Military Review

"Tankograd." How the forge of caterpillar equipment of the USSR was born

149



Cheliabinsk Tractor Plant


The construction of the Chelyabinsk Tractor Plant in the 30 years of the last century was one of the most important events in the life of the country. No wonder the construction of a giant plant, designed for 40 of thousands of tractors, was supervised by the Politburo of the Central Committee. Sergo Ordzhonikidze, People's Commissar of Heavy Industry, personally supervised the progress of design and construction. It was impossible to build a modern plant in the Soviet Union on a clean place, so the Cheliabinsk Tractor Plant design bureau was formed, based in Detroit on one of the floors of countless high-rises. In the book “Tankograd. Secrets of the Russian rear of 1917-1953. ”Lennart Samuelson writes that in the USA 40 Soviet and 14 American engineers and builders worked on the appearance of the enterprise. In addition, the Institute for the Design of Metallurgical Plants was involved in the development (there were such in the USSR). Among those who before the Cheliabinsk Tractor Plant worked in the USA and Great Britain to study the experience of large plants, there was also the first director of the Chelyabinsk Tractor Engineering Kazimir Petrovich Lovin.

"Tankograd." How the forge of caterpillar equipment of the USSR was born

Soviet engineers in the office of the Chelyabinsk Tractor Plant in Detroit, 1930 year

Among the tasks was the search for a suitable tractor model, which could become the first-born of the plant. However, the process dragged on: Caterpillar lifted the price of licensed production rights, and all the drawings were in English with yards and inches. The Americans demanded 3,5 a million dollars for their plant project and, in addition, forbade the USSR for 20 years to export licensed tractors manufactured at its facilities. Lovin on 6 on March 1930 wrote to his deputies in Chelyabinsk:

“I have very few hopes of a favorable outcome for negotiations with Caterpillar. Time is irretrievably running out and, apparently, it will be necessary to work by the forces of our own bureau with the help of another, secondary tractor company and individual American specialists. This will take significantly more time. We have already lost two months. ”



Kazimir Petrovich Lovin


Albert Kahn

















Construction Stages

As a result, it was decided to create a joint Soviet-American group of developers of the Cheliabinsk Tractor Plant, which had already prepared a plant project for Chelyabinsk by 1931. Many engineers, in addition to project work in the office, were employed at Detroit's enterprises, where they gained invaluable experience in organizing production. As many historians write, the sketch design of the future giant of the South Urals was ready in just 50 days. The main assistance was rendered by the famous architectural office Albert Kahn, whose experts proposed to drastically reduce the number of workshops from 20 to 3: foundry, mechanical and blacksmithing. The most important innovation of the Americans was the replacement of reinforced concrete support columns with steel ones, which made it possible to make spans wider, as well as to quickly change production facilities. This turned out to be very useful during the Great Patriotic War.

One of the shock group of the country's new buildings


Before the construction of the workshops of the future tractor plant, in November 1929, large-scale earthworks began. Naturally, there was no mechanization: the soil was taken out by carts drawn by horses. The construction required enormous human resources, which had to be taken in the village. Often training courses on reading and writing were organized right there at the construction site - industrialization went hand in hand with the elimination of illiteracy. Not to mention the fact that up to 100% of hired workers were not trained in construction professions. It is noteworthy that the labor of prisoners during the construction of the future Tankograd was practically not used, unlike the construction projects in Nizhny Tagil and Magnitogorsk. Samuelson writes that for all time in Chelyabinsk they were involved in the construction of 205 serving sentences. However, work at the Ural construction site of the decade was not particularly prestigious - the cause was the chronic lack of work clothes and shoes, as well as poor living conditions. For these reasons, in the 29-30's, shortages of labor amounted to 40%, chronically lacked construction materials, and at the end of the period, a reduction in the total funding of the superproject turned out to be a cherry on the cake.






















On 30 of April 1931 of the year, the Party Central Committee adopted a special decree “On the progress of the construction of the Chelyabinsk Tractor Plant”, which openly spoke about the paramount importance of the timely opening of the plant. As a result, a second shift was introduced, and the working day became 10-hour. The construction workers of ChTZ were generously rewarded with the best workers, but such situations often occurred, one of which was recorded in the local trade union committee:

“I bring to your attention that for the award presented to me (a trip to the resort) I thank you as for the high appreciation of my work. But given the importance of the ChTZ launch on a union scale, I refuse it, and I donate all the money to the resort to a modern fund aviation».


Komsomol members at the ChTZ construction site came up with peculiar “concrete evenings” —that when, to the sounds of the orchestra and the spotlights, the young workers continued pouring the concrete structures of the plant after an 10-hour working day.

The coming tragic years of terror, unfortunately, did not pass by the organizers of the construction of the plant. From the very beginning, Kazimir Lovin, who was mentioned earlier, was appointed the head of the entire construction, who by the 1929 year had managed to establish himself as a talented manager, power engineer and builder. After the revolution, he built power supply facilities in Leningrad, and in Moscow he headed the construction of power plants and a centralized heating system. After the Chelyabinsk Tractor was built, Lovin served as director until 1934, and then left for Moscow, where he eventually became the head of Glavovenergo. It is said that in 1937, Stalin personally signed a death list, in which the name of Lovin was listed.

Colossus is on its feet


It cannot be said that the Chelyabinsk Tractor Plant was entirely built according to the patterns of the Americans. The design was attended, for example, by the outstanding domestic architect Vladimir G. Shukhov. In particular, he developed the mechanical assembly and forge workshops of ChTZ. In the literature on the architectural heritage of Shukhov, one can find such a description of the constructed structures:

“The grand workshops of the plant are full of light and air. Roofs are made of glass. A uniform soft light falls on a string of machines, illuminates the impeccable cleanliness of the floors, on which electric cars roll silently. The workshops are surrounded by a ring of green spaces. ”


Или:

“The area of ​​workshops dressed in reinforced concrete and glass covers 183 ha, the area of ​​one mechanical assembly shop is 8,5 ha. The length of this workshop is 540 meters ... A forge workshop with an area of ​​2,6 ha, volume of 330 thousand cubic meters ... The Chelyabinsk Tractor Plant is an example of a specialized plant with mass continuous production. "



Factory night illumination



Panorama ChTZ



















Despite the fact that the plant was a lot of foreign, about 40% of all equipment was created in the USSR.

Looking ahead a bit, I’ll mention that in just a few years, instead of tractors Tanks. In the meantime, on June 1-3, 1933, the Chelyabinsk Tractor Plant was solemnly launched in the presence of the chairman of the Presidium of the Central Executive Committee of the USSR Kalinin. Ordzhonikidze later, following the results of the opening at the XXII Party Congress, will say:

“There is no such huge and luxurious factory not only in Europe, but, it seems, in America as well.”


