Military Review

Longest range sniper rifles


The sniper rifle is rightfully considered weapons professionals, bringing imminent death to the enemy in a situation completely unexpected for him. The struggle to improve the combat qualities of these means of destroying enemy manpower has been fought since the moment they were separated into a separate class of weapons, whose tactical and technical characteristics were "sharpened" for the performance of very specific tasks. In this case, increased requirements, along with accuracy and reliability, were also put forward for the range of sniper "trunks".

Generally speaking, the birth of sniping as such is considered the American Civil War in 1861-1865. It was then that craftsmen were found who managed to adapt an optical sight to ordinary rifles and thereby solve the problem that prevented firing at really long distances. When trying to aim at a target that was more than 700 yards (630 meters) away from him, the shooter was faced with the fact that the front sight of his weapon was visually larger than the enemy, making aiming impossible.

Nevertheless, there is evidence that even at the end of the 1200th century (in particular during the Crimean War) among the British shooters there were those who, with the help of especially long-range rifled fittings, managed to hit a target at a distance of 100 yards (more than a kilometer). For those times, accustomed to the aiming range of smooth-bore guns of a maximum of XNUMX meters, this was a fantastic achievement.

The real heyday of the sniper business (and the rapid development of the corresponding weapon) came at the beginning of the twentieth century. Mauser and Mannlicher, Enfield and Remington Mannlicher, Krag and Schmidt-Rubin - in this area almost all the "grandees" of the then arms business tried their hand. The aiming range of the best examples of sniper rifles of this generation was already approaching two kilometers. In this regard, the so-called Boer Mauser of the 1896 model was especially appreciated by professionals.

Both rifles, which became rivals on the fields of the Great Patriotic War, met the same range parameter: the Russian Mosin "three-line" and the German Zf.Kar.98k. All the same two kilometers was actually an unattainable limit. Yes, it was possible to improve the sights, making the shooter more "farsighted", but seeing the target at a glance does not mean hitting it. Used by snipers, the Soviet cartridge 7,62x54 mm and the German 7,92x57 mm, with all their power, simply exhausted their ability to deliver a bullet to an even greater distance despite the force of gravity and the wind. The laws of ballistics are harsh and cannot be trampled on.

The "second wind" to the development of the range of sniper rifles was given by their "distant relatives" - anti-tank guns, which by the second half of the twentieth century were slowly turning into an "endangered species". Generated by the appearance of the first samples of armored vehicles during the First World War, they more than successfully passed the Second, especially in the hands of our glorious fighters tanks... However, the rapid improvement of the protection of combat vehicles, in particular the appearance of dynamic armor, which was not capable of hitting every artillery shell, threatened to send them to the armory's dump forever. stories.

As far as is known, the first idea to cross a sniper and an anti-tank rifle was invented by the Americans, the craftsmen from the arms company Research Armaments Prototypes (RAP), who were approached by the representatives of the Pentagon with a corresponding proposal. At the same time, the resulting "hybrid", the AI ​​M500 rifle chambered for 12.7x99 mm NATO (.50 BMG), was considered primarily as a means of destruction not of manpower, but of enemy equipment. However, it was initially considered as a means for combat work at long and ultra-long distances. The initiative was taken up, and soon in the same USA they created the famous Barrett M82 for the same ammunition. The rifle has many modifications, the most modern and perfect of which is the Barrett M99. For a sniper armed with it, it is not a problem to hit targets even at two and a half kilometers.

In fact, all modern long-range sniper "barrels" are variations on the same theme: anti-tank rifle with optics. These include the Hungarian Gepard M1, which is considered the best in its class, chambered for 12,7x108 mm, the Austrian Steyr HS .50, which works both with the previously mentioned .50 BMG, and with the "native" .460 Steyr (11,6x90 mm), the Swiss OM 50 Nemesis (again under 50 BMG), British Accuracy International AW50 chambered for the same cartridge. All of them guarantee confident destruction of the enemy at distances of 2-2,5 kilometers.

