Military Review

Czech Republic on the eve of the Hussite wars

182
Czech Republic on the eve of the Hussite wars

Modern Czech Republic is a small state, the area of ​​which is smaller than that of the Leningrad, Saratov or Rostov regions. If what makes it stand out among other Central European countries, it is obedience to the officials of the European Union and adherence to the liberal values ​​prescribed by them. There is not even a hint of resistance to the dictatorship of Brussels, which is sometimes demonstrated by their closest neighbors: Hungary and Poland. The Czechs obediently disfigure their beautiful capital with terrible, tasteless and vulgar objects (we will not list them so as not to waste time and not advertise for them) and demonstrate the now fashionable Russophobia. But all of this is the mouth of an extinct volcano covered with ash. It is hard to believe that a few centuries ago, fiery passions boiled here, that for fifteen years (1419-1434) the Czechs literally shook Europe. They repelled five crusades one after another and successfully fought against the Germans, Poles, Lithuanians, Hungarians, Austrians, Italians, British, Hospitallers and Templars. This fire was extinguished only when the Czechs grappled among themselves: on May 30, 1434, in the battle of Lipany, the Chaschniks defeated the Taborites and "orphans". Emperor Sigismund I said upon learning of this battle:


"Only the Czechs themselves can defeat Chekhov."

But before that, the brightest star suddenly flashed the name of Jan Zizka, nicknamed by the enemies at first the One-Eyed Devil, and then - the Fearful Blind.

He fought only at the very beginning of the Hussite wars - only five years. But the victories won by him were so unexpected and brilliant that his name was forever included in the list of the greatest generals in the world, and the gold with which it was written has not tarnished to this day.

Jan Zizka in his youth


There is a legend that Jan Zizka of Trocnov lost his first eye in the Battle of Grunwald. He even became one of the characters in the famous painting by J. Matejko dedicated to this battle.

However, carried out in the 1980s. an analysis of the skull, which in 1910 was considered genuine, gave reason to believe that this wound (most likely a blow with a sword or saber) was received by the person who owned the skull when he was no more than 11-12 years old. The age of this man at the time of death, according to the Czech anthropologist Emanuel Vlcekil, was approximately 60-65 years. Since it is known that Jan from Trocnov was orphaned early, it can be assumed that it was during the incident that resulted in his injury that his parents died. And the boy did not disappear - he became the page of King Wenceslas IV.


Wenceslas IV

The very participation of Zizka in the Battle of Grunwald is considered by many researchers to be a late legend. Meanwhile, he became one of the heroes of the famous painting by J. Matejko dedicated to this battle.


In this fragment of J. Matejko's painting "The Battle of Grunwald" we see that Jan ижižka is preparing to strike the commander Heinrich von Schwelborn. In the hands of the hero is a knightly sword, although in fact his beloved weapons there was a six-man

The information about Zizka's participation in the Hungarian campaign against Turkey is also considered legendary. He is also credited with participating in the Battle of Agincourt on the side of the British.

This is not surprising: historians and patriots of any country are pleased to see such a hero in their army, saying that it was in its ranks that he learned how to fight properly.

In theory, couldn't he fight for us? - Poles, Hungarians and British ask themselves. - Does the chronology allow? And there is no exact information that he was somewhere else at that time? Great, then, our man! And let them try to prove the opposite.

But let us return from the hazy zone of assumptions to the realm of real facts and suddenly see Jan ижižka in the role of a robber knight. Having gathered a detachment (or gang) of people loyal to him, he began to trade in the possessions of the princes from Rosenberg. In the court book of these aristocrats, a record of the testimony of one of the captured robbers of this detachment, dated 1406, has been preserved:

"Jan Goliy said that Zizka, a certain Jindrich and Zizka's brother took fish and other cargo from the convoy ... Matei took the money from the merchants, and Zizka killed one of the servants."

Other documents refer to the robbery of a wagon train with a cloth.

Further, information sources differ: according to some sources, Zizka was caught, but received the amnesty of the king, according to others, using the decree on the amnesty, he returned to the royal service, finding himself in the retinue of Queen Sofia - the wife of Wenceslas IV. Apparently, since the time of Jan's previous service, the king had a good relationship, and Wenceslas fully trusted his former page.

It is difficult to say when our hero got acquainted with the ideas of supporters of religious reform, but it is known that he became a staunch follower of Jan Huss, who developed the teachings of the English theologian John Wycliffe.


Wycliffe John, the first translator of the Bible into Middle English, often referred to as the "Morning Star of the Reformation"

Even before Jan Hus, talented preachers appeared in the Czech Republic who spoke out against the numerous abuses of the hierarchs of the Catholic Church. Among them are Konrad Waldhauser, Jan Milich, Matvey iz Janov. The latter openly called the Pope “the two-horned beast”, the hierarchs “the servants of the Antichrist” and argued that in order to improve the health of the church, all the unjustly accumulated wealth should be removed from it. He called the estate society "the invention of the devil."

It was Matvey who was the first to put forward the requirement for the communion of the laity with wine, and not bread alone. And only later did Jan Hus appear, who with his sermons literally “set fire to” the Czech Republic, in some sermons directly calling “to gird ourselves with a sword and defend the law of the Lord” and affirming:

"Truly, brothers, now is the time of war and sword."

Moreover, at the beginning of the XNUMXth century, the morality of priests and monks, despite the accusations of his predecessors, did not improve at all. Even an official check, undertaken then at the initiative of the archbishop, revealed that:

"The priests, who are at the head of the parish churches, openly contain concubines and generally behave so intemperately and indecently that this creates a great temptation among the flock."

And Hus himself claimed that in the Tyn Church of the Virgin, the priests in broad daylight dragged into the altar and tried to rape a married woman, but were caught at the place of admission - this temple had to be re-consecrated.

When Jan Hus was ordered to appear in Rome for explanations, he refused, stating to his followers:

"Satan was alarmed and the tail of the hippopotamus began to move."

Jan from Gusinets



Jan Hus, engraving

Jan Hus, who comes from a peasant family, managed to graduate from two faculties of the University of Prague (liberal arts and theological), and then became its dean and rector. He was a talented preacher; even King Wenceslas IV and Queen Sofia, whose spiritual father he became, fell under the charm of his personality.

I hope you understand that we are talking about the same Wenceslas who ordered to drown Jan Nepomuk in the Vltava River? Who allegedly refused to reveal to the king the secret of Sophia's confession.

However, many historians consider these family passions to be just a legend. The real reason for the king's anger was the proximity of the victim to the Prague archbishop, with whom Wenceslas constantly clashed. But he liked the sermons of Jan Hus, especially in those places where the wealth of the church and the interference of hierarchs in secular affairs were condemned. Jan Hus also supported the king in his fight against the rebellious masters, addressing the people:

"Even the dog protects the bed on which it lies."

Hus did not consider himself a heretic at all. On the contrary, he was a devout Catholic and merely suggested a return to early Christian non-acquisitiveness and argued that the Bible should be recognized as the only source of religious truth.

But the hierarchs of the official church for some reason really did not want to be poor and did not like Hus's calls for refusal to pay for church sacraments, the ban on the sale of church posts, criticism of indulgences and the right of the Pope to raise the sword against enemies. And, unlike the common people, they were not delighted with Gus's harsh statements like this:

“Even the last penny that the poor old woman hides can be pulled out by an unworthy clergyman - if not for confession, then for mass, if not for mass, then for sacred relics, if not for relics, then for absolution, if not for absolution , then for prayers, and if not for prayers, then for burial. How can you not say after that that he is more cunning and more evil than a thief? "

And many aristocrats did not like Hus's theses that an unjust rich man is a thief, and about the non-recognition of power that violates the commandments of God.

The popularity of Jan Hus in the Czech Republic and Prague was such that it was simply impossible to do anything with him on the territory of this country. I had to send him an official invitation to the Cathedral of Constance - to discuss various issues of theology there, convey my point of view to respected people, and debate.

The treacherous arrest and apparently unjust execution of Jan Hus in Constance in 1415 led to a radicalization of the protest in Bohemia and the outbreak of the Hussite wars 4 years after his burning. In the Czech Republic, by the way, bonfires are still lit every year on July 6 in memory of the burning of Jan Hus.


Jan Hus goes to the fire. Miniature from the "Chronicle of the Cathedral of Constance", 1464

But the "holy fathers" in Constanta did not rest on this and a year later they also burned a friend and associate of Jan Hus - Jerome of Prague, a master of four European universities, who went there, naively believing that with his speeches he could protect him.


Jerome of Prague

Meanwhile, the citizens of Prague knew their own worth: not long ago, during the reign of the father of Václav Charles IV, their city was the capital of the Holy Roman Empire of the German nation, and in terms of education, development and improvement Prague was ahead of many European cities of those years. The university appeared here first in Central Europe, and therefore, in addition to the branch of the Czech nation, there were three more German ones.