Designers prepared in advance for the ceremony and assembled the first ten Stalinets-60 tractors at the pilot plant. This mini-factory inside the main one was ready already in November 1930 and was intended for a detailed study of foreign samples of automotive equipment, as well as for training future workers. It was assumed that at least 4 thousand craftsmen will be trained at the pilot plant by the start of the main production, most of which are yesterday's villagers. American John Thane, as well as a cohort of specialists from overseas Caterpillar, led the construction of the pilot plant. At least 100 Americans worked as craftsmen at the already built enterprise, including tractor workers who studied with them. It is they who in the future will become the backbone of the plant, without which it would not be possible to master the production of tanks on the scale of the Great Patriotic War.

To be continued ...
Author:
Photos used:
visz.nlr.ru, chelchel-ru.livejournal.com, chel-dpsh.ru, coberu.ru, ww2db.com, researchgate.net
149 comments
Ad

Subscribe to our Telegram channel, regularly additional information about the special operation in Ukraine, a large amount of information, videos, something that does not fall on the site: https://t.me/topwar_official

Information
Dear reader, to leave comments on the publication, you must sign in.
  1. Vladimir_2U
    Vladimir_2U 4 December 2019 06: 07
    +25
    Just a gorgeous article! Thanks to the author.
    "Often, courses on teaching reading and writing were organized right there at the construction site - industrialization went hand in hand with the elimination of illiteracy" for this alone, the Bolsheviks can be forgiven a lot!
    1. Civil
      Civil 4 December 2019 07: 23
      +13
      I bring to your attention that for the award presented to me (trip to the resort) I thank you as for the high appreciation of my work. But given the importance of the launch of ChTZ on a union scale, I refuse it, and I donate all the money to the resort to the modern aviation fund. ”


      This is how people loved their socialist country, not only that modern workers cannot refuse a prize for their capitalist fatherland, this prize will not do him any good, but if the whole workshop refuses, the owner will renew his modern aviation fund.
      1. Vladimir_2U
        Vladimir_2U 4 December 2019 07: 26
        +1
        Quote: Civil
        the owner will update his fund of modern aviation.

        And maybe even promising! )))
      2. Russo Turisto
        Russo Turisto 4 December 2019 08: 04
        -2
        Civilian, and now what personally prevents you from transferring part of your salary to an orphanage, for example?
        1. Civil
          Civil 4 December 2019 08: 18
          +13
          Quote: Russo Turisto
          Civilian, and now what personally prevents you from transferring part of your salary to an orphanage, for example?

          And what, for example, does Miller interfere with? Calm for himself, as not a rich man, naturally helping disabled children - in word and deed.
      3. Oleg (Kharkov)
        Oleg (Kharkov) 4 December 2019 08: 45
        +1
        The country then ceased to be socialist. The zombie screams "you are worth more !!" People are social creatures. They copy the behavior they see.
        Gone are the days when a prosioc worker could sit in a cell with the governor ...
      4. AU Ivanov.
        AU Ivanov. 4 December 2019 09: 10
        -10
        Yeah, the collective farm is voluntary: if you don’t enter, we’ll shoot it.
        1. Alexander Suvorov
          Alexander Suvorov 4 December 2019 10: 10
          +4
          AS Ivanov. (Andrei)
          Yeah, the collective farm is voluntary: if you don’t enter, we’ll shoot it.
          And they shot a lot? Can you bring statistics?
          And again, you demonstrate a complete lack of knowledge and logic in your reasoning. Were it not for collectivization, even if forced, the famine in the USSR would have been even more massive and threatening. For the most part, the peasantry is small-town and is inclined to pull everything towards itself. But the country had to be fed and who would do it? The country went through mass industrialization, and this is the growth of cities and industrial centers, which also need to be fed. If this were left to the peasantry, then the peasants would break so much for bread that the government would not have enough money, and this money was already not enough for everything necessary.
          So there is no need to moan here, collectivization was not just necessary, it was LIVINGly necessary. Without it, the country would have had a full amba and in 1941 there would have been nothing to feed the army and the country.
          1. AU Ivanov.
            AU Ivanov. 4 December 2019 10: 55
            -6
            An interesting thing turns out: the peasant believed the Bolsheviks, in particular the slogan "Land to the peasants" and took their side. Otherwise, the victory of the Reds in the Civil War would be in great doubt. Then the land is forcibly taken away from the peasant, and together with the implements and livestock, he can no longer dispose of the results of his labor: the farmer has every right to sell his products at the prevailing price. Further: the lack of food and the introduction of the rationing system, arose, just after collectivization. During the NEP there was no hunger, just as there was no shortage of consumer goods. Conclusion: industrialization was carried out by robbing the majority of the minority. Here is the alliance of workers and peasants.
            1. Alexander Suvorov
              Alexander Suvorov 4 December 2019 11: 06
              -1
              AS Ivanov. (Andrei)
              An interesting thing turns out: the peasant believed the Bolsheviks, in particular the slogan "Land for the peasants" and took their side.
              I’m already tired of crushing you elementary truths.
              Indeed, it’s true: to teach a foolish thing is to spoil it!
              1. AU Ivanov.
                AU Ivanov. 4 December 2019 11: 23
                +1
                Yes, of course, this is elementary: to squeeze the results of his labor from the peasant together with the land, for which he fought in the Civil. Simple and elegant. Indeed, why think, invent economic schemes, it’s easier to take and divide in a new way. This is an elementary truth. True smacks of crime.
                1. strannik1985
                  strannik1985 4 December 2019 11: 53
                  +3
                  Yes, of course, this is elementary: to squeeze the peasant out of the results of his labor together with the land, for which he fought in the Civil.

                  The land decree of October 26, 1917 annulled the right of private ownership of land to all categories of the population, including peasants.
                  1. AU Ivanov.
                    AU Ivanov. 4 December 2019 11: 59
                    0
                    The land decree did not imply the forcible alienation of the results of peasant labor. And in the Decree there were also such words:
                    "To guide the implementation of the great land reforms, until their final decision, the Constituent Assembly must serve the following peasant order ..."
                    And where is this Constituent Assembly?
                    1. strannik1985
                      strannik1985 4 December 2019 12: 01
                      0
                      The land decree did not imply the forcible alienation of the results of peasant labor.

                      Alienation, surplus appropriation, on collective farms for workdays gave grain.
                      1. AU Ivanov.
                        AU Ivanov. 4 December 2019 12: 04
                        -1
                        They gave. In arbitrary quantities. The bulk of agricultural products was purchased by the state at solid, read - predatory, prices. The sole peasant was free to dispose of his products as he pleased, after paying the tax. Feel the difference!
                      2. strannik1985
                        strannik1985 4 December 2019 12: 10
                        +3
                        The sole peasant was free to dispose of his products as he pleased, after paying the tax.

                        And this led to the crisis of 1927, it was also called a bread strike. In a poor state, there is simply no money for peasants.
                      3. AU Ivanov.
                        AU Ivanov. 4 December 2019 12: 23
                        -1
                        But rob a worker, agree with me, nekomilfo.
                      4. strannik1985
                        strannik1985 4 December 2019 12: 28
                        0
                        But rob a worker, agree with me, nekomilfo.

