Military Review

Bulkin's TKB-415 assault rifle - the main competitor for the Kalashnikov assault rifle in the 1940s

18

How many times has the question of a competitor to the Kalashnikov assault rifle in Russia been raised? All sorts of options were named, including the AEK modifications and the Bulkin assault rifle. However, for decades, the AK has remained virtually out of competition, which indicates its close to the ideal combination of "price-quality" for mass applicability in the army. At the same time, some competitors of the Kalashnikov assault rifle occupied their own niche, which was determined by a set of their functional features.


The original competitor for the rifle weapons Mikhail Kalashnikov in the 40s became TKB-415 (aka AB-46), the aforementioned machine gun of Alexei Bulkin, a Tula gunsmith designer. Alexey Alekseevich took part in the competition for the creation of small arms for an intermediate cartridge.

The final competition began in the victorious 1945. At the same time, according to a number of indicators, it was the Bulkin assault rifle that was in the lead for more than a year and a half, showing excellent results in accuracy of fire. But in the end, the AB-46 did not manage to win the competition due to the fact that the survivability of individual parts and mechanisms, as it turned out in the end, was lower than that of the Kalashnikov assault rifle. In the end, the TKB-416 product remained at the level of experimental development.

Details about Bulkin's gun are presented in a video on the Kalashnikov channel:

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  1. beeper
    beeper 23 July 2020 13: 47 New
    +2
    It was very interesting to watch and listen! good
    Live, in the dynamics of the disassembly and assembly of the sample, you can notice those nuances that are unclear on the static photo of the disassembled Bulkin machine gun - at last I saw his shutter drive. yes
    In particular, I drew attention to the fact that the gas piston with the rod is stationary relative to the bolt carrier and the bolt carrier itself sits quite tightly on the receiver guides.
    Of course, the split part of the stem is not very technological in processing and is an "excellent" stress concentrator under cyclic shock loads - in the AK this structural element is made more competently and much simpler (and it also takes into account the inevitable "jambs" in the production of automatic parts in war time).

    I always remembered the words of Mikhail Kalashnikov that, for the sake of reliable operation of automation in difficult conditions, to provide it with the necessary supply of kinetic energy, the speed of the bolt carrier with the bolt at the extreme point of recoil should have been at least 5 meters per second, but the respected Ruslan Chumak knows better -three so three!

    So the role of the rotary lever at the base of the front sight has not been clarified, is it a gas tube lock, or is it such an adjustment and blocking of the gas outlet?!
    The aiming line is also quite short, even taking into account the fact that Aleksey Bulkin did not shorten the barrel (as at the last stage of the competition it was shortened by Kalashnikov and Zaitsev in their rearranged assault rifle sample) and carried the gas outlet further to the muzzle, to an area with a lower pressure of powder gases.
    This design approach with the priority of accuracy over reliability, and, accordingly, an insufficient (for reliable operation in difficult conditions) supply of energy of the moving parts of the automation, and ruined, in general, a good (for shooting gallery and parades), "Bulkin's machine", otherwise and in the Soviet Union there would appear a sort of "target AR" - an automatic carbine with good accuracy, but requiring careful personal care ?! winked