Founding Charter of the University of Prague (1348)

In order for the Germans to know their place in Prague, in 1409 Wenceslas IV signed a decree according to which the branch of the Czech nation began to own 3 votes, and the Germans - one each. Because, as Jan Hus said, Czechs
"More than foreign teachers multiplied and rose above them in knowledge in the sciences."

And also:

"The Czechs in the Czech kingdom, by right, by the law of God and by innate feeling, should be the first in office, like the French in the French kingdom and the Germans in their lands."

The Germans took offense and left for Leipzig, where they founded a new university. So much the better, the place of rector was given to the people's favorite Jan Hus, and who generally needs Germans in the glorious city of Prague? After all, the same Jerome of Prague asserted that the Czechs trace their origins to the ancient Greeks, are the "most holy nation", Prague is a holy city and Bohemia means "God." And therefore any Czech cannot be a heretic at all.

And suddenly there were such "slaps in the face" in Constanta. The Czechs could not forgive either King Sigismund or the hierarchs of the Catholic Church for this insult.

Defenestration and the beginning of the Hussite wars


On July 30, 1419, events took place in Prague that included history called "defenestration" (literal translation from Latin - "throwing out of the window"). After the refusal of the members of the magistrate to satisfy the demands of the reformers, who were then headed by Jan Zelivsky, the crowd rushed into the town hall and threw the intractable from the windows onto the spears of the armed Prague citizens. Simply put, people came to demand the release of those arrested on the eve of the Hussites, and they took weapons because a kind word and cold weapons such as swords or a pike convince better than just a kind word. But one of the "city fathers" did not think of anything better than to throw a stone at the people gathered under the windows from the window. Then he and all the others flew out of the windows.


The first Prague defenestration in 1419 From the painting by A. Liebscher "The Uprising at the New Town Hall on July 30, 1419"

The City Chronicle states that

“Jan ižka, close to King Wenceslas, was in this ejection and unheard of murder.”

And then Wenceslas IV died and his half-brother Sigismund of Luxembourg became the new king of Bohemia.


Emperor Sigismund I, who went down in history under the nickname Red Fox

It was impossible to find a more inappropriate candidate, since it was Sigismund (at that time not the emperor, but the king of Germany) who once guaranteed the immunity of Jan Hus at the Constantine Cathedral - and did not fulfill his obligation.

In Czeslaw, a meeting of Czech nobles (471 people took part in it) confirmed their loyalty to the four Prague Articles adopted in response to the execution of Jan Hus. These were the demands of freedom to preach the "Word of God", communion of the laity with wine (chalice), the prohibition of priests to exercise secular power, severe punishments for mortal sins, to which it was proposed to include trade in offices and the sale of indulgences.

Twenty representatives were also chosen to fulfill royal duties before the election of a new monarch. Among them was Jan Zizka. To deprive Sigismund of the opportunity to legally be crowned, they took the crown of St. Wenceslas.

On their banners, the rebels depicted a cup (a symbol of the demand for communion of the laity with wine, and not just bread), but sometimes a goose (a hint of Jan Hus), sometimes - a cup and a goose together.


Variants of Hussite flags

However, the Czechs themselves at that time did not like being called Hussites. They called themselves "good people" and "God's warriors."

This is how the Hussite wars began - religious wars, and therefore extremely cruel, in which each side believes that it is fighting not for itself, but for divine truth, and not against a neighbor or brother (father, son), but against the enemy of God and the friend of the devil. Murders, robberies and violence were mutual, but the defending and defending side, especially at first, were still the Hussites of the Czech Republic.

In the next article we will talk about the Hussite wars and continue the story about Jan ижižka, his army, victories and death.
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  1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
    Kote Pan Kokhanka 18 August 2020 05: 45 New
    15
    Thank you Valery!
    He chose a very interesting topic for the article !!! I read it with pleasure! Hopefully a sequel is not far off.
    Good day everyone, with respect to Kote!
  2. Far B
    Far B 18 August 2020 06: 16 New
    11
    Religion is perhaps the best reason (though not always the reason) for starting a war. You can even go mutuzit co-religionists if they are doing something wrong there (bring down everyone - the Lord will know). The Thirty Years' War alone is worth something, the Germans won't let you lie. Yeah.
    “Even the last penny that the poor old woman hides can be pulled out by an unworthy clergyman - if not for confession, then for mass, if not for mass, then for sacred relics, if not for relics, then for absolution, if not for absolution , then for prayers, and if not for prayers, then for burial. How can you not say after that that he is more cunning and more evil than a thief? "
    And the mores of today's churchmen have somehow not changed much in five hundred years, it seems.
    1. Basil50
      Basil50 18 August 2020 07: 03 New
      +8
      Why should the churchmen change?
      They are believed, fed, watered, they carry money. Therefore, there is such a fierce struggle among the clergy for the * flock *. * Flock - a flock of sheep which are sheared and slaughtered for meat-skin *.
      The churchmen write themselves into the shepherds who are responsible only * before God *.
      The Christian god himself, through Moses, transmitted only ten (10) commandments and there were no more messages, which the churchmen themselves seem to know about. But pay attention to the whole heaps of Talmuds commenting on their own god. Theologians not only comment on behalf of their own god and add a lot of things. They completely lost the fear of God.
      1. Varyag_0711
        Varyag_0711 18 August 2020 07: 19 New
        15
        Theologians not only comment on behalf of their own god, they also add a lot of things.
        They do not comment, they interpret, moreover, as they themselves need.
        They completely lost the fear of God.
        They did not have it initially. Look at our patriarch. What I did not do. And he sold tobacco and alcohol duty-free, and kept brothels at churches. "Merry" is such a guy ...
    2. Varyag_0711
      Varyag_0711 18 August 2020 07: 14 New
      11
      Yes, nothing is new under the moon, somewhere I have already seen it, and with my own eyes:
      "The priests, who are at the head of the parish churches, openly contain concubines and generally behave so intemperately and indecently that this creates a great temptation among the flock."
    3. parusnik
      parusnik 18 August 2020 07: 32 New
      +7
      The Thirty Years' War alone is worth something
      ...Oh yeah! Catholics fought on the side of Protestants, Protestants on the side of Catholics, if only they paid money and plus territorial interests ...
    4. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 18 August 2020 07: 36 New
      +5
      (bring down everyone - the Lord will know)
      There is no direct evidence that the authorship of this phrase belongs to the person to whom it is traditionally attributed.
      1. Far B
        Far B 18 August 2020 07: 45 New
        +3
        Excuse me, but what direct evidence do you want for the authorship of a phrase that supposedly sounded about eight hundred years ago (the Albigensian wars) in the field? Here, over the past century, they cannot figure out who said what and to whom, and you are worried about such a long time ago. Here, again, everything is simple: the Lord is not a fryer, he will understand who said what and to whom laughing
        1. parusnik
          parusnik 18 August 2020 08: 00 New
          +3
          Interestingly, the founder of Christianity left a not so rich philosophical legacy, and even that written down from his words, if collected, will fit into a small book, but how many comments to his words! Thousands of volumes ... and varied .. smile
          1. Pane Kohanku
            Pane Kohanku 18 August 2020 12: 31 New
            +4
            Thousands of volumes ... and varied ..

            ... and then also Bulgakov wrote a novel ... And the giant Mark Ratslayer is a "kind man" ... wink
            and even that recorded from his words

            Alexey Anatolyevich, EMNIP, we know about the philosophical legacy of Socrates from Plato's dialogues, but about Democritus we know little at all, because Plato meticulously collected and burned his works? hi
            1. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave 18 August 2020 13: 31 New
              +8
              "Democritus: -Platon zhzhot!
              Plato: -Author, peshi ischo! "
              (Aristophanes "Damn philosophers")
              1. Krasnodar
                Krasnodar 18 August 2020 13: 34 New
                +8
                Aristotle - many letters (s)
                1. Pane Kohanku
                  Pane Kohanku 18 August 2020 13: 54 New
                  +6
                  Aristotle - many letters (s)

                  Alexander the Great was probably just as tired by Aristotle as Pal Petrovich was by Father Plato. laughing Father Platon just taught the little Tsarevich the Law of God ... Pavel was shaking before the exam, but passed it perfectly, and even his mother said a couple of kind phrases after.
              2. Pane Kohanku
                Pane Kohanku 18 August 2020 13: 36 New
                +5
                "Democritus: -Platon zhzhot!
                Plato: -Author, peshi ischo! "
                (Aristophanes "Damn philosophers")

                Do you think the rise of cult phrases coincided with the fuel crisis? what Or drunk Plato, in the company of even more drunk students, being in sheets in the grove named after Mythic Akadem, fried goat barbecue on scrolls? laughing
                1. 3x3zsave
                  3x3zsave 18 August 2020 13: 39 New
                  +5
                  No, just a bright creative tandem, like Gogol and Dontsova. She writes, he burns.
                  1. Pane Kohanku
                    Pane Kohanku 18 August 2020 13: 47 New
                    +7
                    like Gogol and Dontsova. She writes, he burns.