Until recently, the championship in the field of range was held by the Americans. For example, the creation of the masters of the Anzio Ironworks company, the Anzio 20-50 Rifle tactical rifle, according to the declared performance characteristics, easily gives an effective shot at a distance of 3,2 kilometers with a bullet flight range of 4 kilometers and a half. This is when using a truly monstrous cartridge of 20x102 mm.

However, in 2012 our gunsmiths still managed to climb the first step of the podium. Until that time, the most long-range Russian sniper rifles were considered OSV-96 and ASVK, which had a target destruction range of up to 2 kilometers. However, the SVLK-14S "Twilight" (large-caliber Lobaev sniper rifle) created in Russia has rightfully won the title of ultra-long-range one!

The officially recorded record for her is hitting a target at a distance of more than 4,2 kilometers. The shot was fired using 408 Cheyenne Tactical ammunition (caliber 10,3x77 mm). Well, now all that remains is to develop an appropriate domestic cartridge for this miracle of technology - and we can assume that in the field of sniper weapons we have wiped off the Americans' nose.
Photos used: "Dusk"
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  1. Deck
    Deck 27 October 2020 18: 47 New
    The main criterion of a sniper rifle is the ability to bounce 2+ kilometers? That is, we take not accuracy, but the density of fire? But what about the principle: "one shot, one dead"? From OSV-96 and ASVK for two kilometers you can only get into the barn. SVLK record from the category of funny curiosities. Like who will eat more hot dogs. Where are the army snipers !!! rifles like those adopted by a potential enemy! In addition to Orsis, the T-5000 does not seem to be visible.
    1. NEXUS
      NEXUS 27 October 2020 19: 22 New
      Quote: Deck
      The main criterion of a sniper rifle is the ability to bounce 2+ kilometers?

      Uh-huh, especially in urban development ... and such a fool under 14 kg to carry a two-meter high. Directly, such a secretive sniper would be. Long-range rifles in military affairs do not have any practical application beyond super duper at all. The working range of a military combat sniper in most cases does not exceed 500 meters, and more often even less. What is two kilometers? Just to prepare an accurate (relatively) shot for 2+ km, you need zeroing, adjustment and not only in the direction of the wind, ... and such a target will sit and wait until it is laid down from 2 kilometers.
      1. Lannan Shi
        Lannan Shi 27 October 2020 19: 38 New
        Quote: NEXUS
        The working range of a military combat sniper in most cases does not exceed 500 meters

        Well, this is hardly a full-fledged sniper, it's still a Marksman.
    2. tol100v
      tol100v 27 October 2020 19: 41 New
      Quote: Deck
      In addition to Orsis, the T-5000 does not seem to be visible.

