Military Review

Forever in the ranks. The Feat of Arkhip Osipov

68

Circassian raid. Painting F. Roubaud


The Caucasian war, which lasted from 1817 to 1864, ended with the annexation of the mountainous regions of the North Caucasus to the Russian Empire. This was the period of the most fierce hostilities, including against the highlanders, united under the leadership of Shamil in the military-theocratic Islamic state - the North Caucasian imamat. At the same time, the military operations of Russia in the Caucasus were intertwined with the Russian-Persian (1826-1828) and Russian-Turkish (1828-1829) wars, which ended in the victory of the Russian weapons, as well as the Crimean War (1853-1856), which ended in the defeat of Russia.

The main areas of hostilities in the North Caucasus were two regions: the North-West Caucasus (Circassia) and the North-East Caucasus (Dagestan and Chechnya). His feat that immortalized his name in storiesArkhip Osipov made a private Tenginsky regiment in 1840 during the defense of the Mikhailovsky fortification, which is part of the Black Sea coastline, from attacks by superior forces of the Circassians.

Arkhip Osipovich Osipov


Arkhip Osipovich Osipov was born in 1802 in the village of Kamenka, Lipovetsky district, Kiev province (since 1987, this is a separate residential microdistrict of the city of Lipovets, located in the Vinnitsa region).

The future illustrious soldier came from ordinary serfs. December 21, 1820 Arkhip was sent as a recruit to the army and in April of the following year he was enlisted in the Crimean Infantry Regiment. It is worth noting that at that time in the Russian Empire there was a recruit service, which lasted until 1874. Initially, the service life was life-long, but in 1793 it was reduced to 25 years and subsequently repeatedly decreased.

Already in the second year of service, Arkhip Osipov escaped from the army, which ended in failure. The fugitive recruit was caught and returned to the regiment, while the young soldier was sentenced through court to corporal punishment with gauntlets. The young recruit was to go through a system of 1000 people once, withstanding all the blows. After this incident, Osipov served regularly, with his entire service making amends to his misconduct of youth. Arkhip Osipov together with the Crimean regiment took part in the Russian-Persian war, distinguished himself during the capture of Sardar Abad, as well as in the Russian-Turkish war, taking part in the assault on the Kars fortress.


Seeing the rookie. Painting by I. Repin

In 1834, Arkhip Osipov arrived in the Tenginsky regiment. A private was sent here along with the 1st battalion of the Crimean regiment, which entered the staffing of Tenginsky. Then Osipov was enrolled in the 9th musketeer company. The Tenginsky regiment, to which Arkhip Osipov arrived, was located in the Kuban and carried cordon service. During the service in the Tenginsky regiment Osipov repeatedly participated in skirmishes with the highlanders. It is worth noting that one of the most famous soldiers of the Tenginsky Infantry Regiment was the great Russian poet Mikhail Yurievich Lermontov.

By 1840, the 38-year-old Arkhip Osipov was already an experienced soldier, seasoned in numerous battles and military campaigns. For the Russian-Persian and Russian-Turkish wars, he was awarded silver medals. According to testimonies of fellow soldiers who were personally acquainted with Osipov personally, the latter was a brave soldier and stood out for his tall stature. Dark brown hair framed his oblong face with gray eyes.

Black Sea coastline


The Black Sea coastline, on which the Tenginsky Infantry Regiment, where Arkhip Osipov served, was a line of fortifications (forts, fortresses and shants) located along the eastern coast of the Black Sea from Anapa to the border with the Ottoman Empire. The main purpose of this chain of Russian fortifications along the coast was to prevent the supply of smuggled weapons, military supplies, food and other goods to the Circassians. First of all, such help went to the highlanders from the Ottoman Empire, and then Great Britain, who actively intervened in the affairs of the Russian Empire in the Caucasus.

The Black Sea coastline was erected in the 1830s, and completely dismantled in 1854 during the Crimean War. The construction of this line of fortifications gave rise to the emergence of many modern large Russian cities located on the Black Sea coast - Sochi, Adler, Novorossiysk, Gelendzhik. Despite the formidable names of forts and fortresses built on the Black Sea coast, they were not the crown of fortification. They were tree-earthen fortifications, which were erected in a hurry. Many of the built fortifications fell into disrepair after a few years under the influence of heavy rains.

Forever in the ranks. The Feat of Arkhip Osipov
Plan of the Mikhailovsky Fortification

But the main problem of the entire coastline was not even the quality of the fortifications, but their filling. On defense of forts and fortresses was barely a tenth of the troops necessary for defense. Instead of 25 people, less than three thousand were available. At the same time, it quickly became clear that it was not the forts of the Black Sea coastline that threatened the highlanders, but the highlanders themselves could keep them in a state of constant blockade. The supply of fortifications with food and ammunition was difficult due to the lack of roads and was carried out by sea twice a year. Moreover, in addition to the insufficient number of garrisons and erroneous calculations during construction, which did not allow creating strong and durable fortification profiles, a huge problem was a large mortality from diseases. For example, for the whole of 980, 1845 defenders of fortifications died in battles with the highlanders, and 18 people died from various diseases.