                        - Uncle, uncle, and it was you who pulled me out of the water?
                        -Yes.
                        -And why for hair?
                        Certainly not comme il faut, but what was "taken away" a hundredfold returned. Actually, most of the peasants supported collectivization.
                      5. Olgovich
                        Olgovich 5 December 2019 09: 23
                        -6
                        Quote: strannik1985
                        Certainly not comme il faut, but what was "taken away" a hundredfold returned.

                        False
                        Quote: strannik1985
                        Actually, most of the peasants supported collectivization.

                        Also.
                      6. strannik1985
                        strannik1985 5 December 2019 11: 08
                        0
                        False

                        We look at the amount of capex in s / x.
                        Also

                        We look at the population.
                      7. Olgovich
                        Olgovich 5 December 2019 11: 18
                        -7
                        Quote: strannik1985
                        We look at the amount of capex in s / x.

                        What does the ... peasants ?!
                        Quote: strannik1985
                        We look at the population.

                        We're watching.
                        And don't see request
                      8. strannik1985
                        strannik1985 5 December 2019 11: 34
                        +1
                        What does the ... peasants ?!

                        And who are collective farm workers?
                        We look

                        That is, by 1928, out of the 154 million population of the USSR, 74% were peasants, suppose they did not support collectivization, like Stolypin’s reform. Where there are many millions of unrest in at least half of the country's regions?
                      9. Olgovich
                        Olgovich 5 December 2019 11: 53
                        -8
                        Quote: strannik1985
                        And who are collective farm workers?

                        THEM - WHAT fell? On the contrary, we HAVE SELECTED "voluntarily" ALL our own.
                        Quote: strannik1985
                        That is, by 1928, out of the 154 million population of the USSR, 74% were peasants, suppose they did not support collectivization, like Stolypin’s reform. Where there are many millions of unrest in at least half of the country's regions?

                        Thousands of performances, dozens of armed ones. Destroyed immediately.
                        NKVD reports on this subject, see
                      10. strannik1985
                        strannik1985 5 December 2019 12: 30
                        +1
                        THEM - WHAT fell? On the contrary, we HAVE SELECTED "voluntarily" ALL our own.

                        Salary as employees of the enterprise.
                        Thousands of performances, dozens of armed ones. Destroyed immediately.

                        In the form of arson of collective farm buildings, intimidation and killings of collective farmer activists, 2,1 million people were deported in 1930-1933, including 633 internally displaced people in 670-1930 and an unknown number in 1931-1932. What is this mass discontent?
                      11. Olgovich
                        Olgovich 5 December 2019 12: 41
                        -6
                        Quote: strannik1985
                        Salary as employees of the enterprise.

                        On collective farms, many did not know how this money looked for a very long time.
                        Quote: strannik1985
                        In the form of arson of collective farm buildings, intimidation and killings of collective farmer activists, 2,1 million people were deported in 1930-1933, including 633 internally displaced people in 670-1930 and an unknown number in 1931-1932. What is this mass discontent?

                        I will not dissuade you: if you consider, in the presence of FACTS and evidence that it was voluntary, with that wild punitive machine, this is your right.

                        The exact opposite is obvious to me. hi
                      12. strannik1985
                        strannik1985 5 December 2019 13: 02
                        +2
                        On collective farms, many did not know how this money looked for a very long time.

                        Knew wink First of all, in the form of a tractor.
                        I will not dissuade you:

                        Your right. If for you 2,1 million out of 120 million (1926) is the majority, I can only wash my hands.
                      13. Olgovich
                        Olgovich 5 December 2019 13: 06
                        -6
                        Quote: strannik1985
                        They knew primarily in the form of a tractor.

                        And went to the store with him?
                        Quote: strannik1985
                        Your right. If for you 2,1 million out of 120 million (1926) is the majority, I can only wash my hands.

                        Most certainly. Given HOW dealt with dissent.

                        For sim hi
                      14. strannik1985
                        strannik1985 5 December 2019 13: 14
                        +1
                        And went to the store with him?

                        Of course, through concessions in taxation and an increase in wages.
                        Certainly

                        Good, 2,1 is over 120 million. laughing
                        How many of this "majority" were poor?
                2. Romka47
                  Romka47 4 December 2019 13: 10
                  0
                  Although in general I do not support your side, but now you are writing everything so logically that, as they say, "And here I have nothing to cover ...."
                  1. not main
                    not main 4 December 2019 21: 45
                    0
                    Quote: Romka47
                    Although in general I do not support your side, but now you are writing everything so logically that, as they say, "And here I have nothing to cover ...."

                    And for what is the minus? Although I corrected the situation, but the question remained!
                    1. Romka47
                      Romka47 5 December 2019 15: 39
                      0
                      I did not sculpt cons (if memory serves)
                      1. not main
                        not main 5 December 2019 21: 05
                        +1
                        Quote: Romka47
                        I did not sculpt cons (if memory serves)

                        So am I to you! Just asked for that minus with adequate comment. And he corrected the situation by putting a plus. Something like this.
            2. Proxima
              Proxima 4 December 2019 13: 45
              +4
              Quote: AU Ivanov.
              An interesting thing turns out: the peasant believed the Bolsheviks, in particular the slogan "Land for the peasants" and took their side. Otherwise, the victory of the Reds in the Civil War would be in great doubt. Then the peasant's land is forcibly taken away ...

              What does it mean, take away? This gopnik in a dark entrance picks up a wallet and a phone. So for information, land was given by Stalin to collective farms for free indefinite rent. Yes, there were excesses on the ground, but if there had been no collectivization, there would have been no industrialization, including the hero of this article - Tankograd.
              1. vladcub
                vladcub 4 December 2019 18: 01
                +3
                Proxima, the subject of collectivization and excesses is a very slippery and extensive topic.
                Here you can swear for a very long time and pour in the minuses. I will say briefly: the excesses were wild. Read the correspondence between Sholokhov and Stalin, and this was everywhere
                1. Proxima
                  Proxima 4 December 2019 20: 00
                  0
                  Nevertheless, before the war, many collective farms rose to their feet, agricultural mechanization went all out, millions of hands that became industrial workers became free, and there would be nothing like this with the NEP.
        2. bistrov.
          bistrov. 4 December 2019 10: 32
          +10
          Quote: AS Ivanov.
          Yeah, the collective farm is voluntary: if you don’t enter, we’ll shoot it.

          In my native village back in the 60s of the last century, not far from my home, there was a grandfather, well over 70, nicknamed "Gorbach". He was a so-called "individual peasant", that is. at the age of 30 he refused to join the collective farm, and no one not only "shot" him or put him in prison, but did not even take away either the land or the livestock, or restrict his rights. During the war, he was not drafted into the army because of his age, he remained in the occupation, but the Germans requisitioned all the livestock from him and completely raked out the grain.
          Therefore, I advise you not to tell liberal tales here about millions of people executed and imprisoned in camps. During the times of the USSR, nobody was sent to the camps without trial and, moreover, they were not shot, and judges did not take bribes, as they do now.
          1. Blacksmith 55
            Blacksmith 55 4 December 2019 10: 54
            +3
            Read "Men and Women" by Mozhaev.
          2. Olgovich
            Olgovich 4 December 2019 11: 28
            -7
            Quote: bistrov.
            In the days of the USSR no one without trial they didn’t put them in camps, much less shoot them, and the judges did not take bribes, as they do now.

