Military Review

IL-2 - the legendary "flying tank" of World War II

44

The IL-2 aircraft is a combat vehicle that, on its wings, endured all the hardships and tribulations of the Great Patriotic War, becoming a symbol and legend of our great Victory. Symbol along with Katyusha and a tank T-34. He can rightfully be considered one of the heroes of this war.


This attack aircraft, designed by designer Sergei Ilyushin, became famous for his military successes in the destruction of the enemy. For its excellent armor, this aircraft model was often called the “flying tank”.

However, such a combat vehicle also had an “Achilles heel”. At the very beginning of the war, Soviet attack aircraft suffered heavy losses.

The guest of the program “Archival revolution” historian aviation Oleg Rastrenin will dwell in detail on the development period of the IL-2 attack aircraft, on its main modifications, including the IL-2 double wing with an arrow, IL-2U Improved.

Why and when did the armored cockpit appear on the IL-2? How did the crew themselves relate to the additional reservation of the cockpit? How can you evaluate an airplane and its weapons? The answers to these and other questions about aviation during the Second World War in the video presented:

44 comments
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  1. Flooding
    Flooding 18 December 2019 07: 07
    +2
    Training film 1943
    1. 30143
      30143 18 December 2019 08: 35
      +1
      Thank you for the video!
      1. Alexander Suvorov
        Alexander Suvorov 18 December 2019 08: 49
        +1
        IL-2 - the most massive combat aircraft in the world!
        “Il, why are you“ hunchbacked? ” “Because he took out the whole war on himself.” The nickname is "Brokeback" - from the characteristic profile of the fuselage. The designers of the Ilyushinsky Design Bureau themselves called it the "Flying Tank." The Germans - “Concrete Aircraft” and “Cement Bomber”, as well as “Meat Grinder”, “Iron Gustav” and even “Plague”. The plague on their fascist heads, he was!
        How many pilots said thanks to Ilyushin for such a plane. True, the flight as a gunner-radio operator was akin to a penal battalion. Although for the complexity of combat sorties on the first Il-2 models without a shooter, under the conditions of the Luftwaffe domination in the sky, in 1941, for 10 sorties, they were already awarded the title Hero of the Soviet Union.
        Honor and glory to the pilots of the stormtroopers, for whom each flight was the last, eternal memory of the fallen heroes!
        1. svp67
          svp67 18 December 2019 17: 33
          +1
          Quote: Alexander Suvorov
          True, the flight as a gunner-radio operator was akin to a penal battalion.

          That is, for this machine gun they planted exclusively officers who were to wash away some kind of sin?
        2. certero
          certero 19 December 2019 17: 51
          0
          You have collected all the post-war legends. Watch a better video
          1. svp67
            svp67 19 December 2019 20: 30
            +1
            Quote: certero
            You have collected all the post-war legends. Watch a better video

            From the book of A.V. Drabkin “I fought on the IL-2. We were called "suicide bombers" "
            Memoirs of Purgin Nikolai Ivanovich (820th ShAP, pilot, 232 b / c)
            I had a few shooters. Initially, fines were sent to us. I remember there was such a fighter pilot, Major Shatsky. He died in the first flight.
    2. Monar
      Monar 18 December 2019 08: 51
      +1
      Thanks. It's always interesting to watch such things. All the same, how the language and terminology have changed over the decades. The most basic thing is to "strap on" and "buckle up" now.
      But this is not the first time that surprises. Instructions with music. Was this the case or was it already a remake?
      1. Flooding
        Flooding 18 December 2019 09: 18
        +2
        Quote: Monar
        But this is not the first time that surprises. Instructions with music. Was this the case or was it already a remake?

        Original version. This is clear from the scale.
        For example, another 1944 film.

        How do you like the spelling "exploitation" in the opening credits?
        1. Monar
          Monar 18 December 2019 09: 23
          +2
          I noticed. ) This spelling is normal for me.
        2. Dmitry V.
          Dmitry V. 18 December 2019 10: 50
          0
          Exploitation - then such an utterance was adopted - the proletarians, not some exploiters :)
          1. Flooding
            Flooding 18 December 2019 11: 25
            +1
            Quote: Dmitry Vladimirovich
            Exploitation - then such an utterance was adopted - the proletarians, not some exploiters :)

            I understand that this is not a mistake.
            In old editions of books, sometimes I encountered similar unusual features.
  2. Strashila
    Strashila 18 December 2019 07: 33
    +1
    Clearly, everything new takes time to understand and master. It is good that the designer and the production, as they could, quickly made changes to the design of the machine.
  3. Van 16
    Van 16 18 December 2019 07: 55
    +1
    He is "Ilyusha" (for ours), he is "Black Death" (for the Germans).
  4. The leader of the Redskins
    The leader of the Redskins 18 December 2019 08: 00
    +1
    Here is a plane that I personally associate with the word BATTLE.
    A jack-of-all-trades: and a rocket bomb strike, and look into the barrels of anti-aircraft guns in reconnaissance, and fill up a bomber. Despite the fact that he himself "snapped" from the enemy vulture can.
    1. svp67
      svp67 18 December 2019 17: 35
      +1
      Quote: Leader of the Redskins
      Here is a plane that I personally associate with the word BATTLE.