Feat of Arkhip Osipov


The most terrible test for the Black Sea coastline was 1840, when the mountaineers carried out massive attacks against Russian fortifications, destroying and ruining some of them. The reason for the revitalization of the Circassian tribes was the terrible famine that erupted in the mountains in early 1840. It was the famine that forced the highlanders to develop a plan of attack on the fortifications in the coastal area, here the attackers planned to get hold of food, as well as various military equipment. On February 7, a one and a half thousand detachment of highlanders captured Lazarev Fort, which was desperately defending a garrison of 78 people, destroying the defenders. February 29, the fate of Fort Lazarev befell the Velyaminovskoye fortification located on the Tuapse River. And already in March 1840, the Circassians approached the Mikhailovsky fortification, in which Private Arkhip Osipov served.

For several days, especially at night, the mountaineers exhausted the garrison of the Russian fortification, simulating attacks. Such tactics weakened the garrison, which lived in anticipation of a constant attack. All these days, the soldiers and officers of the fort, if they slept, were only in full ammunition. At the same time, the forces were initially unequal, the fort garrison was approximately 250 people, and the attackers were several thousand, in some sources you can find information about 11 thousand highlanders.

The assault on the fort began early in the morning of March 22. Ahead was the Circassian infantry, which carried specially assembled wooden stairs to climb the earthen walls. Behind the infantry was the cavalry, which was supposed to fend off the sortie of the defenders of the Mikhailovsky fortification. Despite stubborn and desperate resistance, the forces of the parties were unequal. The mountaineers were not stopped by volleys of cards, but if they climbed the walls of the fortifications, sooner or later they would still prevail in hand-to-hand combat. The battle lasting several hours gradually faded. The surviving defenders of the fort were surrounded inside the fortification. At the same time, the commandant of the fort, staff captain Konstantin Liko, who had already been wounded by that time, refused to surrender to the enemy.


The feat of private Tenginsky regiment Arkhip Osipov. Painting by A. A. Kozlov

Arkhip Osipov said his word and last point in the defense of the Mikhailovsky fortification. After many hours of logging, the defenders' resistance faded, almost all of the fortification passed into the hands of the attackers. It was then that Osipov alone or with a group of comrades managed to break into the powder cellar and set fire to the powder. The terrible force of the explosion shook the air, a giant column of smoke and dust rose into the sky. From the Mikhailovsky fortification remained smoking ruins. The highlanders, struck by the incident, retreated and returned to the battlefield only a few hours later to pick up the remaining wounded and the bodies of the dead. At the same time, the explosion claimed the lives of the last defenders of the fortification and a huge number of attackers.

Paying tribute to the feat of a simple Russian soldier, Emperor Nicholas I ordered that Private Arkhip Osipov be included in the lists of the 1st company of the Tenginsky regiment forever. So a new tradition appeared in the Russian army: the inclusion of particularly distinguished soldiers and officers forever in the lists of units. And even later, already on the site of the destroyed ramparts of the Mikhailovsky fortification, a Russian village was founded, named after the brave hero - Arkhipo-Osipovka. Today, this village is part of the Krasnodar Territory.
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  1. Same lech
    Same lech 14 May 2020 05: 23 New
    +8
    About these heroes it is necessary to shoot series and not about Zuchel opening her eyes.

    Just think Osip went through 1000 gauntlets ... and remained alive and well ... this punishment had a strong effect on him.
    1. Basil50
      Basil50 14 May 2020 06: 16 New
      13
      They correctly noted that it was a miracle that he survived after beating.
      The article describes the reality of those places.
      The highlanders began a famine, and they immediately ran for slaves to sell to the Turks and Persians. And today we have about a * centuries-old way of life * * love of freedom * and other crap of the peoples of the Caucasus.
      However, as today.
    2. Vladimir_2U
      Vladimir_2U 14 May 2020 06: 28 New
      +8
      Quote: The same LYOKHA
      Zuhel opening eyes

      It has long been no longer eyes, and does not open, but legs and spreads. laughing
      Almost semi-official name of the movie, including among the Tatars.))
    3. Krasnodar
      Krasnodar 14 May 2020 09: 31 New
      +2
      Quote: The same Lech
      About these heroes it is necessary to shoot series and not about Zuchel opening her eyes.

      Just think Osip went through 1000 gauntlets ... and remained alive and well ... this punishment had a strong effect on him.