                    if Gogol had burned precisely her works ... literature, and the world as a whole, would be much cleaner and nobler! hi By the way, are you aware that one of the indirect reasons for Nikolai Vasilyevich's illness was that he was condemned by a representative of the church? This was the last straw ...
                    Since the end of January 1852, the Archpriest Matthew Konstantinovsky of Rzhev, whom Gogol met in 1849, and before that he had known by correspondence, visited the house of Count Alexander Tolstoy. Difficult, sometimes harsh conversations took place between them, the main content of which was insufficient humility and piety of Gogol, for example, the demand of Father Matthew: "Renounce Pushkin" [26]. Gogol invited him to read the white-paper version of the second part of Dead Souls for acquaintance - in order to listen to his opinion, but the priest refused. Gogol insisted on his own until he took the notebooks with the manuscript for reading [27]. Archpriest Matthew became the only lifetime reader of the second part of the manuscript. Returning it to the author, he spoke out against the publication of a number of chapters, “even asked to destroy” them [2] (earlier he also gave a negative review of “Selected Places ...”, calling the book “harmful” [28]).
                    The death of Khomyakova, the condemnation of Konstantinovsky and, possibly, other reasons convinced Gogol to give up creativity and start fasting a week before Lent. On February 5, he sees off Konstantinovsky and has eaten almost nothing since that day. On February 10, he handed Count A. Tolstoy a portfolio with manuscripts to be handed over to Metropolitan Filaret of Moscow, but the count refused this order so as not to aggravate Gogol in his gloomy thoughts.

                    Anton, in fact, Chernyshevsky also wrote the second volume of his "What to do?", and burned it too. And that, by the way, was called - "Take off your pants and run!". wink drinks
                    1. Okolotochny
                      Okolotochny 18 August 2020 15: 18 New
                      +2
                      For the second volume, "What to do", WHY - Thank you!
                      1. Pane Kohanku
                        Pane Kohanku 18 August 2020 15: 25 New
                        +4
                        For the second volume, "What to do", WHY - Thank you!

                        ay, Alexey, I read this anecdote fifteen years ago! laughing an interesting property of memory ... I remember anecdotes of those years, but I practically don't remember now ... what
                      2. Okolotochny
                        Okolotochny 18 August 2020 15: 28 New
                        0
                        I have not read it, but I approve))
          2. parusnik
            parusnik 18 August 2020 16: 02 New
            +3
            laughing
            Plato meticulously collected and burned his works?
            ... Yes, we did not get much from Pythagoras, we also know little about the works of Hero of Alexandria, Philo of Byzantium ... much did not come ... They loved to burn libraries in those days ... For example, after the capture of Baghdad by the Tatar-Mongols, all the books were thrown into the river, the waters of the Tigris turned blue with ink .. The fate of the Library of Alexandria and others is sad ... What we do not keep, but when we lose we cry ..
            1. Pane Kohanku
              Pane Kohanku 18 August 2020 16: 23 New
              +3
              For example, after the capture of Baghdad by the Tatar-Mongols, all the books were thrown into the river, the waters of the Tigris turned blue with ink ... The fate of the Alexandria Library and others is sad ... What we do not keep, but when we lose we cry ..

              I haven't heard about Baghdad, thanks! hi I've heard of similar ones about the Moscow written works that burned down in 1382 during the invasion of Tokhtamysh. Yes you are right. what
              By the way, many works are not just lost - they are partially forgotten ... Here I regularly read about Pavel, I learned that he was fond of the theater during the Gatchina seclusion! How much do we remember the names of the plays of that time (up to the 19th century, let's say)? Not a single one except Moliere and Shakespeare. And their texts remained. They are simply not put .. as not in keeping with the spirit of the times. hi
              But! wink Yesterday I was looking for the notes of Pyotr Poletika, I thought about reading about Pavel - I found a place where you can freely download "Russian Antiquity"! But these are memoirs and anecdotes of that time ... I downloaded three volumes for 1885. Recommend. One of the volumes even contained the memoirs of Muravyov-Karsky. drinks
              URL:
              https://runivers.ru/lib/book4646/
              1. parusnik
                parusnik 18 August 2020 16: 30 New
                +3
                Oh how! Thank you for the link ... We just have a preconceived opinion about the Arabs, Muslims, stupid ... but they adopted Indian numbers and much more ...
                1. Pane Kohanku
                  Pane Kohanku 18 August 2020 16: 44 New
                  +1
                  Oh how! Thanks for the link ... We just have a preconceived opinion about slaves, Muslims, stupid ... but they adopted Indian numbers and much more ...

                  When people are not engaged in their favorite pastime - creating problems for themselves in relationships for some reason - they can successfully learn a lot from each other. hi
                  A little more about sources and history. drinks Have you read Pikulev's miniatures, Alexey Anatolyevich? He has one - "Arakcheev's son is Arakcheev's enemy", about a certain Shumsky ... It is interesting that Wikipedia is silent about this young man. The question is that Arakcheev's false son ... really existed! And even at one time he was the aide-de-camp of Alexander I. And yet, yes, he was a drunkard and a rowdy ... request
                  shubinskiy_syn_arakcheeva.html
                  First published: Shubinsky S.N. Historical sketches and stories. SPb .: Type. M. Khan, 1869. (Shubinsky, Sergei Nikolaevich (1834-1913) major general, retired, writer, Russian historian, journalist, founder and long-term editor of the magazines "Ancient and New Russia", "Historical Bulletin" and bibliophile).
                  1. parusnik
                    parusnik 18 August 2020 16: 58 New
                    +2
                    Yes it happened. Yes, there was. Why is Wikipedia silent, and God knows ... People's Library, smile everyone writes there, who knows what ...
                    1. Pane Kohanku
                      Pane Kohanku 18 August 2020 17: 00 New
                      +2
                      everyone writes there, who knows what ...

                      ... and we use it because we are too lazy to search and compare sources! wink "wiki" is already firmly established in our life as an informant on duty. But reading memoirs and documents can be just as interesting! drinks
                    2. parusnik
                      parusnik 18 August 2020 17: 03 New
                      +2
                      But reading memoirs and documents can be just as interesting!
                      ... What I'm doing ... drinks
                    3. 3x3zsave
                      3x3zsave 18 August 2020 18: 44 New
                      +2
                      Well, I don’t know ... For me, Wikipedia is only the initial stage of searching for information of interest to me.
                    4. Korsar4
                      Korsar4 18 August 2020 18: 52 New
                      +2
                      One plus is structuredness. When looking for facts or thoughts, it is important who is presenting them.

                      Although, of course, it is more difficult to navigate in unfamiliar questions.
                    5. 3x3zsave
                      3x3zsave 18 August 2020 18: 59 New
                      +2
                      structuredness
                      Undoubtedly! When, for example, you visit "Cyberleninka", the wretchedness of the interface is depressing to melancholy.
                    6. Korsar4
                      Korsar4 18 August 2020 19: 13 New
                      +2
                      I can't stand her. In case of an alternative, I will definitely go to eLibrary.
                    7. 3x3zsave
                      3x3zsave 18 August 2020 20: 08 New
                      +2
                      However, you can "dig" something! With the works of T.B. Ryabova, I met this way.
                    8. Korsar4
                      Korsar4 18 August 2020 20: 19 New
                      +2
                      Sure. There are tasks - and there is an arsenal of tools at hand.
                    9. 3x3zsave
                      3x3zsave 18 August 2020 20: 34 New
                      +2
                      It's a pity, in search of an arsenal, "sixteen tons" will have to be transferred ...
                    10. Korsar4
                      Korsar4 18 August 2020 20: 47 New
                      +2
                      We have already raised the topic of libraries.
                    11. 3x3zsave
                      3x3zsave 18 August 2020 21: 13 New
                      +2
                      Yes indeed.
  • Kwas
    Kwas 19 August 2020 18: 02 New
    0
    Quote: parusnik
    the founder of Christianity left a not so rich philosophical legacy

    But internally contradictory, apparently precisely in the expectation that commentators would not be left without bread!
  • 3x3zsave
    3x3zsave 18 August 2020 08: 04 New
    +5
    If the phrase became "winged" and survived eight centuries, someone had to pronounce it?
    1. Far B
      Far B 18 August 2020 08: 10 New
      +4
      Well, someone did. What is strange? Our Vladimir (not this) are also credited with the phrase that "the joy of Russia is drinking", and the evidence - zero point, horseradish tenths. However, this does not bother anyone. As well as attribution of the phrase "The dead do not have shame" to Svyatoslav. And Pushkin was never embarrassed, whether Oleg nailed something there to the gates of Constantinople, or he even hammered into the gates of Constantinople. The problem of quotes on the Internet, you know, long before the Internet itself appeared. Something like this.
      1. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 18 August 2020 08: 16 New
        +6
        Okay, don't bother drinks I'm just interested in that period of history, but these are just my cockroaches.
        Have a nice day!
        1. Far B
          Far B 18 August 2020 08: 19 New
          +7
          Have a nice day!
          Mutually! drinks
    2. Undecim
      Undecim 18 August 2020 11: 45 New
      +6
      If the phrase became "winged" and survived eight centuries, someone had to pronounce it?
      The apostle Paul pronounced it in the Second Epistle to Timothy: "But the firm foundation of God stands, having this seal:" the Lord knows those who are his "; and:" let everyone who professes the name of the Lord depart from unrighteousness. "
      In English (the English version of the translation of the Bible belongs to King James) it sounds like this: "Nevertheless the foundation of God standeth sure, having this seal, The Lord knoweth them that are His."
      I would venture to translate: "Nevertheless, the foundation of God stands firm, having this seal: the Lord knows His own."
      1. Liam
        Liam 18 August 2020 12: 19 New
        +3
        Quote: Undecim
        English translation of the Bible belongs to King James