      For me it is "WORKER", "laborer of war"
  5. Peaceful Basmach
    Peaceful Basmach 18 December 2019 08: 21
    +1
    Hard worker! He carried out most of the work of front-line aviation! Honor and praise be to him! But we still have almost forgotten, ADD or long-range aviation. Which worked both deep behind enemy lines and along the front line. And it was created during the war, it reported directly to the headquarters.
  6. Basarev
    Basarev 18 December 2019 09: 00
    -4
    Not such a tank. The armor protects only from the rifle caliber, and even a little of it, the plane is mainly wooden-fabric, it used to happen that the tail fell off from one line. By the way, it’s very indicative that the scale of Soviet backwardness is immediately visible: in Germany, airplanes are all-metal, all-radioed. And we are plywood, as in the First. And only on command vehicles is a poor receiver.
    1. Aerodrome
      Aerodrome 18 December 2019 09: 10
      +1
      it was offered to fines to atone, by the shooter on IL 2 ... that's it.
      1. svp67
        svp67 18 December 2019 18: 09
        0
        Quote: Aerodrome
        it was offered to fines to atone, by the shooter on IL 2 ... that's it.

        Convicted officers, pilots, yes, from some point it was proposed to atone for their fault with the gunner on the IL-2 and this is correct, since people are trained and send them to the infantry, the height of waste. But this does not mean that all the arrows of the IL-2 were convicted officers
        1. certero
          certero 19 December 2019 17: 53
          0
          Quote: svp67
          Convicted officers, pilots, yes, from some point it was proposed to atone for their fault with the gunner on the IL-2

          Will you bring the documents?
    2. Sansculotte
      Sansculotte 18 December 2019 10: 18
      -1
      Well, much more was done, but it was more important. The Yanks also bombed the B-52 with Vietnamese)
    3. Alexander Suvorov
      Alexander Suvorov 18 December 2019 10: 57
      -3
      Basarev (Arseny)
      Not such a tank. Armor only protects against rifle caliber
      Do you need 150 mm as on a battleship or 75 mm as on a tank? The Germans did not pile anything like that during the entire war, with all their advanced technologies.
      By the way, it’s very significant that the scale of Soviet backwardness is immediately visible
      Well, yes, they are so behind that they dishonored the withers of advanced Germans.
      Germany has all-metal airplanes
      The USSR had a catastrophic shortage of aviation aluminum. Or have you not heard about this?
      completely radio-controlled. And we are plywood, as in the First. And only on command vehicles is a poor receiver.
      When we were able to establish our own production, then we had radio communications on all the machines.
      It's disgusting to even read people like you!
    4. svp67
      svp67 18 December 2019 18: 06
      +2
      Quote: Basarev
      in Germany, airplanes are all-metal, all-radiated. And we are plywood, as in the First.

      That's when the truth is mixed with lies ... You VERY poorly know the design of military aircraft of that time, the history of its development and changes during the war, and you make such global conclusions ...
      USSR TB-3 All-metal and radio-fired 30s

      Great Britain "Mosquito", solid wood, which does not prevent it from being considered one of the best aircraft of that war

      Germany, 1945, Henkel HE-162, 3/4 wooden

      USA, Hughes H-4 Hercules (English Hughes H-4 Hercules) - a transport wooden flying boat that has such parameters, some of which are still considered record
      1. Basarev
        Basarev 18 December 2019 19: 00
        0
        As for TB-3, it doesn’t concern here, we specifically condemn IL-2. Similarly, the Germans and the British with the Germans - we do not care about their woodenness. Foreign flaws do not justify ours. I always said - you should be equal to the best. And you are engaged in forgery, in the same way as on some channels with great pride they talk about the development and wealth of Russia ... Compared to the most backward countries in the world. And wood is definitely obsolete material back in the late twenties, only an ignoramus will argue with this, rummaging about nothing in aviation.
        1. svp67
          svp67 18 December 2019 19: 50
          +1
          Quote: Basarev
          I always said - you should be equal to the best.