      Good morning! hi
      You understand that no runaway soldiers beat at full Mila, with the aim of crippling)). Pounded, most likely, with a whip on the thighs, shoulders and ass laughing
      1. Ryazan87
        Ryazan87 14 May 2020 11: 58 New
        +3
        Unfortunately no. It was possible to taste molts in the Navy (it’s still a pleasure). In the army, the offender undressed to the waist and walked between two rows of colleagues. The blows fell on the back, arms and shoulders. It may have been beaten slightly, but even if, for example, you slap your hand at least 300 times, it will not seem enough.
        1. Krasnodar
          Krasnodar 14 May 2020 12: 34 New
          +2
          It is clear that it does not seem laughing
          I wrote that the task of crippling there was not posed, but rather - on the contrary, it was forbidden.
        2. Astra wild
          Astra wild 14 May 2020 18: 27 New
          -3
          A colleague Ryazanets, even in her youth, heard somewhere: Arakcheev had a lover, but she did not get into bed and he ordered her to be beaten with gauntlets. Is that really true? If a woman is tired of bed and beat her with sticks. What cruelty, and Pushkin regretted his death or is it a lie?
          1. Ryazan87
            Ryazan87 14 May 2020 21: 47 New
            +2
            This is a well-known story, although it is largely known from the description of Herzen, but he is not a particularly reliable source. In a nutshell:
            Arakcheev really had a mistress for a long time, Nastasya Minkina, the coachman's daughter, a lady of the darkest and lowest origin. She lived in the Arakcheev estate of Gruzinovo, where she ran everything. She became famous for the extremely cruel treatment of courtyards, especially with girls who worked in the master's house. And after another "trick" - Nastasya disfigured the face of another maid with red-hot tongs, people's patience ran out. The victim's brother cut Minkina's throat, watching her in the bedroom.
            Arakcheev was beside himself with grief and insisted on the investigation and brutal punishment of those responsible: whipping and hard labor. Three defendants (including the killer) died of whipping.
            Such is the story.
            R.S. I especially note that despite the above, Arakcheev was an extremely decent person and, undoubtedly, one of the most talented Russian military administrators of the 19th century. Unpleasant, but capable.
    4. Ryazan87
      Ryazan87 14 May 2020 11: 55 New
      +3
      It should be noted that punishment with gauntlets was not one-time. A person, of course, cannot endure 1000 blows continuously (and more were appointed). During the execution, a doctor was present who stopped the procedure. The man was treated, and then received the rest. Barbarism, of course. Moreover, many still died - pain shock, heart, blood poisoning ...
      1. Krasnodar
        Krasnodar 14 May 2020 12: 39 New
        0
        This is most likely when "was for what." Salagu deserter .... I don't think so. If a very old employee was punished for something serious, with a predisposition to cardiovascular disease or congenital defect - the heart, yes, it may have refused, Young - no chance. Sepsis is possible. Painful shock in the presence of a doctor - only if "treated" by bloodletting)). Which in those days was quite possible.
        1. Astra wild
          Astra wild 14 May 2020 15: 54 New
          +2
          You are probably. Medic or at least interested in medicine?
          1. Krasnodar
            Krasnodar 14 May 2020 16: 15 New
            +1
            Former military assistant, medical assistant and for a long time was engaged in medical tourism)).
  2. Mavrikiy
    Mavrikiy 14 May 2020 05: 37 New
    +2
    The Crimean War (1853-1856), which ended in the defeat of Russia.
    It's time to stop singing Western songs. angry Yes, conditions dictated to us and we accepted them, but defeat ... no! Wiki
    Military setbacks led to the resignation of the British government of Aberdeen, who was replaced by Palmerston. The viciousness of the official system for selling officer ranks for money, which has been preserved in the British army since medieval times, has been discovered.
    During the Eastern Campaign, the Ottoman Empire made a loan in England of £ 7 million. In 1858, the bankruptcy of the Sultan treasury was declared.
    In February 1856, Sultan Abdul-Majid I was forced to issue a hut-i-sheriff (decree), which proclaimed freedom of religion and equality of citizens of the empire regardless of nationality.
    1. Same lech
      Same lech 14 May 2020 05: 46 New
      +2
      It's time to stop singing Western songs.

      I support and we must constantly put pressure on the sore spot of the Anglo-Saxons ...

      In the Battle of Balaclava, the Russians destroyed the English elite, shocking London.


      https://zen.yandex.ru/media/id/5b804239fbb04800aa22a123/dolina-smerti-angliiskoi-aristokratii-v-krymu-5b8e24ad1f845300ab3bb372
      1. Mavrikiy
        Mavrikiy 14 May 2020 05: 52 New
        +6
        In addition to WIKI.
        According to estimates of military losses, the total number of those killed in battle, as well as those who died from wounds and from illnesses in the Allied army was 160-170 thousand people, in the Russian army - 100-110 thousand people [85] [86] [87].
        So who blew the war with blood? repeat
      2. Ryazan87
        Ryazan87 14 May 2020 12: 01 New
        +1
        On the whole, the war ended relatively well for Russia. About the death of some "elite" in the Battle of Balaklava, this is in the category of legends. Ordinary soldiers served in the Light Brigade, and in terms of personnel, more than half survived. So, they embellished a little ..
        For the British, illness and hunger were far more destructive.
    2. Trilobite Master
      Trilobite Master 14 May 2020 16: 46 New
      0
      Quote: Mavrikiy
      It's time to stop singing Western songs.