        The king was not a translator, only a client
        1. Pane Kohanku
          Pane Kohanku 18 August 2020 12: 24 New
          +6
          The king was not a translator, only a client

          if not a secret, which of the Jacob was it? the first? he is Jacob VI Scottish? hi
          1. Liam
            Liam 18 August 2020 12: 30 New
            +4
            He is hi
            47 translators were involved in translation, divided into 6 groups. 3 groups translated the Old Testament from Hebrew / Aramai, 2 groups New Testament from Greek and 1 group Apocrypha from Greek and Latin
            1. Pane Kohanku
              Pane Kohanku 18 August 2020 12: 35 New
              +5
              47 translators were involved in translation, divided into 6 groups. 3 groups translated the Old Testament from Hebrew / Aramai, 2 groups New Testament from Greek and 1 group Apocrypha from Greek and Latin

              it had something to do with the Anglo-Scottish union? For on the one hand - Anglicans, on the other - good (and not so) Catholics? drinks
              1. Liam
                Liam 18 August 2020 12: 44 New
                +4
                It seems not. The decision to translate was made at the Hampton Court Conference of the Church of England due to the fact that the Puritans disagreed with many interpretations of previously existing different versions of the translations. Here is to avoid all contradictions and it was decided to make a new "centralized" translation
                1. Pane Kohanku
                  Pane Kohanku 18 August 2020 12: 52 New
                  +5
                  Here is to avoid all contradictions and it was decided to make a new "centralized" translation

                  helped the Puritans? EMNIP, they willingly went to the New World with their convictions - the same "Mayflower". drinks
              2. Normal ok
                Normal ok 18 August 2020 20: 12 New
                +1
                Quote: Pan Kohanku
                47 translators were involved in translation, divided into 6 groups. 3 groups translated the Old Testament from Hebrew / Aramai, 2 groups New Testament from Greek and 1 group Apocrypha from Greek and Latin

                it had something to do with the Anglo-Scottish union? For on the one hand - Anglicans, on the other - good (and not so) Catholics? drinks

                The Scots were never Anglicans, and at that time they were already (and still are) "Presbyterians" (the English name for "Reformed", they are also "Huguenots").
        2. Undecim
          Undecim 18 August 2020 12: 54 New
          +3
          Substantial clarification. When I use English-language sources, it is not always possible to switch to the correct vocabulary.
      2. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 18 August 2020 12: 52 New
        +6
        "Ed firmum fundamentum Dei stetit habens signaculum hoc cognovit Dominus qui sunt eius."
        Thank you, Victor Nikolaevich! I am already familiar with this version.
        1. Pane Kohanku
          Pane Kohanku 18 August 2020 16: 54 New
          +4
          signaculum hoc cognovit Dominus qui sunt eius

          Latin? I only remember that from Latin. drinks
          1. Korsar4
            Korsar4 18 August 2020 16: 59 New
            +2
            “At the same time, he swore so much in Latin,
            That these Scythians writhed in graves ”(c).
            1. Pane Kohanku
              Pane Kohanku 18 August 2020 17: 03 New
              +4
              At the same time, he swore so much in Latin

              1. 3x3zsave
                3x3zsave 18 August 2020 18: 51 New
                +5
                Apparently they were Jewish students who read Pater Noster from right to left.
                1. Pane Kohanku
                  Pane Kohanku 19 August 2020 09: 45 New
                  +1
                  Apparently they were Jewish students who read Pater Noster from right to left.

                  And it turned out "retson retap"? How many times should you repeat? wink Albert in the know?
  • parusnik
    parusnik 18 August 2020 07: 29 New
    +5
    This is just the beginning ... I think the author of the material for several articles ... It's a very interesting period, which just did not happen ...
  • kalibr
    kalibr 18 August 2020 08: 04 New
    +4
    Great story! Thank you, Valery!
  • ee2100
    ee2100 18 August 2020 08: 06 New
    +7
    Modern Czech Republic is a small state, the area of ​​which is smaller than that of the Leningrad, Saratov or Rostov regions. If what makes it stand out among other Central European countries, it is obedience to the officials of the European Union and adherence to the liberal values ​​prescribed by them. There is not even a hint of resistance to the dictatorship of Brussels, which is sometimes demonstrated by their closest neighbors: Hungary and Poland. Czechs obediently disfigure their beautiful capital with horrible, tasteless and vulgar objects (we will not list them so as not to waste time and not advertise for them) and demonstrate the now fashionable Russophobia. But all of this is the mouth of an extinct volcano covered with ash.
    The author has probably not heard of the Visegrad group and its opposition to Brussels. Look on the Internet, for general development, materials on them. Only these four countries have preserved full-fledged and combat-ready armed forces from the entire former Warsaw bloc. All countries have their own national currency. The economy "remained" and is developing well. High standard of living. And Milos Zeman is one of Putin's friends to the last. In modern history, you also need to understand a little.
    1. Trilobite Master
      Trilobite Master 18 August 2020 11: 45 New
      +8
      The Visegrad Four? I heard. Confronting Brussels? I have not heard, but I would have listened with interest. The role of the Czech Republic in this confrontation is especially interesting.
      For me, this four is just a club of interests, where they go to show off, in their free time from work. All questions, at least somewhat important, are resolved elsewhere. In Brussels, for example. smile
      1. ee2100
        ee2100 18 August 2020 12: 25 New
        +3
        "Do not read Soviet newspapers before lunchtime" and listen less to the Skabeyevs, there are other sources of information, maybe look at what is happening in the world differently, without references to the material. I was in Prague at the end of June this year. I have not seen any "vulgar and tasteless and awful artillery objects" at least in the central part of the city.
      2. Undecim
        Undecim 18 August 2020 12: 59 New
        +5
        For me, this four is just a club of interests, where they go to show off, in their free time from work. All questions, at least somewhat important, are resolved elsewhere. In Brussels, for example
        Have you tried to ask in detail, not on TV?
        1. Trilobite Master
          Trilobite Master 18 August 2020 14: 27 New
          +5
          Quote: Undecim
          Have you tried to ask in detail, not on TV?

          I have not tried it. smile Therefore, I wrote that I would have listened to this story with interest.
          Quote: ee2100
          "Do not read Soviet newspapers before lunchtime" and listen less to the Skabeyevs

          I don't watch TV at all, except maybe sports programs and news. In these programs, nothing is said about the Visegrad Four. smile
          Quote: ee2100
          I have not seen "vulgar and tasteless and awful artillery objects" at least in the central part of the city.

          This is for the author, not for me. I haven't seen them either.
          I will repeat once again: I will study with interest the details of the "confrontation" between this four and the European Union, of which they are members, and at the same time NATO members. Google on request on V4 gives out, basically, the history of creation and that's it. There is nothing about any conflicts of interest with the European Union, resolved by the four together. There are no permanent bodies within the four. Someone there somewhere periodically gathers, some topics are discussed (maybe they just eat barbecue), nothing more. In any case, a superficial examination of the issue gives the impression that this is exactly the case.
          1. Undecim
            Undecim 18 August 2020 14: 38 New
            +4
            Someone ee2100 blurted out about the "opposition to Brussels" without thinking. Moreover, the Visegrad group was created in those days when there was no "Brussels". The purpose of their creation is to promptly resolve regional foreign policy issues, with which they successfully cope. The fact that these issues are not being drunk in all the irons, so not all the "northern streams" and "forces of Siberia" to shove obstinate neighbors.
            1. Trilobite Master
              Trilobite Master 18 August 2020 15: 10 New
              +6
              When there was an invasion of migrants to Europe, if my memory serves me right, Hungary alone actively opposed their admission and even, as if, took some concrete actions to restrict their access to its territory. The rest of the quartet either kept quiet, or expressed themselves so indistinctly that it did not stick to memory. If this is not the case when it was required
              Quote: Undecim
              prompt solution of regional foreign policy issues