            It is necessary to HATE the history of your country SO in order to bear this:
            Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Council of the USSR "On Additional Measures to Restore Justice in Relation to Victims of Repressions in the Periods of the 30s and 40s and the Beginning of the 50s"


            16th of January 1989

            In order to restore social justice and eliminate the consequences of lawlessness that took place during the 30-40-s and the beginning of the 50-s, the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR decides:

            1. Condemn Extrajudicial Mass Repression the period of Stalinism, declare unconstitutional the “troika” of the NKVD — UNKVD, colleges of the OGPU and the “special meetings” of the NKVD — MGB — the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the USSR, which were in force in the 30s and 40s and early 50s, and reverse their extrajudicial decisionsnot canceled by the time of the publication of this Decree by the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR.
          3. Romka47
            Romka47 4 December 2019 13: 15
            0
            In Soviet times, no one was sent to the camps without trial, much less shot, and judges did not take bribes, as they do now.
            Well, if the "troikas" are considered a fair court, then you are right. although they were from 35 to 38, but still
          4. vladcub
            vladcub 4 December 2019 18: 10
            +1
            Bistrov, the case with "Gorbach" is an exception to practice. Sholokhov, in his letters to Stalin, described how they had this process
        3. Olgovich
          Olgovich 4 December 2019 11: 08
          -9
          Quote: AS Ivanov.
          Yeah, the collective farm is voluntary: if you don’t enter, we’ll shoot it.

          My grandfather's favorite saying, in case of any catch: "Yeah, Soviet power is strong ....."

          “Grandpa, what does that mean?” - asked him once.

          The answer is .. belay : "The Soviet power is strong !!!" - said the peasant, leaving the meeting for the organization of the collective farm and ... wept bitterly .... " request yes
        4. vladcub
          vladcub 4 December 2019 17: 52
          0
          A gloomy joke?
        5. zenion
          zenion 27 February 2020 14: 59
          0
          Not just like that. They say that Stalin personally signed all the orders for the executions. Those who were convicted of executions, for those Stalin personally experienced new machine guns, machine guns, guns, hand grenades. Because he is a genius, he still managed to rule the country, he checked planes for speed while competing with cranes, he personally tested planes for diving, competing with falcons specially trained in the NKVD. If he overtook the falcon, then he gave him Bush’s leg, if the falcon was behind, then he hit him on the top of the head with a special homing grenade. The chief motto of the leader was - not a day without execution. Everything else was built by the Soviet people to spite Stalin.
    2. Olgovich
      Olgovich 4 December 2019 08: 09
      -15
      Quote: Vladimir_2U
      Just a gorgeous article! Thanks to the author.

      This is yes.
      Thanks a lot to the author hi
      Quote: Vladimir_2U
      industrialization went hand in hand with the elimination of illiteracy "for this alone, the Bolsheviks can be forgiven a lot!

      None of the schools have been built in the decade after the Thief.

      Before the BOP, 3-4 thousand schools were introduced annually.

      Those. 30-40 thousand schools have not been built. These are MILLIONS of people who did not receive knowledge on time.

      the article is significant: it showed well how the "most severe" world economic and technological "blockade" of the "country of workers and peasants" by the damned imperialists, about which, with anguish, they cried and weep second-hand yes

      Hand development and wheelbarrow removal million cubes the ground, as in ancient Egypt, already in those days, was nonsense and crazy squandering
      . Man is the most precious and priceless resource any country. And SO use it is a gold road paving.

      "Concrete evenings" (at DneproGES, concrete was kneaded with bare feet!) Arise where they do not know how to organize work and cannot pay for it, replacing it with "Give it!"

      And here is how people lived there after the Second World War:


      How many babies were born after concrete evenings, in corridors and barracks? How many people stayed there forever after dragging manually millions cubic meters of soil?

      And so the future demographic catastrophe was born: not without reason demographic indicators have been classified since the beginning of the 30s.

      The design was attended, for example, by the outstanding domestic architect Vladimir G. Shukhov. In particular, he developed the mechanical assembly and forge workshops of ChTZ

      The great Russian architect, designer, scientist who glorified Russia long before the VOR: the world's first amazing "shells", oil pipelines, their theories, etc., etc.
      1. Alexander Suvorov
        Alexander Suvorov 4 December 2019 08: 51
        +6
        Olgovich (Andrey)
        None of the schools have been built in the decade after the Thief.
        Before the BOP, 3-4 thousand schools were introduced annually.
        In as olgovich with rum espumizan! laughing laughing laughing
        And so the future demographic catastrophe was born: not without reason demographic indicators have been classified since the beginning of the 30s.
        For whom are classified, for you? Have you been banned in Google again?
        During the so-called "demographic catastrophe", the population growth was:

        1913 (Russian Empire without Finland) ↗163 [700]
        1920 (January) ↘137 [727]
        1926 (December 17) ↗147 027 915 [12]
        1927 (December) ↗150 478 [000]
        1929 (January) ↗154 [226]
        1937 (January) ↗164 [500]
        1939 (January 17) ↗170 467 186 [15]
        1941 (January) ↗198 [712]
        Even in the so-called years of "Stalinist repressions" the population managed to grow by as much as 6 million.

        Aw fool ... Get off already with hard drugs!
        1. Olgovich
          Olgovich 4 December 2019 10: 11
          -8
          Quote: Alexander Suvorov
          In as olgovich with rum espumizan!

          And this tells us ... "Alexander SUVOROV" yes lol
          Bow there, by the way, to A. the Great and B. Napoleon hi
          Quote: Alexander Suvorov
          For whom are classified, for you? Have you been banned in Google again?
          During the so-called "demographic catastrophe", the population growth was:

          1913 (Russian Empire without Finland) ↗163 700 000 [11]
          1920 (January) ↘137 727 000 [12]
          1926 (December 17) ↗147 027 915 [12]
          1927 (December) ↗150 478 000 [13]
          1929 (January) ↗154 226 000 [14]
          1937 (January) ↗164 500 000 [12]
          1939 (January 17) ↗170 467 186 [15]
          1941 (January) ↗198 712 700 [16]
          Even in the so-called years of "Stalinist repressions" the population managed to grow by as much as 6 million.

          Russia, 1893 -120 million
          Russia, 1917 million
          growth 50% for 23 years!

          Stalin, 1930, 1935: "We are growing by 3 million annually.
          Stalin, 1934: "We 168 млн.
          1937 census 162 million

          Question: WHERE 15 млн from 1934 to 1937 gone? Frozen, huh? lol
          1. Alexander Suvorov
            Alexander Suvorov 4 December 2019 10: 23
            +3
            Olgovich (Andrey)
            Stalin, 1934: "There are 168 million of us.
            1937 census 162 million
            Bullshit!
            Question: WHERE15 million from 1934 to 1937 gone?
            Give a calculator?
            1. Olgovich
              Olgovich 4 December 2019 11: 36
              -7
              Quote: Alexander Suvorov
              Stalin, 1934: "There are 168 million of us.
              1937 census 162 million
              Bullshit!