      Quote: The same LYOKHA
      Keep

      Are you guys really demented or pretending to be?
      You real Russian weapons are not enough victories? I am already beginning to put up with the idea that for a stubborn patriot, a knight "without fear and brains" is infringement of national pride everything significant that does not bear the fat stamp "MADE IN RUS", hence the disputes about Rurik, about the Mongols, but now the Crimean War ...
      So we won the Russo-Japanese War ... Look, we got rid of the outdated fleet exclusively for Japanese funds in order to build a new one in its place, forced the Japanese to feed our soldiers and sailors for free, prudently and cunningly transferred to the Japanese prisoners (for this they had to take huge debts in the United States and Britain), got rid of the "suitcase without a handle" in the form of Prot-Arthur, which had to be fed, watered, etc., while the majority of the population in it were Chinese. Nicholas I acted very wisely, giving it to the Japanese ...
      The battles of Dorostol, Alta, Kalka, near Kolomna, the Livonian war, the Prut campaign of Peter I, the Crimean war, the Russo-Japanese war - these are all glorious Russian victories that we should all be proud of! wassat
      And these people are surprised that someone abroad is trying to rewrite their victories ... Look at yourself in the mirror and you will see the same thing that Svidomo Ukropatriots or Polish Nazis see in it with their Poland "from can to can", and also other such creatures, which I personally would have disabled - if you look a little, the sight is extremely repulsive.
      As a result of this "non-defeat" in the Crimean War, Russia flowed for 20 years, without the Black Sea Fleet, without international authority, without straits, frankly vegetating on the outskirts of world politics to the delight of rapidly developing competitors. What are you talking about? If this is not a defeat, then Tsushima is a glorious victory.
      wassat
      1. Astra wild
        Astra wild 14 May 2020 18: 44 New
        +1
        Mikhail, Trilobite,: "Nicholas 1 acted wisely, gave him to the Japanese" you are probably wrong: under Nicholas 1 Russia was just developing the Far East
        1. Trilobite Master
          Trilobite Master 14 May 2020 18: 46 New
          0
          Quote: Astra wild
          probably you were wrong

          Not "probably", but quite obvious, thanks smile
          The second stick after the name was not printed.
      2. Ryazan87
        Ryazan87 14 May 2020 22: 09 New
        +1
        As a result of this "non-defeat" in the Crimean War, Russia flowed for 20 years, without the Black Sea Fleet, without international authority, without straits, frankly vegetating on the outskirts of world politics to the delight of rapidly developing competitors.

        Well this is some exaggeration, of course.
        The ban on the construction of the navy was annulled 15 years after the Paris world. Given the then pace of development of naval weapons technology, they would not have built anything worthwhile anyway. Yes, and looking at the Russian method of using the navy using the example of the same Crimean one, one inevitably doubts whether a large fleet was worth building in principle.
        By the way, the wording of Article 11 was as follows: "The Black Sea is declared neutral: the entrance to the ports and waters of all peoples, open for merchant shipping of all peoples, is formally and forever prohibited by warships, both coastal and all other powers ..."
        I didn’t understand about the straits, to be honest: no one interfered with Russian merchant shipping through them (if they tried it, they would trade grain with the British even during the Crimean War).
        In terms of vegetation in the backyards, I don’t know: in 20 years after Crimean Austria was twice brutally beaten, lost significant territories, France simply suffered a national catastrophe ... Compared to these "flogging" - Crimean, consider, a loss on points.
        The Russian Empire at that time managed to grow a little: Amur and Primorye are just 1858 and 1860.
    3. vladcub
      vladcub 14 May 2020 17: 03 New
      +3
      "It's time to stop singing Western songs" actually the Turks have as an epigraph :: "Tsarist Russia started the war in 1854 and Tsarist Russia LOST the war" I. Lenin. Lenin himself relied on the work of F. Engels. And Engels made no secret of the fact that he considered us savages.
      You can write about it with Martirosyan
  3. Olgovich
    Olgovich 14 May 2020 08: 04 New
    +2
    a very detailed description of the military path of the soldier Arkhipov-escape, participation in wars and individual battles ..

    really in the army was a detailed account of the participation in the database of each soldier? I have not heard about this ...

    Yes, and the appearance is known ...