    On the example of the Bulkinsky shutter locking drive, it is clear how much it is inferior to a similar assembly of the Kalashnikov-Zaitsev design.
    In AK, the locking stops and the leading cam for locking the shutter are located in the same transverse plane, and the shoulder of the drive lever, relative to the axis of rotation of the shutter, is approximately twice as large as in AB, i.e. and the torque it develops is just as much higher, all other things being equal (and if we take into account the lower energies of the AB automation parts, then the AK has an even greater advantage in the reliability of locking and unlocking the shutter and "starting" the sleeve in the chamber, especially under difficult operating conditions).
    In addition, the "blind axis" of the AB locking drive rubs against the screw copying surface of the shutter with a larger area, and therefore the energy loss is also greater here, especially if the parts are dirty and frozen.
    And the slot for the movable cocking handle is not protected from dirt in any way - in mass production it would be necessary to invent and implement something cardinal to solve this problem.
    As in my opinion, the translator of types of fire (and its intermediate position is a fuse or not ?!) is too small and not very convenient. IMHO.
    So, the design advantages of the tested AK sample over the tested AB sample are obvious!
    I wonder how effective the DTK "a la PPSh" was when firing, how much dust it "raised" and what was the sound at the same time, was it "hitting the ears" much ?! winked
  2. John22
    John22 23 July 2020 13: 59 New
    +2
    The museum worker continues to amaze: - the receiver is open on top! Bulkin repeated in the machine gun the bolt rotation scheme similar to the Lewis machine gun scheme. A lot of unnecessary words, but zero specifics.
    1. Fibrizio
      Fibrizio 23 July 2020 15: 59 New
      -1
      He is a museum worker, it is possible that he has never shot in his life. What "Baba Klava" conveyed to him when she retired, she tells with a stick in her hands.
      For the most part, a Russian person is not familiar with weapons, he has nowhere to get acquainted with them. If he was in the army, he held the AK in his hands, and then he held more than he shot.
      We have neither the culture of weapons, nor their availability.
      1. paul3390
        paul3390 24 July 2020 13: 07 New
        0
        We have neither the culture of weapons, nor their availability.
        As for culture - I agree that for accessibility - is someone stopping you from going and buying weapons ?? For example, I have 5 barrels, and personally, my hobby is only hindered by the unfortunate lack of money for my Wishlist .. sad
        1. Fibrizio
          Fibrizio 24 July 2020 13: 28 New
          0
          I have 4 units. Nobody interferes.
          But using it is not just expensive, but horses are expensive.
          The only exception to this rule is any travel riffraff and feather (but this is 99% fraction)
          For the price of a moose, you can buy old Zhiguli on the move (well, yes, rusty, but sat down and drove off), that's what I mean.
          Shooting ranges are also not cheap. And firing in the forest is such a thing, you can swoop down, especially in densely populated regions, and it's good if not a mushroom picker).
          The stand, too, let's be honest, one run will rise about five (150 times, you want to bang).
          1. paul3390
            paul3390 24 July 2020 13: 41 New
            0
            With shooting ranges and shooting ranges - yes, I agree, a complete scribe ... For the whole of St. Petersburg - one rifled shooting range !!! Gloom .. Alas - for some reason the authorities do not want to do anything with this, although the entire district is pitted with former military training grounds .. No - until we have an analogue of the state NSA, everything will be so. But the native state seems to be shudderingly afraid of any association of citizens with weapons, even for peaceful purposes .. laughing
            1. Fibrizio
              Fibrizio 24 July 2020 14: 12 New
              +1
              I would say otherwise, he is simply not interested in it. The domestic market revived a little when exports to the states were banned and some of the imported cartridges disappeared. But all this is so of course, little things. In fact, ownership (not storage, namely use) in the Russian Federation is difficult (due to restrictions) and expensive.
              While all our cartridge, gunpowder, and arms factories are on state orders, they also do not need to lobby for something. They drive rubbish, the state accepts it.
              And the client physicist will also ask you for quality.
              By the way, with accessibility, I also did not twist my heart. Imports after a jump in the exchange rate in '14 were not cheap. Bolted CZs will be different from a hundred in a year, and this is a basic level for the world (like a mosinka for us). Arches are also from a hundred, everything is expensive. Even all sorts of monstrous hammer kalashoids over 50 (not all, but many).
              1. paul3390
                paul3390 24 July 2020 15: 31 New
                0
                That's right .. I won my SKS for a ducat, and now - they are already 20 .. What has changed - the trunks are coming from army warehouses, and not from the factory, why is it now twice as expensive? Capitalism, sir ...
                1. Fibrizio
                  Fibrizio 24 July 2020 15: 35 New
                  0
                  By the way, the trunks are already basically a remake, hence the price. Every year there are fewer and fewer enclosed, and the quality is getting worse (maybe the remnants are already, and there is a re-barrel).
                  But 20 is okay, inflation. But what to do with him? I had him until pink in 366TKM, oh, and I fucked him. I understand perfectly why he was replaced by AK.
                  1. paul3390
                    paul3390 24 July 2020 15: 46 New
                    0
                    SCS has not been released for a long time .. I took mine purely for aesthetic and nostalgic reasons .. laughing
  3. vahpus
    vahpus 24 July 2020 15: 51 New
    -5
    However, for decades, the AK has remained virtually out of competition, which indicates its close to the ideal combination of "price-quality" for mass applicability in the army.