              then I do not know what else in their situation can be considered as such. Nevertheless, I don’t remember any consolidated position from these four. However, I carefully followed these questions and did not follow, I could have missed something.
            2. ee2100
              ee2100 18 August 2020 16: 43 New
              +2
              "blurted out without thinking"! Do you think these countries do not defend their interests in the EU? The EU is constantly dissatisfied with the domestic policy pursued by both Poland and Hungary, but these countries stubbornly bend their line and after that you declared that this is not a confrontation! At the last summit, the issue of withdrawing sanctions against Poland was discussed. Have you heard?
              1. Undecim
                Undecim 18 August 2020 16: 49 New
                +2
                Obviously, we understand the word "confrontation" somewhat differently.
                1. ee2100
                  ee2100 18 August 2020 17: 13 New
                  +1
                  M. b. , but it would not hurt to apologize for "blurted out without thinking"
                  1. Undecim
                    Undecim 18 August 2020 17: 16 New
                    +4
                    I offer you my most sincere apologies.
                    1. ee2100
                      ee2100 18 August 2020 17: 27 New
                      +1
                      Received. We often speak on the same side, I hope that our views on many things coincide
                    2. Astra wild
                      Astra wild 18 August 2020 21: 16 New
                      +2
                      Victor Nikolaevich, you +: I appreciate self-criticism and I WANT to be it myself, but it turns out badly
                      1. Undecim
                        Undecim 18 August 2020 21: 29 New
                        +1
                        Self-criticism is not my forte.
                      2. Astra wild
                        Astra wild 19 August 2020 19: 58 New
                        0
                        Here we are close to you
            3. Kwas
              Kwas 19 August 2020 18: 11 New
              +1
              Sir, here you are all talking about this "four", but indeed, many do not know anything about it. So instead of reproaching it, you would throw a link, or even better - an article. I think many would be interested.
        2. Liam
          Liam 18 August 2020 14: 54 New
          +2
          Quote: Trilobite Master
          Did not try

          Quote: Trilobite Master
          I don't watch TV at all, except for sports programs and news. In these programs, nothing is said about the Visegrad Four

          It’s contradictory, I don’t see, I don’t read, I don’t look. But
          For me, this four is just a club of interests, where they go to show off, in their free time from work.

          An intelligent person, in theory, makes his opinion about something on the basis of studying the topic
          1. Trilobite Master
            Trilobite Master 18 August 2020 15: 31 New
            +1
            Quote: Liam
            It’s contradictory, I don’t see, I don’t read, I don’t look.

            There is also internet ... smile But there, by the way, is also sparsely about the four.
            In your opinion, the fact of the lack of information can be taken (along with other facts, of course) as the basis for the conclusion that nothing important is happening? smile
            1. Liam
              Liam 18 August 2020 15: 36 New
              +3
              Quote: Trilobite Master
              There is internet

              Quote: Trilobite Master
              How do you think

              I believe that if you google, for example, between the first and second half Visegrad four immigration you will learn a lot of new and interesting things, although I doubt that this will somehow change your unshakable confidence in the omnipotence of the Brussels (Washington) regional committee
              1. Trilobite Master
                Trilobite Master 18 August 2020 19: 51 New
                +2
                I don’t know between what and what to suggest that you reread my comments, but if you do this and do it not as usual, but carefully, you will see that I spoke exclusively about the Visegrad Four organization. From the height of my bell tower, the V4 seems to me to be a completely incompetent union, although I may be wrong. But in order to prove it to me, you may have to remind me of when and what meetings were held within this organization, in what composition, what was the agenda, what decisions were made, some joint communiqués or something else, and how these solutions were then implemented. And I ask you not to confuse the joint actions of the V4 members within the framework of this association and the independent actions of individual states that are part of it.
                1. Liam
                  Liam 18 August 2020 20: 09 New
                  +1
                  ))) It seems that you use the Internet even less than TV

                  Visegrad Four against mandatory refugee quotas
                  04.09.2015

                  The member countries of the Visegrad Group - Poland, Hungary, the Czech Republic and Slovakia - spoke out against the introduction of mandatory quotas for the distribution of refugees across the EU states. "We insist that everything should be done on a voluntary basis," Czech Prime Minister Boguslav Sobotka said after a meeting of the heads of government of the Visegrad Group in Prague on Friday.

                  December 21, 2017 22:00

                  The court will sort it out. EU Visegrad Group challenges Brussels on migrants

                  The court will sort it out. EU Visegrad Group challenges Brussels on migrants

                  Because of the refusal of Hungary, Poland and the Czech Republic to accept immigrants in accordance with the quotas established in the European Union, the EU initiated legal proceedings against them, accusing them of non-compliance with European values ​​and norms. However, the countries of the Visegrad Group stated that they were not ready for a compromise on this issue.

                  IN THE WORLD
                  22:22, April 9, 2017

                  The Minister of Foreign Affairs of Ukraine will take part in the meeting of the Foreign Ministers of the "Visegrad Four"

                  Moscow. April 9. INTERFAX.RU - Ukrainian Foreign Minister Pavel Klimkin announced his participation in the meeting of the Foreign Ministers of the Visegrad Four (Poland, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary) on April 12.

                  Visegrad Group - Videoconference of Amelie de Monchalen with her colleagues (June 2, 2020)

                  Today, Amelie de Monchalen, Secretary of State for European Affairs under the Minister for Europe and Foreign Affairs, held a videoconference meeting with her colleagues from the Visegrad countries (Hungary, Poland, Czech Republic and Slovakia).
                  1. Trilobite Master
                    Trilobite Master 18 August 2020 20: 52 New
                    +2
                    Well, that means I am wrong and V4 is the main decision-maker of world and, at least, European politics. Well done, I had the worst opinion of them. Thanks for the enlightenment.
                    1. Liam
                      Liam 18 August 2020 21: 05 New
                      0
                      Stereotypes always cloud the brain
                    2. Trilobite Master
                      Trilobite Master 18 August 2020 22: 03 New
                      +1
                      Quote: Liam
                      Stereotypes always cloud the brain

                      But not yours, right?
                      What does your previous post prove? I already knew all this, maybe without specifics.
                      Quote: Trilobite Master
                      Someone there somewhere periodically gathers, some topics are discussed (maybe they just eat barbecue), nothing more.

                      What are they discussing there, what decisions are made, how are they collectively perform? Once every five years to get together and call Klimkin - God knows what kind of activity. If this is enough for you to recognize V4 as an active and influential international organization that successfully opposes itself to the European Union - your business. For me, this is well, oh-oh-very little. I remain with my opinion - V4 has outlived its usefulness after its members joined the European Union and NATO, and now it is nothing more than a sign on the door to an empty office.
                      And if the members of V4 are somehow able to stand up for themselves, when they are being robbed directly from their homes, then they cannot defend their interests outside their territory either together or separately. Although, if this organization was somehow truly united, it would certainly have to be reckoned with.
                      So let me go on about stereotypes. I'll listen. Interesting.
                    3. Liam
                      Liam 18 August 2020 23: 33 New
                      0
                      We will assume that you are out of shape today
  • Krasnodar
    Krasnodar 18 August 2020 13: 38 New
    +6
    Quote: ee2100
    Modern Czech Republic is a small state, the area of ​​which is smaller than that of the Leningrad, Saratov or Rostov regions. If what makes it stand out among other Central European countries, it is obedience to the officials of the European Union and adherence to the liberal values ​​prescribed by them. There is not even a hint of resistance to the dictatorship of Brussels, which is sometimes demonstrated by their closest neighbors: Hungary and Poland. The Czechs obediently disfigure their beautiful capital with terrible, tasteless and vulgar objects (we will not list them so as not to waste time and not advertise for them) and demonstrate the now fashionable Russophobia. But all of this is the mouth of an extinct volcano covered with ash. ...

    It also differs in that the HDI is between France and Spain.
    1. ee2100
      ee2100 18 August 2020 16: 31 New
      +3
      Read carefully - this is a quote from an article by the author.
      1. Krasnodar
        Krasnodar 18 August 2020 16: 41 New
        +4
        So this is my answer to the distinguished author.
        1. ee2100
          ee2100 18 August 2020 16: 46 New
          +3
          But it turns out that you are quoting me, you are quoting laughing
          1. Krasnodar
            Krasnodar 18 August 2020 17: 19 New
            +4
            Involuntarily made you a co-author? ))
            1. ee2100
              ee2100 18 August 2020 17: 34 New
              0
              That's exactly what I would not want. The author of this article has only an introductory part of his own, and the rest is just a wiki! The Hussite wars took place in the 6th grade of the secondary school. On the square in Prague, where the monument to Jan Hus is erected, there is a permanent exhibition for Dali, Mucha, Warhol. This is the question of "artless art objects".
              1. VIP
                VIP 18 August 2020 20: 25 New
                +2
                Quote: ee2100
                That's exactly what I would not want. The author of this article has only an introductory part of his own, and the rest is just a wiki! The Hussite wars took place in the 6th grade of the secondary school. On the square in Prague, where the monument to Jan Hus is erected, there is a permanent exhibition for Dali, Mucha, Warhol. This is the question of "artless art objects".