    This, of course, does not detract from the greatness of the feat accomplished by a soldier.

    ps Next to the village of Osipo-Arkhipovka today is the Blue Stream compressor station. Famous village.
    1. Basil50
      Basil50 14 May 2020 08: 32 New
      -2
      Your doubts are clear.
      And then, to raise the military spirit, they searched and found examples of heroism. So they chose ARKHIP OSIPOV for glorification. There were attempts even to attribute it to the saints, and so the life was compiled.
      In addition to ARKHIP OSIPOV, the exploits of other heroes of that war, both soldiers and officers, were also described.
      By the way, during this period, the baptism of the peoples of the Caucasus, including the Georgians, took place, because there were a lot of church missionaries.
      1. Olgovich
        Olgovich 14 May 2020 09: 53 New
        +5
        Quote: Vasily50
        By the way in this period there was a baptism of the peoples of the Caucasus, including Georgian,

        what are you ?!

        Georgia was baptized in the FOURTH century, i.e. at FIFTEEN CENTURIES previously described events!
      2. Basil50
        Basil50 14 May 2020 10: 55 New
        -1
        olgovich
        The bike about the baptism of Georgians in the fourth century is nothing more than a bike. Georgians as a nation began to form only in the RUSSIAN EMPIRE.
        In the Caucasus and Transcaucasia, Christians were found when the Byzantine Empire was nearby, then all of them were Turks and Persians * cut * into Muslims.
        Those who are today called Georgians were baptized again from Muslims when they joined the RUSSIAN EMPIRE. Georgian nobles, under their * ancient Christianity *, sought recognition and equalization with the nobility of RUSSIA.
        1. bober1982
          bober1982 14 May 2020 12: 55 New
          +4
          Quote: Vasily50
          A bike about the baptism of Georgians in the fourth century, no more

          In the Diptych of the Autocephalous Churches, the Georgian Church takes the honorable fifth place, it is the oldest Orthodox Church, to which they are deeply respected.
          It’s not clear where you got such knowledge.
        2. vladcub
          vladcub 14 May 2020 17: 10 New
          +4
          Vasily, I recommend you read: Karamzin, Solovyov (Lenin respected Solovyov) Ilovaisky, not Fomenko
    2. Edward Vashchenko
      Edward Vashchenko 14 May 2020 09: 45 New
      +3
      Greetings!
      really in the army was a detailed account of the participation in the database of each soldier? I have not heard about this ...

      As for accounting for participation in the database, I won’t say for sure, but control over losses and prisoners was very clear. Which, for example, made it possible to pull soldiers out of captivity, often very quickly.
      1. Olgovich
        Olgovich 14 May 2020 09: 56 New
        +3
        Quote: Eduard Vaschenko
        As for accounting for participation in the database, I won’t say for sure, but control over losses and prisoners was very clear. Which, for example, made it possible to pull soldiers out of captivity, often very quickly.

        Hello!

        I think that the feat is real, the medals are real (and therefore the feats are real), and concrete campaigns and fights are supposed.
        1. cost
          cost 14 May 2020 11: 30 New
          +6
          They learned about the heroic deed of Arkhip Osipov a few months after almost fifty defenders of the fortress, returning from captivity, confirmed everything under oath. “Dooming himself to such a glorious death,” read the order of the Minister of War of November 8, 1840, “he only asked his comrades to remember his work if any of them survived. This desire of Osipov came true. Several brave comrades, Those who survived amid the general destruction and destruction, preserved his legacy and faithfully passed it on. The Emperor honored the merits of the valiant defenders of the Mikhailovsky fortification in the families they left. keep his name forever in the lists of the I Grenadier Company of the Tenginsky Regiment, considering him the first private, and at all roll calls, if this name is asked, the first private will answer: "Died for the glory of Russian weapons in the Mikhailovsky fortification"
          1. cost
            cost 14 May 2020 11: 32 New
            +5
            In October 1881 a monument to the hero was erected in Vladikavkaz. After 1917, regarded as a monument to the autocracy, it was destroyed. But on the site of the blown up fortification, a six-meter openwork cast-iron cross erected with public money in 1876 still stands. March 77 in the Mikhailovsky fortification, on the site of which this monument was erected ”.


            And in 1889, the village of Vulanskaya, at the request of the residents, was renamed Arkhipo-Osipovskaya, and until now, already as an urban-type settlement, bearing the name of the Russian hero.
            1. The comment was deleted.
        2. cost
          cost 14 May 2020 11: 35 New
          +4
          In 1837, on the Black Sea coast of the Caucasus, near the mouth of the Vulan River, the Mikhailovsky fortification was built, which became part of the Black Sea coastline,

          which was headed by Lieutenant General N.N. Raevsky, the son of the illustrious hero of the Patriotic War of 1812.
          1. cost
            cost 14 May 2020 11: 53 New
            +4
            At the same time, the explosion took away a huge number of attackers and the lives of the last defenders of the fortification.