              So do not rave, WHO is bothering you?

              You .... STALIN deny ?! This is already, you know, beyond. am
              Quote: Alexander Suvorov
              Give a calculator?

              To myself. (with) yes
              for nimbiferous lol SUVOROVA " lol :

              168+3*3-162 =15 млн
            2. AU Ivanov.
              AU Ivanov. 4 December 2019 11: 43
              -2
              I hope you will not dispute the figures given personally by Stalin.
            3. Romka47
              Romka47 4 December 2019 13: 45
              +2
              The calculator will not help if a person has his own calculation procedure, he considered it this way: (as I understand it) Stalin said that we were growing at 3 million a year and he said that there were 34 in 168 of us, then Comrade Olgovich (or was he not us?) Added 3 times 3 million each, it should have been 177 million, and according to the census 162 million, well, of type 177 - 162 = 15
              1. Olgovich
                Olgovich 5 December 2019 09: 26
                -6
                Quote: Romka47
                according to the census, 162 million, well, of type 177 - 162 = 15

                Like, do you have a different account? lol
                1. Romka47
                  Romka47 5 December 2019 15: 38
                  -1
                  Well, at least I understand you, but on the account of whether I think such a calculation is reasonable, another question.
                  Like, do you have a different account? lol
                  something like that wink
                  1. Olgovich
                    Olgovich 6 December 2019 12: 06
                    -2
                    Quote: Romka47
                    Quote: Romka47
                    according to the census 162 million well and type 177 - 162 = 15

                    Like, do you have a different account?

                    Well, at least I understand you, but on the account of whether I think such a calculation is reasonable, another question.
                    Like, do you have a different account? lol
                    something like that
                    Like, what? belay request

                    But what about ... Stalin ?! wink
          2. Vadim237
            Vadim237 8 December 2019 11: 35
            0
            It is better to consider the population and growth of the RSFSR from 1928 to 1940.
            1. Olgovich
              Olgovich 8 December 2019 12: 14
              0
              Quote: Vadim237
              It is better to consider the population and growth of the RSFSR from 1928 to 1940.

              for what is better? request
        2. chenia
          chenia 4 December 2019 10: 19
          +9
          Quote: Alexander Suvorov
          Get off already with hard drugs!


          No, he is from Moldova, and consumes wine. True only with carbide. And so in judgment he is free from reality.
          1. Vladimir_2U
            Vladimir_2U 4 December 2019 11: 38
            +5
            Quote: chenia
            he is free from reality

            How beautiful you are about inadequacy))
          2. Olgovich
            Olgovich 4 December 2019 12: 41
            -10
            Quote: chenia
            No, he is from Moldova, and consumes wine. True only with carbide.


            What a deep knowledge of the subject! hi (For example, I do not know this).

            And sho, "insert"? hi
          3. vladcub
            vladcub 4 December 2019 18: 19
            +1
            Generally speaking, Moldovan wines were excellent. There were real wines, not "ink." 'Remember the joke: "there was no blood in your ink."
        3. Romka47
          Romka47 4 December 2019 13: 25
          +1
          He had such a huge article, and you experienced it so quickly
          Here it killed:
          Aw, fool ... Get off already with hard drugs!
          laughing good
      2. raw174
        raw174 4 December 2019 09: 03
        +7
        Quote: Olgovich
        Before the BOP, 3-4 thousand schools were introduced annually.

        It is doubtful, to be honest ... And who studied in these schools? I mean, including class inequality ..
        1. AU Ivanov.
          AU Ivanov. 4 December 2019 09: 23
          -2
          The privileged classes in the Republic of Ingushetia were only 2,5% of the total population of the country. So, it was mainly children of ordinary people who studied.
        2. Nagaibak
          Nagaibak 4 December 2019 09: 52
          +6
          raw174 "Who went to these schools?"
          Well, yes, we studied in parish schools. 3 classes and free.)))
        3. Olgovich
          Olgovich 4 December 2019 10: 14
          -8
          Quote: raw174
          It is doubtful to be honest ..

          I sincerely do not understand: well, if in doubt, then LOOK, the same information is SEA!
          Great monograph, for example Saprykin
          Quote: raw174
          And who studied in these schools? I mean, including class inequality ..

          Naturally, mainly peasants: they constituted 90% of the population of Russia.
        4. Sergej1972
          Sergej1972 4 December 2019 13: 34
          +3
          In fact, even in Soviet times, the merits of the Minister of Public Education Ignatiev and Zemstvos in organizing public education were recognized. During the First World War, the number of higher and secondary educational institutions in Russia not only did not decrease, but even increased.
      3. BAI
        BAI 4 December 2019 09: 17
        +10
        Before the BOP, 3-4 thousand schools were introduced annually.

        Where is the droushka?
        We look at royal statistics.

        78% of educational institutions in the country are rural 1 and 2 class schools, where they mainly taught the law of God. In the USSR there are only 7, 8, 10 classes (mb, etc., but not 1-2 in any case).
        There are more students in private highly specialized Jewish schools than in Russian state schools. At the same time, how many persecuted and oppressed Jews were in the empire, and how many Russians were in the empire? What is the percentage of education by population? In the general statistics of literacy, Jews are taken into account, which automatically reduces literacy among the rest of the population. It is very clearly visible who and how cared for education: the state about its citizens or Jews without any hope for the state about their fellow tribesmen. Of these 3-4 thousand schools allegedly introduced annually, how many private Jewish?
        1. Olgovich
          Olgovich 4 December 2019 10: 43
          -8
          Quote: BAI
          We look at royal statistics.

          Bring her for ...1613 year. lol Then your "successes" are even "more convincing" lol
          The boom began in 1908 and went on with an increase of up to 5 thousand schools a year!

          This is 1911 year


          Schools by 1917more than 130 thousand, at the end of the USSR, less.

          Pupils of the Russian school 1910
          1. Nagaibak
            Nagaibak 4 December 2019 11: 57
            +8
            Olgovich "student of the Russian school of 1910"
            Russian gymnasium and a rural school for three classes are two different things. Obviously, Olgovich wants to prove to everyone that these young girls studied at a rural school?))) In this, he is yes
            1. The comment was deleted.
          2. Romka47
            Romka47 4 December 2019 13: 53
            +2
            Yes, the statistics are the biggest lodges, but something in history is getting worse, now every second person is shouting "Churches are being built and schools are being closed," I ask the question: are you short of a place at school?
            they answer: no, I finished 9 (11) classes, the second question: do you know people or a place where children are and don’t go to school, because it is stupidly not? No, I don’t know this.
            third question, do you know schools where there are 1-2 students? answer yes I know, one student read in such a village, there are 2 students in such a village, but there is a school!
            So maybe they are being closed because there are no students, and not because the church was built with the money of the school? silent ....
          3. vladcub
            vladcub 4 December 2019 18: 28
            0
            Olgovich, where did the color photograph come from in 1910? In my opinion, the first flowery pictures appeared in the late 30s? At least Agfa has produced color films since 1935
            1. samarin1969
              samarin1969 4 December 2019 19: 18
              +4
              Quote: vladcub
              Olgovich, where did the color photograph come from in 1910? In my opinion, the first flowery pictures appeared in the late 30s? At least Agfa has produced color films since 1935


              Unfortunately, I recognized myself a couple of years ago. Prokudin-Gorsky - wonderful pre-revolutionary photos of Russia.
            2. BAI
              BAI 4 December 2019 20: 00
              +5
              Where does color photography come from in 1910?