          And which of the indicated foreign is the worst?
          Quote: Basarev
          And wood is definitely obsolete material back in the late twenties, only an ignoramus will argue with this, rummaging about nothing in aviation.

          Wood, this is the material that in that war was mostly put into business when it was not very good in terms of production. By the way, the Germans in 44 and 45 put wooden parts on their planes in order to continue their production.
          As for the Il-2, it was originally all-metal, but the requirements of mass production and the lack of stability of supply forced us to use wood in its construction in 41 to 44 years, but from the age of 44 the metal began to supplant in the construction of Il- 2 tree.
          And at the expense of "groping", so "Mosquito", "groping" "Mosquito", how many metal surpassed it?
          1. Basarev
            Basarev 18 December 2019 20: 05
            -3
            In 45, the Germans did not go to a tree from a good life. They lost almost all deposits and fell into a terrifying metal shortage. That is, among the Germans, a tree is a forced, desperate measure, so the Germans are not an example here. And what about the wooden toys of Britain and the USA - superpowers have the right to quirks, and such wastefulness is not permissible for us.
            1. svp67
              svp67 19 December 2019 08: 54
              +1
              Quote: Basarev
              In 45, the Germans did not go to a tree from a good life. They lost almost all deposits and fell into a terrifying metal shortage.
              Yeah, that means you are allowing them to do this, but the USSR is NOT MANY. But nothing that the production of aluminum was a very energy-intensive process and the USSR did not have the opportunity, at that time it was not enough to set up its production in proper quantity, and not many were able to work with it, the tree was still more familiar. So, making an assumption for one country, do not forget to do it for another ...
              Quote: Basarev
              And what about the wooden toys of Britain and the USA - superpowers have the right to quirks, and such wastefulness is not permissible for us.

              Of course, it’s better to be left without aviation at all ... This is the right decision
              1. Basarev
                Basarev 19 December 2019 11: 21
                0
                Everything is simple. We must be impeccable. And since such an all-powerful Union, with its main emphasis on heavy industry, has not mastered the proper volume of aluminum - how much does such an industry cost? Yes, and the system in general? The answer is obvious.
                1. svp67
                  svp67 20 December 2019 06: 43
                  0
                  Quote: Basarev
                  And since such a mighty Union of itself,

                  I don’t know, but you perfectly understand that a country where the working class was a minority, where industrialization was carried out at a fast pace, simply cannot become developed in an industrial direction at the click of a finger. It took some time for the workers and the engineer to receive a proper education and get work experience. And if in the 30s the country became industrial, then in the 40s it really became a mighty industrial power, which could be seen as a breakthrough into space and the mastery of nuclear energy. But everything took time. And let us still treat our ancestors with understanding, they worked tirelessly, wasting their health and even their lives in order to obtain the necessary industrial potential
                  1. Basarev
                    Basarev 20 December 2019 08: 54
                    0
                    The point is that the efforts were not distributed there. At the expense of the Russians (artificially divided by the damned Bolsheviks into at least three republics) they raised all kinds of Caucasian-Central Asian savages (and there are a lot of wild national Nazis inside the RSFSR), political repressions led (how many potential Korolevs were rotted for disagreeing with the party line?) ... I see the right industrialization is completely different: at least not trust anyone and build aluminum plants in the depths of the country. And then, damn it, in the first months lost two of the three.
                    1. svp67
                      svp67 20 December 2019 12: 09
                      0
                      Quote: Basarev
                      The point is that the efforts were not distributed there.

                      Yes, there were mistakes and from the point of view of our time, they are perfectly visible, but the ancestors walked the path unknown, trying to change something in this world
                      1. Basarev
                        Basarev 20 December 2019 14: 51
                        -2
                        So many years to nag the Russians, rob them and let the nationalities living at their expense call the Russians drunk Vanka? Decades have passed, which clearly shows: these are not mistakes, this is a targeted anti-Russian policy.
          2. Dooplet11
            Dooplet11 23 December 2019 06: 43
            0
            Well, if you face the truth, the IL-2 has never been all-metal. Like the He-162 was never 3/4 wooden. But in the 40s of the last century, wood was a completely modern aircraft structural material. In this you are right.
    5. The comment was deleted.
    6. Dooplet11
      Dooplet11 23 December 2019 06: 29
      0
      By the way, it’s very indicative that the scale of Soviet backwardness is immediately visible: in Germany, airplanes are all-metal, all-radioed. And we are plywood, as in the First. And only on command vehicles a poor receiver