                To the corner on my knees to ask for forgiveness
                1. ee2100
                  ee2100 18 August 2020 22: 08 New
                  0
                  On your knees on peas and ask VVP not to lift it from your knees!
    2. Liam
      Liam 18 August 2020 23: 32 New
      0
      Quote: Krasnodar
      It also differs in that the HDI is between France and Spain.

      hi
      What is the HDI, GDP and other garbage. The only characteristic that determines the place of the country under the sun is Russophobia
      1. Krasnodar
        Krasnodar 18 August 2020 23: 40 New
        +4
        Salute! hi
        Well, I also look at anti-Semitic regimes and countries, but it really has nothing to do with the place of the state under the sun.
        1. Liam
          Liam 18 August 2020 23: 49 New
          -1
          I'm afraid that, judging by the local scale, the number of Russophobic countries ahead of the number of anti-Semitic countries by an order of magnitude)
          1. Krasnodar
            Krasnodar 18 August 2020 23: 59 New
            +4
            So it is in nature)).
            1. Liam
              Liam 19 August 2020 00: 07 New
              0
              And what is it connected with if you think so?)
              The motives of anti-Semitism have long been studied and understood, the success of the representatives to the people everywhere and always, the world government, the Rothschilds ... that's all) Also, the country was built a candy in a few years out of nothing.
              А Russophobia because of which?)
              1. Krasnodar
                Krasnodar 19 August 2020 00: 13 New
                +4
                Empires are always disliked - both opponents and former allies. Free or forced. ))
                1. Liam
                  Liam 19 August 2020 00: 21 New
                  0
                  There were a dozen empires in Europe alone, and Russia was definitely neither the strongest nor the largest of them.
                  There is no anglophobia, turkophobia is also not particularly like Austro-Hungarian phobia ... Russophobia -on every corner according to your words)
                  1. Krasnodar
                    Krasnodar 19 August 2020 00: 33 New
                    +4
                    Czechs and Hungarians did not like Austrians)).
                    The Bulgarians, Armenians and Greeks did not like the Turks (they still do not like the latter). By the way, remember the contemptuous phrase: "Mei, Turkule"? wink About the Arabs generally keep quiet, and today. (and Kurds (!)) At the expense of not the largest - with the exception of the British one, I would argue ... I was also a gendarme of Europe, it remained an empire in the form of the USSR after the decolonization of the rest. In principle, at that time the strongest (USA is a federation) Partial disintegration took place in 91, but the Ukrainian events of 2014 made everyone remember the old confrontation, resentment, fears, etc. Therefore, Russophobic sentiments are stronger today than in 2013, for example, when the Russian Federation was associated with money-wasting Russian tourists - cute, well-dressed guys running around brand outlets and buying up real estate with jewelry. ))
                    1. Liam
                      Liam 19 August 2020 00: 41 New
                      0
                      We are not talking about what happened, we are talking about what is). The empires have long since sunk into oblivion and phobias because of this have long disappeared. Russophobia, which appears to the Russians (of a certain part) at every corner and for any reason. And they explain anything by this. It is more like a lack of a critical look at our own jambs, a kind of universal excuse is not me screwed up, I always do everything right, just around there are only Russophobes and are unhappy therefore)
                    2. Krasnodar
                      Krasnodar 19 August 2020 00: 45 New
                      +4
                      Let's just say - if Russia were economically strong and attractive to foreigners not only by the absence of gay parades, then there would be much less Russophobic sentiments, even if it pursued a more aggressive policy towards Ukraine)). Anti-Turkish sentiments exist now, by the way laughing
                    3. Liam
                      Liam 19 August 2020 00: 52 New
                      0
                      Quote: Krasnodar
                      Let's just say - if Russia were economically strong and attractive to foreigners

                      There was no need for aggression towards neighbors, both near and far)
                    4. Krasnodar
                      Krasnodar 19 August 2020 01: 02 New
                      +4
                      I do not agree - Crimea, in principle, would be crushed by the new Ukrainian government for the sake of populism, since he has always been pro-Russian / pro-Soviet. GV in Donbass is also a Ukrainian initiative to avoid potential competitors in the struggle for power - Yanukovych's electorate, by the way)). On the other hand, Maidan sentiments would hardly have acquired such a clear anti-Russian orientation if the Russian Federation had a Western standard of living. hi
                      Aggression against distant neighbors - who, by the way?
                    5. Liam
                      Liam 19 August 2020 01: 17 New
                      0
                      Quote: Krasnodar
                      Crimea

                      Quote: Krasnodar
                      Donbass

                      This is one of the weakest interpretations of those events that I have heard)
                      Quote: Krasnodar
                      Maidan sentiments would hardly have acquired such a clear anti-Russian orientation

                      Who is not with us is against us..evergreen
                      Quote: Krasnodar
                      have the RF western standard of living

                      You can safely agree with this
                      Quote: Krasnodar
                      Aggression

                      Aggression is not necessarily military action
                    6. Krasnodar
                      Krasnodar 19 August 2020 01: 30 New
                      +3
                      This is my interpretation - the decision and the desire to take power from the Donbass people abruptly and for a long time is natural, in my opinion)) Like the return of Crimea and the support of Donbass by Putin against the background of the expected fall in oil prices - the subsequent sanctions worsened the economic situation, but explained to the people the decline in living standards + caused a rise in patriotism. I deliberately omit the humanitarian component of the annexation of the peninsula.
                      Once again, what actions of the Russian Federation can be considered hostile in relation to distant neighbors? Syria, support for Venezuelan would-be socialists?
                  2. Kwas
                    Kwas 19 August 2020 18: 26 New
                    +1
                    Quote: Krasnodar
                    Maidan sentiments would hardly have acquired such a clear anti-Russian orientation if the Russian Federation had a Western standard of living.

                    It's not about the standard of living. Now, if Russia had such a foreign policy weight that it would be dangerous for them, then they would sit quietly.
                  3. Krasnodar
                    Krasnodar 19 August 2020 22: 24 New
                    +2
                    And this too, no doubt
          2. Kwas
            Kwas 19 August 2020 18: 22 New
            0
            Quote: Liam
            The empire has long since sunk into oblivion and phobias because of this have long disappeared, except for the Russophobia that Russians see

            And what, the Poles don't have it either? And then I can tell where she is from. Russia, so disgusting, took the place of the empire, which should have been Polish! An unforgivable act!
  • pytar
    pytar 18 August 2020 08: 45 New
    +5
    I would call the post a good one, if only there was not this text at the beginning:
    ..If it is what makes it stand out among other Central European countries, it is obedience to the officials of the European Union and adherence to the liberal values ​​prescribed by them. There is not even a hint of resistance to the dictatorship of Brussels ... Czechs obediently disfigure their beautiful capital with terrible, tasteless and vulgar artillery objects ... and demonstrate the now fashionable Russophobia ...

    Why was it necessary to write this, what does it have to do with the historical events of the 15th century described further ?! Someone the European Union does not allow to sleep, and it is better to describe their ideas about aesthetics in another type of state!
    1. Undecim
      Undecim 18 August 2020 09: 39 New
      +6
      The author, obviously, is haunted by the fame of the site propagandist Kharaluzhny, so he decided to preface an article on history with a sketch on the fan.
      1. Krasnodar
        Krasnodar 18 August 2020 13: 40 New
        +9
        Don't mess with Ryzhov - it's always interesting to read him.
        1. Undecim
          Undecim 18 August 2020 13: 47 New
          +3
          Interesting - read to yourself, to your health. Or do my comments prevent you from perceiving stories about how Czechs disfigure the capital?
          1. Krasnodar
            Krasnodar 18 August 2020 13: 50 New
            +8
            That is not - Your comments are always interesting to me, that's why I reacted hi
          2. Kote Pan Kokhanka
            Kote Pan Kokhanka 18 August 2020 16: 33 New
            +5
            Viktor Nikolaevich, name at least one Author whose work suits you 100% !!! good
            1. Undecim
              Undecim 18 August 2020 16: 42 New
              +7
              Even my articles do not suit me one hundred percent.
              Do you think that I am making some unrealistic demands on the authors?
              1. Korsar4
                Korsar4 18 August 2020 17: 02 New
                +6
                You are even more critical of yours - the wrong side is clearly visible.
              2. Catfish
                Catfish 18 August 2020 17: 21 New
                +5
                Hello Vik Nikolaevich! drinks
                Even my articles do not suit me one hundred percent.
                So I'm all waiting for you to spit on all the ill-wishers and please us with some of your opus. smile
                1. Undecim
                  Undecim 18 August 2020 17: 22 New
                  +6
                  Hello. I can not tell. After the Decembrist, as the hunt was repulsed, I still can't get round.
                  1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
                    Kote Pan Kokhanka 18 August 2020 17: 27 New
                    +5
                    Oh, Viktor Nikolaevich, I just made fun of it !!!
                    hi
                  2. Catfish
                    Catfish 18 August 2020 17: 29 New
                    +4
                    It's a pity, I still hope that with time (not very long) you will get together. smile
                  3. Pane Kohanku
                    Pane Kohanku 18 August 2020 17: 31 New
                    +6
                    After the Decembrist, as the hunt was repulsed, I still can't get round.

                    on the other hand, Curios issued a gorgeous addition to the "three-line" bayonet. drinks
                    1. Undecim
                      Undecim 18 August 2020 17: 39 New
                      +5
                      Yes, while it struck, it was easy to write. True, the "publisher" spoiled the picture a little by editing.
                      1. Pane Kohanku
                        Pane Kohanku 18 August 2020 17: 50 New
                        +5
                        Yes, while it struck, it was easy to write. True, the "publisher" spoiled the picture a little by editing.