              This photo is a coloring. There are a lot of them now. The original is here:
              http://pavelbers.com/Revoluzija%20i%20grazdanskaja%20voyna.20.htm


              Sisters Natalia (left) and Elena Vlasov at the gymnasium on Prechistenka.
              Moscow. 1913
              OPI GIM. No. 108592
              By the way, the year is -1913.
            3. Hantengri
              Hantengri 4 December 2019 20: 20
              0
              Quote: vladcub
              Olgovich, where did the color photograph come from in 1910? In my opinion, the first flowery pictures appeared in the late 30s? At least Agfa has produced color films since 1935

              About Adobe Photoshop, or Gimp did not hear? In vain! Very nice little things! hi laughing
              1. Parsec
                Parsec 4 December 2019 20: 37
                0
                https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&source=web&rct=j&url=https://pavel-kosenko.livejournal.com/659197.html&ved=2ahUKEwiLt5PswpzmAhVhxKYKHTmWBREQFjAhegQIAxAB&usg=AOvVaw1GXfLtGZ87JdWzstWEvdul&cshid=1575480866802.

                Have you heard anything about Prokudin-Gorsky?
                Since 1904, color albums, and in some places the quality is better than today.
                1. Hantengri
                  Hantengri 4 December 2019 20: 59
                  0
                  I heard. AND? This somehow cancels the fact that in our age of digital technology issues like:
                  Quote: vladcub
                  Olgovich, where did the color photograph come from in 1910? In my opinion, the first flowery pictures appeared in the late 30s? At least Agfa has produced color films since 1935

                  To put it mildly, inappropriate. in addition, the photo under discussion has no relation to Prokudin-Gorsky.
                  Quote: BAI
                  This photo is a coloring. There are a lot of them now. The original is here:
                  http://pavelbers.com/Revoluzija%20i%20grazdanskaja%20voyna.20.htm
            4. Olgovich
              Olgovich 5 December 2019 09: 36
              -5
              Quote: vladcub
              Olgovich, where did the color photograph come from in 1910? In my opinion, the first flowery pictures appeared in the late 30s?

              Dear Svyatoslav,
              I earnestly ask you to see the color photographs of Prokudin-Gorsky:
              Project “The Legacy of S. M. Prokudin-Gorsky”
              www.prokudin-gorsky.org


              it is an AMAZING journey to Russia at the beginning of the last century, which disappeared forever.

              There are her people, achievements, culture and, most importantly, the details of her life in all its diversity. And they live!

              This is a real time machine. yes
          4. BAI
            BAI 4 December 2019 19: 55
            +6
            Schools by 1917, more than 130 thousand, at the end of the USSR, less.

            So again: royal schools for the people - 1 and 2 classes to study the law of God. In the USSR - 7,8,10 classes + vocational schools. Do you feel the difference?
      4. bistrov.
        bistrov. 4 December 2019 11: 08
        +6
        Quote: Olgovich
        How many people stayed there forever after manually dragging millions of cubic meters of soil

        And nobody "stayed". The people were young, healthy, it is said, they were mostly rural, from childhood accustomed to hard rural labor, where they worked "from dark to dark", and they often ate quinoa with kvass in the villages, and here, albeit without luxury , but three meals a day were established, even a barrack (I myself lived in a barrack right up to 1986 and did not die) or even a dugout (I remember dugouts, in the village they were not uncommon until almost 60 years old), but there was a roof over my head, so keep your poison with you. Choke it yourself, hehe ..
        As for the "demographic catastrophes", I advise you to recall the "tsarist" times praised by you, when in 1913 there were 140 million people in the Russian Empire, and after two wars, etc. "repressions" and "famines" in 1940 suddenly became 190 million! Why's that? Yes, there was a "disaster", what can I say ....
        And after a terrible, well-known, war, after the death of 28 million people, the USSR in 1980 suddenly found itself 300 million people! "Repression", continuous "repression" .... everyone, everyone was in the camps ...
        But now, with a liberalistic "democratic" government, in 30 years of population growth 0, which year all 140 million and 140 million .., and then at the expense of visitors. And no reprisals to you, no famines ...
        1. AU Ivanov.
          AU Ivanov. 4 December 2019 11: 45
          -9
          Thank you for the CPSU life in the barracks did not forget to say? In the 80s. Shame!
        2. Olgovich
          Olgovich 4 December 2019 11: 57
          -7
          Quote: bistrov.
          And nobody "stayed". The people were young, healthy, it is said, they were mostly rural, from childhood accustomed to hard rural work, where they worked "from dark to dark", and they often ate quinoa with kvass in the villages, and here, albeit without luxury , but three meals a day were established, even if the barrack (I myself lived in the barrack right up to 1986 and did not die),hehe.

          "hehe", go to Northeast Cemetery near the Plan village in the Traktorozavodsky district with burials ChTZ first builders and see how many graves there are.
          Cynicism and ignorance-there is no limit. Byad ..... request
          Quote: bistrov.
          As for the "demographic catastrophes", I advise you to recall the "tsarist" times praised by you, when in 1913 there were 140 million people in the Russian Empire, and after two wars, etc. "repressions" and "famines" in 1940 suddenly became 190 million! Why did it happen?

          From your ignorance. And too lazy to know YOUR Story.

          RI, 1917 g-180 million, an increase over 23 g of 50%

          RSFSR 1917 g-145 million

          the 1939 census (lying through and through, but let) -170 million, an increase over the same period ... as much as 17%.

          I-disaster of the 1930s:
          Stalin, 1930, 1935: "We are growing by 3 million annually.
          Stalin, 1934: "There are 168 million of us.
          1937 census 162 million
          Where is 15 million?
          1. Hantengri
            Hantengri 4 December 2019 20: 33
            +3
            Quote: Olgovich
            RI, 1917 g-180 million, an increase over 23 g of 50%

            In which month of 1917 a population census was conducted in the Republic of Ingushetia? lol In no way? And there are no references to it, respectively? Byad! And where, then, are the numbers?

            PS Ol'govich, maybe it’s enough to “tell a lot of lies, like Trotsky”?
      5. Vladimir_2U
        Vladimir_2U 4 December 2019 14: 08
        +1
        Olgych let him pick up the tears and present a photo of the pre-revolutionary earthworks with bulldozers and excavators. In the article, such photos are available, but Olgovich has only tears.
    3. Vladimir_2U
      Vladimir_2U 4 December 2019 08: 16
      +1
      Oh, a false Russophobe drew.
      1. Vladimir_2U
        Vladimir_2U 4 December 2019 08: 29
        +6
        Great damage to the public education system and literacy was caused by World War I and the Civil War.. But the Bolsheviks are to blame for this, of course.
        Due to the constant shortage of funds, by the 1922/23 academic year the number of schools decreased to 88, and the number of students dropped to 588
        By the 1927/28 school year, the number of students increased: [20]:

        In secondary and elementary schools of all kinds - 11 589 thousand students.
        In secondary specialized educational institutions in the same year, 189 thousand students studied.
        In higher educational institutions - 169 thousand students. And this, contrary to the Bolsheviks, of course!