    There is nothing particularly good for the army, neither in the AK, nor in the AK-74 and their "families".
    But it is impossible to do something better than the Germans did for the USSR, there is no one. So the army uses assault (only) "Kalash". Although she should have used another, more suitable weapon for her.
    1. Fibrizio
      Fibrizio 24 July 2020 15: 59 New
      0
      Well, you already wrote frank game, no offense. The fact that the stg-44 is a prototype of everything that now shoots and is called an assault rifle is a fact, it's like saying that all PPs with an open bolt scheme are ripped off each other. All modern AR, older G3 and all its prototypes are a development of the idea inherent in 44, but this does not mean that the Germans did it.
      For "that" time, the machine gun was very good, especially considering that the Americans had the M14 before the Vietnam War.
      That’s a mystery to me, why we didn’t put a ring sight on the AK. I also shot from different open ones, the accuracy from it changes dramatically (and it's easier to aim).
      1. vahpus
        vahpus 24 July 2020 16: 22 New
        -4
        Quote: Fibrizio
        this is a development of thought inherent in 44, but that does not mean that the Germans did it.

        StG44 was not made by the Germans?
        Who are the Anunnaki?
        But I wrote not about the StG44, but about the AK-47.
        Quote: Fibrizio
        For "that" time, the machine was very good

        This is probably why nowhere in the world, except for the incompetent USSR, this Vanderwaffe was not cloned. Yes, and in the USSR from the SA, he (AKM) in the 70-80s was asked with the help of a knee under the ass.
        Quote: Fibrizio
        that the Americans had an M14 before the Vietnam War.

        You needlessly forget the American Thompsons.
        A bunch of M14s with Thompsons was much better than the AK.
      2. mat-vey
        mat-vey 24 July 2020 16: 51 New
        0
        Quote: Fibrizio
        The fact that the stg-44 is a prototype of everything that now shoots and is called an assault rifle is a fact

        "..... the term" assault phase rifle "was used by the American designer Isaac Lewis, the creator of the machine gun of the same name, in relation to a line of experimental automatic rifles created in 1918-20 under a standard American rifle cartridge .30 M1906 (.30-06, 7.62x63mm) These automatic rifles were designed with the same “fire on the move” concept as the Browning BAR M1918 automatic rifle.

        The authors of this concept are considered the French, who proposed to strengthen the armament of the infantry with automatic rifles suitable for firing from the shoulder or from the belt from the hands, on the move or from short stops. The purpose of these automatic rifles was to support infantry, armed with conventional magazine rifles, directly during an attack on enemy positions.

        The first mass-produced weapon of this class can be considered the Shosh “gun-machine gun” of the 1915 model (Fusil Mitrailleur CSRG Mle. 1915). Soon after, the Russian automatic rifle of the Fedorov system of the 1916 model appeared, later called the "automatic". And finally, in 1918, the already mentioned automatic ... "
    2. mat-vey
      mat-vey 24 July 2020 16: 17 New
      +1
      Quote: vahpus
      However, for decades, the AK has remained virtually out of competition, which indicates its close to the ideal combination of "price-quality" for mass applicability in the army.

      There is nothing particularly good for the army, neither in the AK, nor in the AK-74 and their "families".
      But it is impossible to do something better than the Germans did for the USSR, there is no one. So the army uses assault (only) "Kalash". Although she should have used another, more suitable weapon for her.

      What ... again?
      Security question - what is DP-27 ..
  4. The leader of the Redskins
    The leader of the Redskins 24 July 2020 19: 11 New
    -2
    Thank. Interesting video.
  5. Operator
    Operator 24 July 2020 19: 38 New
    +1
    Quote: pishchak
    the arm of the drive lever, relative to the axis of rotation of the shutter, is approximately twice as large as in AB

    More than 3,4 times - the unsuccessful AB bolt group is similar to the Browning design used in the Remington Model 8 serial self-loading rifle of the 1905 model, the AK successful bolt group - to the SKKP experienced self-loading carbine of 1944 (copies of the American M1 Garand rifle of the 1936 model).

    The sliding bolt of direct action itself was invented by Mannlicher in 1888 and, in an improved form, was used in the serial M1895 manual reloading rifle of the corresponding year.

    In the arms business, everyone borrows the best solutions from everyone - but with a different understanding of the intricacies of design laughing
    1. mat-vey
      mat-vey 25 July 2020 04: 37 New
      0
      Quote: Operator
      a successful AK bolt group - to an experienced SKKP self-loading carbine of 1944 (a copy of the American M1 Garand rifle, model 1936).

      Again twenty-five - where is the "copy"? Idea - yes, the structure is only twice as light in weight ...
      Quote: Operator
      unsuccessful shutter group AB is similar to Browning's design

      The first Schwarzlose patent back in the 190th century ...
      As soon as the equipment in the industry appeared capable of "ideas" in metal to implement these ideas and materialized .. and until there are no new opportunities in production, so these ideas will be used, but wink "- but with a different understanding of the intricacies of the design" smile