      And you by any chance do not know who releases ORSIS ?!
      1. Deck
        Deck 27 October 2020 21: 36 New
        LLC "Promtechnology
    3. Split
      Split 27 October 2020 21: 34 New
      We take a spherical horse in a vacuum, in the literal sense ... Now (and 20 years old) from 54 days (I’m not talking about 56), you can put bullets almost 1 in 1 per 50 meters with the declared 18-20 mm, which gives 2 km theoretically less than 40 cm (I think there is no need to explain why accuracy in MOA is measured?). If it flew - not like a shed, you can get into the eye in a squirrel, well, at least you can hit the head with a 70% probability. Why is it so difficult to get to 2km? And the reason is that there is ballistics ... and this is wind, accuracy in determining the distance, temperature stratification of air (different density), humidity, etc. The sniper shot no longer depends on the cartridge and barrel. Simply the maximum speed with a significant mass of the bullet (in measurable criteria for recoil, of course), makes it possible to level the errors in calculating the bullet ballistics. As for the barn, you certainly went overboard. There is even an ancient show Top gun amerskoe, there is not really a sniper, but just people with experience and shooting skills, and who never fired from an M82 at a kilometer (or 1000 yards, I don't remember already) fell into a meter shield without any ballistic calculators (you can raise the series, I just don't remember the episode, season 2 or 3, there was also a the way, 1 of the best seasons IMHO, the ending is awesome)
      1. Deck
        Deck 27 October 2020 21: 44 New
        You do not take a spherical horse, but read something on external ballistics. Better yet, look for an opportunity to shoot somewhere with a rifle. By the way, hitting a meter shield will not give you anything - the person's silhouette is less. Machine gun to help you
        1. Split
          Split 27 October 2020 23: 14 New
          I took you. Regarding the hit, you did not take into account the level of the shooter, you will not get into the barn at 2000m, if it is a criterion for you. I've been shooting rifles since I was 8, although I don't live in the states. At the age of 11, he took the first wolf and not from a machine gun, but an ordinary stock leopard (1, which is 5,45x39). Ignorance, from your point of view, of external ballistics ... well, yes, I know the internal one better - at the age of 11 it does not affect in any way, you cannot count ballistics in the accounts
  2. Undecim
    Undecim 27 October 2020 19: 00 New
    Generally speaking, the moment of birth of sniping
    Generally speaking, there is no such thing as sniping in nature.
    As for sniping, as a type of shooting from a sniper weapon, it is at least the Napoleonic Wars, the British Experimental Rifle Corps, armed with Baker rifles.

    Question - who prepares materials for the site? Nevertheless, the site is called "Military Review" and has versions in foreign languages. That is, the shame from such publications, potentially, to the whole world.
    1. The leader of the Redskins
      The leader of the Redskins 27 October 2020 19: 08 New
      As far as I understand, the authors are yet again "discovering" Lobanov with his outstanding rifles and are in a hurry to instill something under this fact.
      Otherwise, I cannot explain the frequency of articles on Lobaev's weapons.
      1. Undecim
        Undecim 27 October 2020 19: 14 New
        The fact is that the shooting described in the article has no practical value and is purely for advertising. But the qualifications of site "writers" have already dropped so low that the content is filled with all sorts of rubbish.
      2. tol100v
        tol100v 27 October 2020 19: 46 New
        Quote: Leader of the Redskins
        that the authors are "discovering" Lobanov for themselves

        If we talk about rifles, then at least know the Surname of its Creator! Lobaev!
        1. Undecim
          Undecim 27 October 2020 20: 35 New
          "Creator" with a capital letter is God, the demiurge. It seems to me that Lobaev is not drawn to God.
        2. The leader of the Redskins
          The leader of the Redskins 27 October 2020 20: 46 New
          I know the surname, but T9, apparently, is more focused on the series "interns". The second time I wrote it right?
    2. Undecim
      Undecim 27 October 2020 20: 37 New
      As I understand it, the well-deserved site snipers are missing.
      1. The leader of the Redskins
        The leader of the Redskins 27 October 2020 20: 47 New
        They have their index finger in the "-" never misses!)) laughing
      2. Lexus
        Lexus 28 October 2020 00: 25 New
        Apparently, they are given keyboards with a single working button, so as not to get lost.
    3. leks
      leks 28 October 2020 08: 58 New
      Anyone can write an article on VO, including you. The main thing is that your article does not violate local rules and is checked.
      This particular article is in the "opinions" section.
      And opinions as they say are different.
      If you look at the VO archive there are more amateurish and stupid news, opinions will be submitted.
      So go for it, write a long article on sniper rifles.
      And we'll check it out below in the comments.
      1. Undecim
        Undecim 28 October 2020 12: 19 New
        My articles on the site are two dozen. You can check it out. The truth about sniper rifles did not write.
        1. The comment was deleted.
        2. leks
          leks 28 October 2020 12: 53 New
          Heh, and read them where you have, as it were, zero publications. request
  3. Pessimist22
    Pessimist22 27 October 2020 19: 13 New
    "Both rifles, which became rivals on the fields of the Great Patriotic War: the Russian" three-line "Mosin and the German Zf.Kar.98k, met the same range parameter."
    The selection and manufacturing criteria for Mosin and kar 98 are completely different, Mosin excelled, including the scope.
  4. KSVK
    KSVK 27 October 2020 19: 51 New
    Quote: Undecim

    Question - who prepares materials for the site? Nevertheless, the site is called "Military Review" and has versions in foreign languages. That is, the shame from such publications, potentially, to the whole world.