        A school census conducted on January 18, 1911 revealed the school situation in Russia. “On the census day, 6180510 students attended schools, which is 3,85% compared to the total population. And since the number of school-age children (from 8 to 12 years) is determined by about 9% of the total population, it turns out that only about 43% of all children attended primary school in 1911 (p. 187). ”[14]

        By January 1, 1912, ALL educational institutions in the Russian Empire (with 8 Finland provinces) numbered 125, in which 723 students were enrolled.
        A comparison of 11 and 947 speaks against the Bolsheviks by itself!
        1. Oleg (Kharkov)
          Oleg (Kharkov) 4 December 2019 08: 48
          -11
          Yes, the fact of the matter is that the Bolsheviks are not far removed from the bloody Nikolas. As it was, it remains.
          1. Vladimir_2U
            Vladimir_2U 4 December 2019 08: 53
            +6
            Those. more than 4,5 million people difference, after losses in the WWII, after heavy losses in the Civil and intervention, and even without taking into account Finky for you no difference? You probably need a calculator with kilometer digits for shopping. )))
          2. AU Ivanov.
            AU Ivanov. 4 December 2019 09: 13
            -2
            How many people destroyed Nikolashka and how many Bolsheviks? And who is bloody there?
            1. Alexander Suvorov
              Alexander Suvorov 4 December 2019 09: 58
              +4
              AS Ivanov. (Andrei)
              How many people destroyed Nikolashka
              Let's count.
              Losses in the Russian-Japanese war - according to various estimates, from 250 to 400 thousand people.
              Losses in the WWII - according to Western sources, by the time of leaving the war, the total losses of the Russian imperial army amounted to 1,7 million killed and died from wounds; 4,95 million wounded and 2,5 million prisoners of war.
              Now the most important thing is what you vehemently deny, the victims of the Civil War. It was his mediocre rule that led to two revolutions and the Civil War. For some reason, bakeries completely deny cause and effect relationships. Although, it must be admitted that the guilt of the victims of the Civilian lies to the same extent with the same mediocre Kerensky. But you will not deny that the victims of perestroika lie on Gorbachev? The times of Yeltsin can be equated to the times of Kerensky and the interim government.
              I don't like to refer to "aunt Vika", but nevertheless:

              Total killed and died of wounds - 2 500 000
              Red Army - 950
              White and national armies - 650
              Green Rebels - 900
              Died as a result of terror - 2 000 000
              From red terror - 1 200 000
              From white terror - 300
              From green terror - 500
              Died of hunger and epidemics - 6 000 000
              Total dead - 10 500 000
              Emigrated - 2 000 000
              Total Losses - 12 500 000
              Of all these losses, the Bolsheviks, and even with a stretch, can be attributed to the loss of whites and victims of the Red Terror, BUT, again, with the reservation that the Red Terror was, firstly, a response to the White Terror, and secondly, a necessary measure.
              So WHO was bloody? And this is not counting the victims of Khodynka, Bloody Sunday, the victims of the revolution of 1905-1907, the victims of famine and others.
              1. AU Ivanov.
                AU Ivanov. 4 December 2019 10: 07
                -2
                What does Nikolai have to do with the events after the October Revolution? Moreover, the White movement did not set itself the task of restoring the monarchy. And if we take losses in wars, then where do we attribute the 27 million deaths as a result of the Great Patriotic War? It is necessary to compare the figures of those executed in court and out of court, but here the Bolsheviks surpassed the "bloody" by orders of magnitude.
                1. Alexander Suvorov
                  Alexander Suvorov 4 December 2019 10: 19
                  +2
                  AS Ivanov. (Andrei)
                  What does Nikolay have to do with the events after the October Revolution?
                  Direct! No need to once again show their stupidity and lack of competence.
                  Moreover, the White movement did not set itself the task of restoring the monarchy.
                  Yes, it just wanted to continue to parasitize on the body of the people!
                  And if we take the losses in the wars, then where do we attribute the 27 million victims of the Great Patriotic War?
                  Nikolashka had a choice to join the war or not, Stalin had no such choice! And do not compare WWI and WWII, the goals and methods are completely different. And in World War II, a united Europe fought against us, and not Germany with Austria-Hungary. You again demonstrate complete ignorance.
                  It is necessary to compare the figures of those executed in court and out of court, but here the Bolsheviks surpassed the "bloody" by orders of magnitude.
                  Victims of Khodynka, Bloody Sunday and strikes of 1905-1907, which court do you attribute?
                  And then, the language hurts to repeat, all the so-called "victims of repression", the MOST were criminals, murderers, thieves, embezzlers and other pests. There were only a few innocent people!
                  1. AU Ivanov.
                    AU Ivanov. 4 December 2019 10: 38
                    -1
                    The victims of Khodynka, the events of 1905 and other unrest were about 17 thousand. Bolsheviks, in Crimea alone, over 40 thousand people were killed without trial or investigation. And these were not criminals, they were representatives of the White movement, who were promised amnesty in exchange for an end to resistance. Now remember how the Russo-Japanese War began. It began with a surprise attack by the Mikado fleet on the Russian one. The First World War began with the declaration of war on Russia by Germany. And only then the war was declared to France and Britain. So, the emperor had no choice.
                    1. Alexander Suvorov
                      Alexander Suvorov 4 December 2019 10: 51
                      +2
                      AS Ivanov. (Andrei)
                      The victims of Khodynka, the events of 1905 and other unrest, were about 17 thousand.
                      Where did the firewood come from? During the strike of 1905 in Rostov, artillery was used in the center of the city, and information on the number of deaths still varies. So do not whistle about 17 thousand, there are many more.
                      Bolsheviks, in Crimea alone, over 40 thousand people were destroyed without trial.
                      That’s straight without trial or trial ?!
                      And I can tell you that they also destroyed a little. In general, I would have put all the "former masters" under the knife, however, like the current nuVORish too.
                      And now remember how the Russo-Japanese War began.
                      It is not a matter of how it began, but of cause and effect relationships. Russian capital wanted to bite off a piece of Japanese, for which he paid. True, the capital was paid for by the loss of income, but the Russian people laid down their lives for this. The same applies to the WWII, the capitalists needed this war, but not the Russian people.