            This is not true.
            More than 50 defenders of the fortress were captured, including its commandant, Nikolai Konstantinovich Liko, the captain of the Black Sea Linear Line No. 5 battalion, who was seriously wounded in the head and leg, who ordered the explosion to be strengthened. After the explosion, Liko, among the few defenders who survived from him, was captured by the Highlanders, taken to the mountains, and there he died of gangrene of his leg.
            1. cost
              cost 14 May 2020 12: 05 New
              +6
              Liko, Nikolai Konstantinovich
              Strengthening commandant Mikhailovskoe staff captain of the Black Sea Linear No. 5 battalion

              He came from the Greek nobles of the city of Balaclava and was born between 1795 and 1800. According to the recall of the Chief of Staff of the Black Sea Coastline, General G. I. Philipson, Liko was “a good officer, who spent all his life in the Caucasus, serious and courageous, he was medium-sized, dark-haired, with black whiskers and a mustache, of medium build.”
              In 1840, Liko was appointed commander of the Mikhailovsky fortification, the garrison of which consisted of two companies from his battalion, a company of the Tenginsky regiment and two companies of the Navaginsky regiment. When he learned about the Lazarevsky fortifications being taken by the mountaineers, then, assuming himself the possibility of the same fate, he prudently separated the part of the fortification closest to the sea with an internal parapet, where there were provisions stores and a powder cellar. In this stronghold, Liko intended to hold on if the enemy burst into the rest of the fortification. Liko, on the other hand, instilled in the garrison the determination to fight to the last man and inspired Arkhip Osipov to blow up the fortification if he could not push the enemy back. At noon on March 22, 1840, about 11 mountaineers launched an attack on Mikhailovskoye. Liko was wounded in the head and leg, but continued to give orders, leaning on his sword, with a dagger in his hand. After the explosion of the fortification, Liko, among the few defenders who survived from him, was captured by the mountaineers, taken to the mountains, and there he died of gangrene of his leg.
              He was buried by the mountaineers, out of respect for the courage of the officer, according to the Orthodox custom, in compliance with all military honors.
              The lower ranks emerging from captivity showed that Liko, as the head of strict and fair, all subordinates were afraid and respected. Liko: he was medium-sized, brunette, with black whiskers and a mustache, of medium build. In Vladikavkaz and on the ruins of the Mikhailovsky fortification, monuments were erected for him and ordinary Arkhip Osipov. The Vladikavkaz monument after 1917 was demolished as a memory of autocracy
              fig. Vladikavkaz monument
              1. Olgovich
                Olgovich 14 May 2020 12: 23 New
                +3
                Quote: Rich
                fig. Vladikavkaz monument

                What an interesting monument!

                Hello and thank you, Dmitry!

                Where did you find him? Still have angles?

                This is what Russophobes, unaware of kinship, had to be in order to destroy such, as well as the memory of the feat of the Russian soldier!

                nonhumans ...

                for my part I will share a completely amazing monument to General RADETSKY in Odessa, demolished by nonhumans in 1933 (I accidentally found):

                1. cost
                  cost 14 May 2020 13: 14 New
                  +3
                  Hello Andrey. I beg you to excuse me.
                  In my previous post. I made a mistake by signing the illustration.

                  This is not a Vladikavkaz monument, but a monument to Osipov and Liko, erected on the site of the former Mikhailovsky fortification. January 8, 1876 by the sculptor F.I. Khodorovich according to the project of the artist M. Brozh. Built on public money in 1876. After 1917, regarded as a monument to the autocracy, it was destroyed.
                  Unfortunately, only one of his photos has been preserved.

                  In place of the blown up fortification today stands a six-meter cast-iron openwork cross,

                  1. cost
                    cost 14 May 2020 13: 28 New
                    +5
                    Now about the monument to Osipov and Liko in Vladikavkaz.
                    The monument to Arkhip Osipov in Vladikavkaz was built in 1881 according to a project approved by the former Viceroy of the Caucasus. The contractor is a military engineer Lileev.





                    The information posted in the “Tersky calendar for 1898” reported that on October 22, 1881, a monument to Arkhip Osipov and Nikolai Liko was unveiled in the capital of the Terek Army in Vladikavkaz. The monument was built with money collected by the TKV Cossacks, according to a project approved by the Viceroy of the Caucasus. The contractor is a military engineer Lileev

                    It was made in the form of an obelisk - a stone pillar, tapering upward, with a pyramidally pointed apex. The names of the heroes were carved on the sides of the monument, and on the back on the copper board was the text of the order of the Minister of War No. 79 of November 8, 1840 on the perpetuation of the memory of the heroes.
                    The text of the order reported that the monument was erected to the headquarters captain of the Black Sea Linear No. 5 battalion Nikolai Liko and to the ordinary 77th Tenginsky Infantry Regiment Arkhip Osipov. In the niche of the monument was placed the image of the Savior in a gold frame. A white marble obelisk mounted on a gray pedestal was crowned with a gilded eagle. The eagle held a wreath of Glory in its beak, and in its paw - the core.
                    The monument was a symbol and landmark of the pre-revolutionary Vladikavkaz.
                    The monument was located at the end of Nesterovsky Boulevard, in front of the buildings of the headquarters of the 20th Division, a gymnasium and a real school.
                    After 1917, the monument was regarded as a monument to the autocracy and blown up.
                    Today in Vladikavkaz are going to restore this monument