    It seems to me that this is a translation of some bourgeois article at its core, plus a little gag. One "Remington Mannlicher" is worth it. wassat
    And I don't even want to talk about "confident destruction" of the enemy at a distance of 2-2,5 km. Apparently, the author has no idea about the laws of ballistics, against which, as you know, you can’t trample. laughing
    And all these monstrous products like the Barrets are designed to destroy shahidmobiles and other shushpants, and not at all for firing at targets at kilometer ranges.
    1. Alexey RA
      Alexey RA 28 October 2020 14: 37 New
      Quote: KSVK
      And all these monstrous products like the Barrets are designed to destroy shahidmobiles and other shushpants, and not at all for firing at targets at kilometer ranges.

      EMNIP, "Barrett" as well as other antimaterial rifles were created not against suicide vehicles, but to destroy unarmored and lightly armored vehicles (up to radar) from a long distance. The task was guaranteed to disable the equipment from a distance, excluding the rapid detection and defeat of the shooter (in the case of the radar, because of the security perimeter).
  5. MP
    MP 27 October 2020 20: 59 New
    An openly weak article. Dear author, add more depth and analysis, and for this, study the material on this topic.
  6. wlkw
    wlkw 27 October 2020 21: 41 New
    I read that the actual recorded defeat in combat conditions was about 2,5 km by the Americans in Afghanistan. But the shooter himself said that the atmospheric conditions at that time were just perfect. Something I do not really imagine the real shooting at 4 km. If only for cargo KUNG, explosive. This is somehow understandable at least.
  7. Pamir
    Pamir 27 October 2020 21: 58 New
    I read the work of A.A. Potapov a year ago. - "The Art of the Sniper", it is true there is about the classic Soviet systems, the times of the USSR, and about the specifics of training snipers of army units. An excellent book.
    According to SVLK-14S "Twilight", or according to its classmates, such systems are not for the army, they are piece goods and super-expensive. Only for sports or for the FSB and with their own specific application. In battle, such a product is not very useful, it may be necessary to shoot there quickly, more than once, and often with a change of position. There are too many factors interfering with a successful one long-range (more than 1600-1700m) shot. Although a distance of 2 km is vnatyag and a working distance for this rifle, if necessary (for example, neutralizing a terrorist, naturally without hostages next to him) for the accuracy of the hit, it is unlikely that at least one sniper or the commander of a sniper group will take responsibility.
    I do not impose the opinion, but approximately the same that for the army and the GRU, if the SVD is often not sufficient in combat conditions, it is more relevant than a rifle with a caliber 338 Magnum Lapua or, according to our 8,61 mm. They have a range limit of 1600m, and this is more than enough, such a distance for training snipers of the Ministry of Defense is quite very, very worthy. The only moment, in combat conditions, snipers are not immune from close (closer than 300m) combat in dynamics, additional weapons are required, since with a bolt 8,61mm YES WITHOUT an open sight, and it is problematic for a sniper to work with it in a firefight. Probably something like a submachine gun with 3-4 magazines is not superfluous.
    And the race in shooting with calibers 10-12,7-14,5 at 2500-3000-3500-4000-4500 meters is the lot of athletes. There, and the conditions are not quite combat. There is no need to risk your compatriots. There is nothing fatal there. it is not a matter of life or life.
    Yes, and for the army, the issue of size and weight characteristics has not been canceled, and with such bandura the rifle is much farther visible than the fighter himself, and you can't run across the intersection with such equipment.
    This is not an axiom, just an opinion.