      Where does this "all-metal" and "only an inferior receiver on command vehicles come from"? What, just spill and only the receiver?
  7. Givi_49
    Givi_49 18 December 2019 09: 41
    +3
    Oleg Valentinovich Rastrenin knows so much about the history of IL-2 that you will read out. The thickness of the armor, weapons, bomb load, second volley, unit load on the wing, unit load on power, ground speed, combat radius - all this was very interesting to know for the time being, until I personally realized that this information, capable of saturating and satisfying the materialistic consciousness is nothing more than secondary information, which in itself does not bring victory. (Recently, one scientist commentator fought hysterically over the fact that the IL-2 bomb load was in the area of ​​the propeller’s circle, which makes bombing unpredictable).
    And one more important truth that I discovered for myself: any model standing in armament is the best possible one that the country is capable of, especially in war conditions, a divine gift for a soldier. (In contrast to the axis countries and the allied countries, there were many deaths in our production during the war years. People made weapons and died in their workplaces. It is very possible that behind each imperfection there was someone's dying life). And the fighter should treat him with respect and with his full knowledge and mastery of him.
    Thousands of ground attack pilots made this product a "black death", a "flying tank", a renowned and legendary combat vehicle, who, at the cost of their own lives, developed tactical techniques for its combat use. A cruel and sophisticated enemy took the exams.
    From my point of view, it would be more important and interesting to read about the evolution of assault tactics and the factors that lead to an increase in its combat effectiveness, to win about its science, about commanders, about training, about selecting pilots, about leading groups, about leadership from the ground and from air, about military specialization, about the methods of bombing ... as deep as possible and in detail about the human factor in the victories and defeats of our glorious assault aircraft.
    1. Niko
      Niko 19 December 2019 13: 45
      0
      Thank you, good comment.
  8. Thunderbolt
    Thunderbolt 18 December 2019 15: 21
    +1
    _________________________________________
  9. Whowhy
    Whowhy 18 December 2019 16: 41
    +1
    I don’t understand one thing - why did Marshal Zhukov oppose attack aircraft after the war? Or is it a myth?
    1. Dooplet11
      Dooplet11 23 December 2019 06: 46
      0
      Where did he perform with this? Is there a transcript of this speech?
  10. iouris
    iouris 19 December 2019 13: 01
    0
    And you just need to: 1) find, 2) study, 3) analyze, 4) publish statistics (how many sorties were completed, how many planes were lost for various reasons, what damage was done to the enemy).
    1. Niko
      Niko 19 December 2019 13: 44
      0
      This statistic exists. Unfortunately, it does not fit into a series of laudatory odes to this aircraft. (Well, well, the worse for statistics)
  11. certero
    certero 20 December 2019 01: 32
    0
    Quote: svp67
    I had a few shooters. Initially, fines were sent to us. I remember there was such a fighter pilot, Major Shatsky. He died in the first flight.

    She is such a memory. Penalty officers were sent to the penal battalion. And there they had no ranks.
    1. Dooplet11
      Dooplet11 23 December 2019 12: 52
      0
      Even if it is true about shooters-penalty boxers, then these are more cases "out of the ordinary". How many Il-2 riflemen were there? How many penalties? How many of them could and skillfully shoot at an air target from a ShKAS or UBT turret? But the arrows were hit not just by Wishlist, but at least after courses of air gunners. If you put in place the shooter of the inept penalty box, then this means that the pilot also turns out to be a suicide bomber, and a serviceable plane must be written off as a loss even before departure on a mission. Brad, agree!
      1. Dooplet11
        Dooplet11 23 December 2019 13: 01
        0
        In this memory
        https://iremember.ru/memoirs/letchiki-shturmoviki/pesterov-evgeniy-pavlovich/
        there is how they fell into the arrows of the aircraft launcher:
        In March 1943, I still did not lose hope of flying, and in addition, the letter I received from my father from the Ukrainian Front worked. My father (in my opinion, an old man) was wounded twice at the front, and I, his young son, am sitting on the ground !? And I filed a report on the courses of air shooters, which were organized by our division. Our group, 12 people, was organized from specialists of aviation units. Subsequent groups were formed from ground units, from infantry, from other military branches.
        ...
        AD: - What was the preparation of the shooter?

        - We studied the design of fascist aircraft, the theory of aerial shooting, the design of our weapons. According to the theory of shooting, in addition to the theoretical course, there were flights on the Il-2, in the tail of which a U-2 plane flew and dragged a cone. It was necessary to get into this cone at different angles, with different directions of the cone's flight. This was the most important discipline - cone shooting. A parachute jump was also part of the training.

        Not too gimorno procedure for a finesman to redeem with blood? Train, send to battle on expensive equipment? Isn’t it easier to hold a mosquito in your hands and forward to an attack?