                    .
                    1. cost
                      cost 14 May 2020 13: 33 New
                      +4
                      Some more old photos of the Vladikavkaz monument to Osipov and Liko








                      1. Okolotochny
                        Okolotochny 15 May 2020 06: 06 New
                        +2
                        And what is the relationship with Vladikavkaz? Why exactly there was a monument. It seems to be very far from the scene?
                  2. Private-K
                    Private-K 14 May 2020 16: 52 New
                    +1
                    But is the date of destruction correct - 1917? And - who, in fact, blew up?
                    Until the end of the summer of 1917, the order of the empire was almost the same as before.
                    The situation began to deteriorate only in the fall.
                    By and large, to destroy - that is, to blow up a monument to a Russian soldier-hero - could only after VOSRy. But the Bolshevik-Leninists did not reach such southern places, and it was not yet time to deal with them like that.
                    The Don army raised an armed uprising against the Bolshevik regime and quickly abandoned the self-proclaimed local revolutionary "councils". But from the south, the white Russian troops were opposed by the national revolutionaries of the Caucasus ...
                    IMHO, the destruction of the monument was a special showpiece of the Caucasian Social Revolutionaries. And there, look at whoever - a nationalist on British or Masonic lure.
                  3. vladcub
                    vladcub 14 May 2020 17: 36 New
                    +1
                    Dmitry "Rich" I have been to Arhipka, I saw this cross and thought that this monument has stood since the pre-revolutionary period. I read somewhere that it was cast from the old cannons of the Mikhailovsky fortification
    3. Ryazan87
      Ryazan87 14 May 2020 12: 06 New
      +3
      Yes, the appearance of each recruit was described in detail, including, for example, the color of hair and eyes (at least in 1812 all this was already).
      In the guard, this also had applied value: for example, they took exceptionally snub-nosed snacks to the Pavlovsky regiment)
      In addition, the soldier generated a lot of documentation: payroll, the issuance of equipment and ammunition, penalties, awards, participation in campaigns and battles.
    4. Krasnodar
      Krasnodar 14 May 2020 16: 54 New
      0
      Quote: Olgovich


      ps Next to the village of Osipo-Arkhipovka today is the Blue Stream compressor station. Famous village.

      The closest and most comfortable piece of the sea from Krasnodar)). Arkhipo-Osipovka called fellow
      1. Okolotochny
        Okolotochny 15 May 2020 06: 07 New
        +2
        Dzhubga is closer.
  4. Zaurbek
    Zaurbek 14 May 2020 08: 45 New
    +1
    All Russian names along the coast are such fortifications in the past.
    1. Bar1
      Bar1 14 May 2020 11: 03 New
      +1
      Quote: Zaurbek
      All Russian names along the coast are such fortifications in the past.

      and what are the Russian names in the past?
      1. Zaurbek
        Zaurbek 14 May 2020 12: 39 New
        0
        Now which Russian names ... are in the past fortifications
        1. Okolotochny
          Okolotochny 15 May 2020 06: 12 New
          +3
          Not only the coast, the villages of the right bank of the Kuban, the Caucasian line, the main part is named after the regiments that were located there, Voronezh, Ladoga, Tbilisi, Kazan, etc.
          1. Zaurbek
            Zaurbek 15 May 2020 07: 10 New
            +1
            Wow .... and large fortresses - Grozny and Maykop and Ust Labinsk ....
            1. Okolotochny
              Okolotochny 15 May 2020 12: 23 New
              0
              Ust-Labinsk is a former Alexander fortress or fortification. You still forgot a piece of milk.
  5. Undecim
    Undecim 14 May 2020 12: 23 New
    +1