                        Well, I propose to forgive. wink we are kind people, almost as kind as Mark Rat-Slayer. lol By the way, in "Petershtadt" I rejected one photo, and the illustrations were partially lost by one point. drinks
                      2. Undecim
                        Undecim 18 August 2020 17: 52 New
                        +4
                        Yes, I am not in the claim, the publisher was Shpakovsky, he provoked me to the article.
                      3. Pane Kohanku
                        Pane Kohanku 18 August 2020 17: 55 New
                        +5
                        Yes, I am not in the claim, the publisher was Shpakovsky, he provoked me to the article.

                        duck, I remember everything perfectly! Then the cycle came out "in two volumes": "a three-line from Vyacheslav Olegovich" and "a bayonet from Viktor Nikolaevich". By the way, you considered the bayonet problem first in my memory - in detail. And all the readers were happy. hi
                      4. Undecim
                        Undecim 18 August 2020 17: 58 New
                        +4
                        And all the readers were happy.
                        It does not happen.
                      5. Pane Kohanku
                        Pane Kohanku 18 August 2020 18: 02 New
                        +4
                        It does not happen.

                        and the unhappy - do not take into account. yes
                      6. Kote Pan Kokhanka
                        Kote Pan Kokhanka 18 August 2020 18: 17 New
                        +4
                        Quote: Undecim
                        And all the readers were happy.
                        It does not happen.

                        It happens!
          3. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave 18 August 2020 19: 52 New
            +5
            And you write "on the table", someone will publish. Not one, so another ... A ghost wanders the resource, the ghost of his site ...
            1. Undecim
              Undecim 18 August 2020 21: 40 New
              +3
              the ghost of your site ...
              If you open your site, I will be among the applicants.
              1. 3x3zsave
                3x3zsave 18 August 2020 21: 43 New
                +3
                I can't say that everything is "on the ointment", but everything can be ...
              2. Undecim
                Undecim 18 August 2020 21: 46 New
                +3
                In this matter, the main issue is money.
              3. 3x3zsave
                3x3zsave 18 August 2020 21: 50 New
                +3
                So I say that money, and comrade says that "joules". laughing
            2. Korsar4
              Korsar4 19 August 2020 07: 23 New
              +2
              But this is already quite interesting. When is the world taking over?
            3. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave 19 August 2020 07: 29 New
              +3
              Everything is still at the level of conversations. But to be honest, it gets boring here.
            4. Korsar4
              Korsar4 19 August 2020 07: 30 New
              +2
              There should be a critical mass of events and comments.
            5. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave 19 August 2020 07: 35 New
              +2
              Rather events. By the way, I'll send you one text file tonight. It will be interesting to know your opinion about what has been written.
            6. Korsar4
              Korsar4 19 August 2020 07: 36 New
              +2
              Just give me a reason to be distracted.
            7. Pane Kohanku
              Pane Kohanku 19 August 2020 09: 49 New
              +3
              Rather events. By the way, I'll send you one text file tonight. It will be interesting to know your opinion about what has been written.

              more details, please ... wink
            8. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave 19 August 2020 10: 03 New
              +2
              You already have this file.
      2. Pane Kohanku
        Pane Kohanku 19 August 2020 17: 01 New
        +1
        Everything is still at the level of conversations. But to be honest, it gets boring here.

        There are simply not so many good articles ... request It used to be good, in the second half of 16th - early 18th ... winked And now sometimes there is nothing to read in the morning! sad
      3. Phil77
        Phil77 19 August 2020 18: 22 New
        +1
        Quote: Pan Kohanku

        There are simply not so many good articles ...

        Eh, Nikolai! You have not seen this mobile application! * Nullified ... *, ugh! * Updated!
      4. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 19 August 2020 20: 58 New
        +1
        In principle, he cannot see it.
  • 3x3zsave
    3x3zsave 18 August 2020 19: 57 New
    +5
    There are too many ill-wishers and outright crooks here.
    1. VIP
      VIP 18 August 2020 20: 53 New
      +2
      Quote: 3x3zsave
      There are too many ill-wishers and outright crooks here.

      I don’t know about you, but it was our custom: "outspoken crooks" to carry out "educational activities", or rather bludgeoned. And helped
      1. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 18 August 2020 21: 15 New
        +3
        Here, "It's impossible for us" ...
  • 3x3zsave
    3x3zsave 18 August 2020 19: 47 New
    +3
    Do you think that I am making some unrealistic demands on the authors?
    Not without this, Viktor Nikolaevich! Despite the fact that most of your comments are very valuable in terms of information, however, the authors are engaged in science pop, periodically admitting their mistakes. They give readers a research boost, which is good! Meanwhile, your favorite phrase, "the study of this topic may result in a separate cycle." Yes maybe! But who will be interested in it?
  • Astra wild
    Astra wild 18 August 2020 21: 11 New
    +2
    Viktor Nikolaevich, I am always looking for your clarifications in the comments. Sometimes I think you are a bore, but not necessary. So that the authors do not hack
  • 3x3zsave
    3x3zsave 18 August 2020 19: 19 New
    +4
    Perhaps Sun Tzu?
    1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
      Kote Pan Kokhanka 18 August 2020 19: 30 New
      +5
      Quote: 3x3zsave
      Perhaps Sun Tzu?

      Not strong in Chinese philosophy of war, but willing to wait for "the enemy's corpse floats by downstream." wink
      1. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 18 August 2020 20: 03 New
        +5
        This is Korean philosophy.
        1. Korsar4
          Korsar4 18 August 2020 21: 13 New
          +3
          And one of the stratagems too.
          1. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave 18 August 2020 21: 20 New
            +3
            Not without it. Perhaps someone will object to me, but in my understanding, Koreans have always been "terpily". Before Kim Il Sung.
            1. Korsar4
              Korsar4 18 August 2020 22: 26 New
              +3
              They occupy a very interesting niche in the East.
        2. Kote Pan Kokhanka
          Kote Pan Kokhanka 19 August 2020 04: 31 New
          +3
          Quote: 3x3zsave
          This is Korean philosophy.

          Here I am about the same "non-professional I".
          1. Pane Kohanku
            Pane Kohanku 19 August 2020 17: 02 New
            +2
            Here I am about the same "non-professional I".

            Yeah, and you also have legs. lol drinks
            1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
              Kote Pan Kokhanka 19 August 2020 17: 42 New
              +1
              Well, master, khan to your krynkam in the cellar !!!
              Mikado, let's prove to Pnu who is driving in the cellar!
              From 22:00 to 00:00 a cat's concert - March "August, B minor".
              From 00:00 to 02:00 krynka-boy bowling.
              From 02:00 to 04:00, the cellar cover is torn.
              From 04:00 to 06:00 the strike "whiskass and whiskey" with the debut "gift in a slipper" !!!
              Unforeseen intermissions are possible for shortening from sneakers, boots, sneakers and trainers !!!
              A normal cat has not paws, but paws !!!!! laughing drinks
            2. Pane Kohanku
              Pane Kohanku 19 August 2020 17: 58 New
              +2
              Mikado, let's prove to Pnu who is driving in the cellar!

              This "normal cat" yesterday depicted the emblem of the Good Doctors - wrapping its tail around the leg of a chair, like a snake. drinks Sorry for the mess in the kitchen! laughing

              You can play with his face as Hamlet! bully
              From 04:00 to 06:00 the strike "whiskass and whiskey" with the debut "gift in a slipper" !!!

