septemvri 1989, the exchange rate was changed again by 2,50 leva per 1 currency lev. Even for official courses, it turns out that 49 billion levs / 22 billion dollars = 2,22! Approximately the same ratio as the table! Moreover, in 88 Bulgaria's external debt exceeded $ 10 billion. It could not service them and the old debts were credited at the expense of new ones! So, everything in the table is correct, and even put in an unnecessarily optimistic variant for Bulgaria. hi
  28. alatanas
    alatanas 1 December 2020 15: 29
    0
    It seems surprising, but by that time the level of anger against the Turks was so high that in some places local authorities destroyed the homes of emigrants so that they would not have the temptation to return to Bulgaria

    There was no such thing. The author has overdone it ..
  29. Kostadinov
    Kostadinov 2 December 2020 12: 22
    +2
    Quote: pytar
    The table is compiled on buzz purchasing power parity, as far as I know. In 1989, the lion was not convertible. Ego official rate at times differed from the real one. Levs were unsecured securities.

    No vyi do not know.
    1. The first thing that can be seen is that you do not even report the depreciation of the dollar itself for 30 years. Historical comparisons must be made at constant prices.
    2. The second parity rate of the lev to the dollar has nothing to do with the official exchange rate, much less the exchange rate on the black market. The parity rate shows what can be bought with the national currency on the domestic market - this is more than 80% of GDP (housing and everything that is needed for the first time). The official exchange rate is only for foreign trade, which is approximately 15-20% of GDP, and the exchange rate on the black market serves only a very small volume of trade (less than 1% of GDP) to restrict the range of people and products of tertiary importance.
    3. On the levs, during the period of socialism, you can buy a beat and everyone bought what is necessary for a person's life in the domestic market (housing, food, electricity, heating, transport, treatment, and so on). On the levs, you can buy a beat and everything that is necessary will be imported for industry, transport, army, etc. from other socialist countries. This parity rate of the lev to the dollar was less than the lev for the dollar in 1989. And today, by the way, the parity rate of the lev to the euro is less than the lev for the euro according to Eurostat. For this reason alone, the West gave loans to the NRB in such a volume that did not push 20% of GDP.
    4. The problem with the Western currency has appeared since the beginning of the restoration of capitalism in 1990, when we lost economic ties with other socialist countries. But as you well know, it was solved more than 20 years ago, since the one who provided the loan, and not only the one who received the money, should think about returning your money.
    Moreover, this beat the debt of the Bulgarian Foreign Trade Bank, and not the state debt of Bulgaria (if you do not know this). It became a state debt only with the decision of the National Assembly and after a 50% reduction.
    5. Teach young people, because sooner or later we will leave life and you will be led by the nose with all sorts of primitive manipulations. Although look at what was written by such an opponent of socialism and a well-known economist like Madison.
  30. Jmbg
    Jmbg 6 December 2020 00: 53
    0
    My father was an officer at that time and held a high position. The most difficult moment was the moment when the Turkish fleet approached Burgas. The only Bulgarian oil refinery ... The Bulgarian military leadership asked for support from the USSR, and Gorbachev rejected it. By order of Defense Minister Dzhurov, Soviet officers were removed from the missile systems and replaced by Bulgarian ones. Turkish ships stopped at the border. Soon thereafter, Gorbachev announced the payment in dollars only and finally threw Bulgaria out of Soviet orbit.
  31. xomaNN
    xomaNN 9 February 2021 19: 12
    0
    The "swinging" schemes of stable socialist countries are similar, both in the USSR and in Bulgaria. And the dirtiest methods are applied. And the nations are trying to play off.
    Vile creatures angry