    Christian Ivanovich Osten-Saken, captain of the 2nd rank of the Black Sea Fleet. From the Estonian nobles. In 1788, the commander of a 40-row dubbing boat (15 guns, a crew of 52 people) as part of the Liman rowing flotilla; came under the command of Prince Nassau-Siegen, who commanded the educated G.A. Potemkin on the Dnieper estuary squadron of rowing ships. In the second half of May 1788, this squadron came to the right bank of the Dnieper estuary, to the marina Glubokaya. Osten-Saken was sent by Nassau-Siegen to Kinburg, where A.V.Suvorov was located to receive instructions on further actions. Having completed the assignment, Osten-Saken was returning to the Glubokaya pier when a large Turkish fleet suddenly appeared. Several Turkish ships, separated from the squadron, began to pursue Osten-Saken and caught him at the mouth of the Bug. In conditions of unequal boarding, Kh. I. Saken made a detonation of the hook camera. The explosion of a Russian ship destroyed four Turkish galleys mating with it. After that, the Turks banned the boarding of Russian ships.
    For the first time in the Russian Navy, such a feat was made in 1737 by Captain Defremery, Russified Frenchman. He destroyed his ship not far from this place (near Fedotova Spit) under similar circumstances - moving away from Turkish galleys.
    1. Ryazan87
      Ryazan87 14 May 2020 13: 08 New
      +4
      Only in the image is General Fedor Ivanovich Soymonov, who died in the Inkerman battle in 1854.
      1. Undecim
        Undecim 14 May 2020 13: 29 New
        -2
        Obviously, I was mistaken with the portrait.
        1. cost
          cost 14 May 2020 14: 06 New
          +5
          Obviously, I was mistaken with the portrait.

          It’s hard not to be mistaken - the Internet according to the image of Christian Ivanovich Osten-Saken gives out the image of Fedor Ivanovich Soymonov. And in the wiki article about Arkhip Osipov, a portrait of Kozma Kryuchkov is generally given fool
          1. Undecim
            Undecim 14 May 2020 14: 08 New
            +2
            In any case, I had to check. Hastened with corresponding consequences.
    2. vladcub
      vladcub 14 May 2020 17: 45 New
      +1
      V.N., I heard that there was captain Osten-Saken, but I did not know what he became famous for, but I didn’t hear anything about the Frenchman Defreimer
      1. Undecim
        Undecim 14 May 2020 17: 52 New
        0
        Really, in your distant childhood, did you not have a book "Stories about Warships" with such a picture?
        1. vladcub
          vladcub 14 May 2020 18: 08 New
          +1
          Alas, I learned about such a book no more than 1,5 liters ago
          1. Undecim
            Undecim 14 May 2020 18: 52 New
            -1
            1,5 L ago
            Do you measure time in liters ?!
            1. vladcub
              vladcub 15 May 2020 17: 38 New
              +2
              Yeah, and the doors are in traffic jams. Remember Arkady Raikin's: "Change of apartment"? The minus is not mine. You have personal "admirers".
              The usual haste. He wrote: "about 1,5 years ago" ""
  6. cost
    cost 14 May 2020 14: 21 New
    +2
    Khristian Ivanovich Osten-Saken, captain of the 2nd rank of the Black Sea Fleet, commander of a 40-oar dubbing boat (15 guns, crew of 52 people)

    fig. dubbing boat 1788

    photo Stone at the site of the feat of Kh.I. Osten-Saken


    By the way, the aunt on the father of Leo Tolstoy was married to the son of Christian Ivanovich Osten-Saken
  7. ser56
    ser56 14 May 2020 15: 20 New
    +2
    Thanks to the author for historical memory!
  8. Astra wild
    Astra wild 14 May 2020 15: 38 New
    +4
    In fact, the Wind has already told about the exploit of Arkhip Osipov, but you can re-read an interesting story more than once.
    "ordered to permanently include private Arkhip Osipov in the lists of the 1st company of the Tenginsky regiment," probably there were many of those who were forever included in the regiment's list. Colleagues, do you know a lot of such stories? It would be great if someone could tell about such cases.
    This just matches the theme of our site.
  9. vladcub
    vladcub 14 May 2020 17: 11 New
    +1
    Quote: bober1982
    Quote: Vasily50
    A bike about the baptism of Georgians in the fourth century, no more

    In the Diptych of the Autocephalous Churches, the Georgian Church takes the honorable fifth place, it is the oldest Orthodox Church, to which they are deeply respected.
    It’s not clear where you got such knowledge.

    Fomenko and this can not be
  10. bandabas
    bandabas 14 May 2020 18: 33 New
    +1
    Gentlemen, comrades, what does the gauntlet have to do with it? The case of MAN. He was ... Unlike many.
  11. vladcub
    vladcub 14 May 2020 18: 49 New
    +1
    Quote: Undecim
    relevant

    V. Na, to you + for self-criticism
  12. Diviz
    Diviz 15 May 2020 11: 06 New
    0
    The Western Karakhanid Kaganate included the city of Samarkand. Kiev founded the Khazar Khaganate. The Caucasus Mountains were a connecting viaduct of mercenary mercenaries. Genghis Khan Tamerlan Kolovrat and others fought with these wars. Genghis Khan freed Samarkand. Tamerlane cleared the Caucasus mountains and liberated the city of Terebiz. Takhtamysh fought on the territory of the Volga. This is the conclusion that suggests itself. The truth is somewhere near.
    1. vladcub
      vladcub 15 May 2020 13: 16 New
      +1
      "Uncle in Kiev, but elderberry in the garden"? What does Tokhtymash have to do with it when they talked about Arkhip Osipov?