              He already arranges this every day with a cry! And it suits mine - I'm afraid, I can show my slippers. wink
            3. Kote Pan Kokhanka
              Kote Pan Kokhanka 19 August 2020 18: 36 New
              +1
              Our guy !!!!
  • Undecim
    Undecim 18 August 2020 10: 11 New
    +8
    But let's return from the hazy zone of assumptions to the realm of real facts.
    However, the author has not yet succeeded in returning to the realm of real facts, although he writes well.
    With regard to Jan ижižka, one can only get into the realm of facts about the last six years of his life. Everything else is purely speculation. But the author, by his habit, gets carried away and gives out his version of events.
    Having gathered a detachment (or gang) of people loyal to him, he began to trade in the domain of the princes from Rosenberg.
    Zizka did not gather a gang. The gang was assembled by a certain Matei, from whose torture protocols information was obtained that Zizka and his brother joined the gang. Actually, it was not a gang, but in modern terms, a serious organized criminal group, to whose services even the well-known military leader Jan Sokol from Lamberk turned to its services "to resolve issues".
    About the retinue of Queen Sofia - this is completely out of the realm of legends, since in the period from 14010 to 1419 in historical documents it is presumably mentioned twice. In the court book of the New Town (district of Prague), a certain Jan One-eyed is mentioned as the gatekeeper of the royal residence in Prikop, and in the court book, a certain Yanko is mentioned as a squire. No more documentary facts have been recorded.
    1. VIP
      VIP 18 August 2020 19: 50 New
      +1
      "issues its own version of events", but an interesting version
  • Pane Kohanku
    Pane Kohanku 18 August 2020 11: 57 New
    +8
    Hello everyone, I love ballet! drinks
    The article, despite the fact that it belongs to the most important moments of history, is written in very good language, is easy to read, and leaves vivid images in memory. The author identified the most important events, and told about them historically correctly, but also in a relaxed manner, as usual, here and there - with subtle irony. Well, the latter is already a "firm mark", so to speak. hi Valery - I bow, sincerely! good
    To put it simply, people came to demand the release of those arrested on the eve of the Hussites, and they took weapons because a kind word and cold weapons such as swords or a pike convince better than just a kind word.

    Valery, do you suppose that among these gloomy peyzan with drecolle was the ancestor of Alfonso Capone? wink drinks
    Hus did not consider himself a heretic at all. On the contrary, he was a devout Catholic and merely suggested a return to early Christian non-acquisitiveness and argued that the Bible should be recognized as the only source of religious truth.
    But for some reason, the hierarchs of the official church would really not like the poor and really did not like Hus's calls for refusal to pay for church sacraments, a ban on the sale of church posts, criticism of indulgences and the Pope's right to raise a sword against enemies. And, unlike the common people, they were not delighted with Gus's harsh statements like this:
    And many aristocrats did not like Hus's theses that an unjust rich man is a thief, and about the non-recognition of power that violates the commandments of God.

    Six hundred years have passed ... Has something changed? what
    1. Catfish
      Catfish 18 August 2020 17: 18 New
      +2
      Hi, Nikolay! hi
      Yes, exactly, as soon as I read this phrase: "To put it simply, people came to demand the release of those arrested on the eve of the Hussites, and they took the weapon because a kind word and cold weapons such as swords or a peak convince better than just a kind word", immediately remembered the words of Al Karone about "a good word and a revolver." smile
      On the whole, I join you with the assessment of Valery's article. good
      1. Pane Kohanku
        Pane Kohanku 18 August 2020 17: 32 New
        +6
        On the whole, I join you with the assessment of Valery's article.

        good easily digestible work, and people are good. drinks
      2. VIP
        VIP 18 August 2020 19: 47 New
        +3
        Cat, maybe Al Capone after all?
        1. Catfish
          Catfish 18 August 2020 20: 15 New
          +4
          Of course Capone. Do you have typos? ))
          1. VIP
            VIP 18 August 2020 20: 56 New
            +4
            And then how. By God I don’t believe that there is a person who has never made a mistake
  • andrew42
    andrew42 18 August 2020 12: 15 New
    +3
    A very interesting topic. Thanks to the author. I would like to see a sequel.
  • nnz226
    nnz226 18 August 2020 17: 44 New
    0
    The Hussite wars are the last ones, where the Czechs demonstrated military prowess .... Then everyone and everyone had them, until 1939, inclusive, in Munich (1938), they were not even allowed on the doorstep, as some kind of slaves. Now continue to have from Brussels!
    1. Kwas
      Kwas 19 August 2020 18: 35 New
      +1
      The last gallant Czechs died on White Mountain in 1620.
  • The comment was deleted.
  • VIP
    VIP 18 August 2020 19: 45 New
    +2
    "after which he and everyone else flew out of the windows" he really wanted to fly, but he was too lazy to jump
  • Astra wild
    Astra wild 18 August 2020 19: 59 New
    +7
    Valery, you are the decoration of today. I am very sorry that I wasted time on Samsonov, and did not start reading you.
    1. Hantengri
      Hantengri 18 August 2020 23: 47 New
      +4
      Quote: Astra wild
      Valery, you are the decoration of today. I am very sorry that I wasted time on Samsonov, and did not start reading you.

      Sentyabrinka khon, if the article is signed by a creative team / multiple personality: "Samsonov", then you should not read it (and even more so comment!), Neither before lunch, nor before breakfast, nor before dinner, so as not to encourage this pseudo-historical graphomania ... An exception may be the case when it is very boring, and there is nothing more decent on the site. hi
      1. Astra wild
        Astra wild 19 August 2020 19: 54 New
        +1
        Khan, you are ABSOLUTELY right, and I myself put this "historian" on the level of the plinth or lower, but I was seduced by the theme of "Ihetuan uprising". If you remember, Vyacheslav Olegovich mentioned it in passing when he was talking about the storming of Dago and that's it. Yesterday I looked: exactly what Vyacheslav Olegovich did not tell.
        However, I was not the only one who got into the liquid-like substance 'Samsonov. "In the same place, Viktor Nikolaevich" lit up "
        1. Hantengri
          Hantengri 19 August 2020 20: 22 New
          +1
          Quote: Astra wild
          However, I was not the only one who got into the liquid substance 'Samsonov'.

          So I am a sinner. Every time I renounce, but all the same, periodically, I "plunge". request
  • silberwolf88
    silberwolf88 18 August 2020 20: 46 New
    +3
    quite informative ... at school I was attracted by these topics ... gussites, stools and cups ...
  • Astra wild
    Astra wild 18 August 2020 21: 06 New
    +3
    "to throw a stone at the people gathered under the windows" it seems to me that the stone is fiction: where are the stones in the town hall from? They could have thrown an inkwell, a paperweight, or something else, that weighty, but a stone.
    1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
      Kote Pan Kokhanka 19 August 2020 04: 37 New
      +2
      Quote: Astra wild
      "to throw a stone at the people gathered under the windows" it seems to me that the stone is fiction: where are the stones in the town hall from? They could have thrown an inkwell, a paperweight, or something else, that weighty, but a stone.
      flower pot!
      The winners write the story!
      In the current age of hybrid wars - in principle, the average man would be modestly told that the employees of the town hall, unable to bear the shame, committed group suicide !!! Then morals were simpler and more honest!
      Yours!
      1. Pane Kohanku
        Pane Kohanku 19 August 2020 17: 04 New
        +2
        In this age of hybrid warfare

        in the present century, a provocateur would be secretly allowed into the town hall, who would personally throw an inkwell of onyx into the peyzan people gathered under the windows. what And wrap everything up ... request
  • Igor Litvin
    Igor Litvin 19 August 2020 21: 18 New
    +2
    I liked the article, it is immediately clear that the author does not copy and paste hackneyed sites, but tries to figure it out himself. I suggest that the author go further and reveal the layer of the relationship between Hussite and our region. It just so happened that it was believed that Belarus did not have its own history, it was "gathering dust on the shelf". Take a little broader and cover, for example, such questions:
    1) the Zabarello commission at the Constance Cathedral to review the results of the Battle of Grunwald and the Breslau decision of Emperor Sigismund.
    2) help to the Hussites from the Grand Duchy of Lithuania - the first campaign of Sigismund Koributovich, which was carried out for the sake of pressure on Sigismund of Luxemburg on the issue of Samogitia.
    3) troops of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in the battle of Usti-na-Labe.
    4) Poland's support for the Hussites (a classic of "hybrid" wars), the second campaign of Koributovich, the struggle of clans in Poland for / against the Hussites. In fact, on the territory of the Czech Republic, with the support of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and Poland, five crusades were poured into the ground.
    5) how the Hussites were allowed through Poland to massacre the Teutonic Order
    6) for a laugh - about the siege with Karlstein feces
    7) for conspiracy theories - a muddy story about how Chancellor Olesnitsky prevailed in Poland, who was against the support of the Hussites, and Yagailo "listened to the nightingales, caught a cold and died", akurat by the time of the Battle of Lipan.

    It would not only be interesting to hear the opinion of the author, but the Hussite events would not look so "alien" and distant.
    1. Astra wild
      Astra wild 20 August 2020 10: 35 New
      0
      Igor, you have "loaded" Valery with your wishes thoroughly. He may not
      about to please. On the contrary, we have more interesting material.
  • Igor Litvin
    Igor Litvin 19 August 2020 21: 19 New
    +2
    Quote: silberwolf88
    quite informative ... at school I was attracted by these topics ... gussites, stools and cups ...

    laughing
    then not only "stools", but also "teapots"
  • Vol4ara
    Vol4ara 20 August 2020 11: 38 New
    0
    Cool article!