                      I repeat already for the 101st time, you are absolutely illiterate in matters of history and geopolitics, you should not demonstrate your stupidity and incompetence so openly!
                      1. AU Ivanov.
                        AU Ivanov. 4 December 2019 11: 08
                        -6
                        Do you consider the soviet propaganda (namely, its postulates you operate) the ultimate truth? During the events of 1905, with about 9 thousand people killed on both sides of the conflict. Despite direct fire artillery. And the first shots of Bloody Sunday resounded from the crowd in the direction of the troops, and not vice versa. And without the expansion of Russian capital, we would have neither the Urals, nor Siberia, nor the Far East.
                  2. vladcub
                    vladcub 4 December 2019 18: 35
                    +1
                    Suvorov, Nikolai would not be allowed to sit aside this is 100%. And more than once they wrote about this on the site
          3. Nagaibak
            Nagaibak 4 December 2019 10: 03
            +3
            Oleg (Kharkov) "As it was, it remains."
            Without the Bolsheviks, your Kharkov would be an utter hole.))) Tell them thank you. And now he is starting to turn back into a farm.
            1. Sergej1972
              Sergej1972 4 December 2019 13: 40
              -3
              At the beginning of the 20th century Kharkov was one of the largest economic, scientific and educational centers of the Russian Empire, surpassing Kiev in many respects.
              1. Nagaibak
                Nagaibak 4 December 2019 13: 57
                +3
                Sergej1972 "Kharkov was one of the largest economic, scientific and educational centers of the Russian Empire."
                Well, yes.))) And you compare how many enterprises, educational institutions and so on up to the Bolsheviks were in it.))) How many were under the USSR. And how much is left now.))))
        2. Olgovich
          Olgovich 4 December 2019 10: 53
          -11
          Quote: Vladimir_2U
          Great damage to the public education system and the spread of literacy was done by the First World War and the Civil War. But the Bolsheviks are to blame for this, of course.

          Those who unleashed a civil war on October 25, 1917 and dispersed the popular CSS in January 1918, naturally, it is his fault.

          For TENS OF MILLION citizens of Russia chose not the Bolsheviks in the elections (they were defeated), but other people and had the right to PROTECT their choice from the invaders, who had ruined their will. Got it, "Russophile"?

          Or do you immediately recognize the power will be piled up if they seize the Kremlin today?
          Quote: Vladimir_2U
          Comparison 11 947 000 and 8 speaks against the Bolsheviks by itself!

          fool
          Do not you realize that under Russia in 1928 it would be not 11 million, but 22 млн students?
          1. AU Ivanov.
            AU Ivanov. 4 December 2019 11: 15
            -4
            Moreover: the Bolsheviks allowed their own allies under the knife, without which the October Revolution was impossible. All parties of the left wing: the Socialist Revolutionaries of all stripes, the Mensheviks, anarchists (among other things, the bulk of the revolutionary sailors) were never allowed to power. As a result, uprisings against the Bolsheviks: Yaroslavl, Kronstad, Tambov and many others. Which drowned in blood.
    4. Mavrikiy
      Mavrikiy 4 December 2019 10: 48
      -3
      Not a luxury article and no thanks. Where is the stove?
      On June 1, 1933, a ceremonial start-up of the Stalin Chelyabinsk Tractor Plant took place.
      Good articles of this kind begin with a photo of a government decree on construction. "VO" from 2014:
      On May 29, 1929, the Council of People's Commissars of the USSR adopted a resolution "On the start of the construction of a tractor plant in the Urals". It was not by chance that Chelyabinsk was chosen as the site for its construction: the coal mines of Kopeysk could provide the future giant plant with cheap fuel, ChGRES - with the necessary energy, and the Magnitogorsk Metallurgical Combine, which was being built at an unprecedented pace - with iron and coke. The location of the city on the Trans-Siberian Railway made it possible to significantly reduce transport costs when delivering tractors to the eastern regions of the country. Plus, the oldest industrial region - the Urals - is a skilled workforce.
    5. Alien From
      Alien From 4 December 2019 12: 40
      +4
      Yes, a really wonderful article !!! Many thanks to the author !!!!!
    6. zenion
      zenion 5 December 2019 16: 40
      +2
      Many liberoids will be strangled by a toad when they read that they took labor from the village, although they were forbidden to leave on pain of death. Some old men in Sverdovsk told me that they built it during the day, and in the evening they studied with turners, milling machines, foundry workers, but this could not be, the liberoids forbade them to do this for only a dozen years ago.
  2. Vladimir_2U
    Vladimir_2U 4 December 2019 06: 08
    +2
    Interestingly, the dozer blade used to be called "plow".
    1. Mavrikiy
      Mavrikiy 4 December 2019 07: 41
      -1
      The terminology always changes in time, 100 years, almost gone. feel
  3. serg.shishkov2015
    serg.shishkov2015 4 December 2019 06: 25
    +10
    * Shells, tanks, tons of steel
    The Uralians kept the sacred oath! *
    There is no Russia without the Urals! Without the Urals, there would be no Victory!
    1. Mavrikiy
      Mavrikiy 4 December 2019 07: 46
      +8
      Boom Boom Boom! fool Would there be a victory without Siberia? And without Stalin, and without the CPSU (b)? request Greetings from Chelyabinsk. From CTZ there were horns and legs. The plan is measured by dozens of tractors. what
      1. serg.shishkov2015
        serg.shishkov2015 4 December 2019 08: 46
        +1
        I have a special relationship with Tankograd! After the war, Spirits and Muzrukov worked in my city on * atom *, there are Streets, IS-2M was put in memory of them!
        1. Mavrikiy
          Mavrikiy 4 December 2019 10: 57
          -3
          Quote: serg.shishkov2015
          I have a special relationship with Tankograd! After the war, Spirits and Muzrukov worked in my city on * atom *, there are Streets, IS-2M was put in memory of them!

          Will we measure? In Chelyabinsk these streets, and even tanks, the whole park is forced.
          1. Doliva63
            Doliva63 4 December 2019 18: 13
            0
            Quote: Mavrikiy
            Quote: serg.shishkov2015
            I have a special relationship with Tankograd! After the war, Spirits and Muzrukov worked in my city on * atom *, there are Streets, IS-2M was put in memory of them!

            Will we measure? In Chelyabinsk these streets, and even tanks, the whole park is forced.

            Where is the park with tanks in Chelyab? How many times was, did not even hear.
      2. Oleg (Kharkov)
        Oleg (Kharkov) 4 December 2019 08: 50
        -16
        Without Stalin, more precisely, without the Soviet-Finnish war, the Great Patriotic War could not have existed.
        1. pv1005
          pv1005 4 December 2019 09: 20
          +3
          Quote: Oleg (Kharkov)
          Without Stalin, more precisely, without the Soviet-Finnish war, the Great Patriotic War could not have existed.

          Uncle Oleg you fool ?
        2. Nagaibak
          Nagaibak 4 December 2019 10: 06
          +3
          Oleg (Kharkov) "Without Stalin, or rather without the Soviet-Finnish war, the Great Patriotic War could not have happened."
          You’re telling this murder in Ukraine. It’s not worth it here. In addition to a couple, three crazy, no one will understand you.
        3. Mavrikiy
          Mavrikiy 4 December 2019 11: 10
          +1
          Oleg (Kharkov) (Oleg)
          Without Stalin, more precisely, without the Soviet-Finnish war, the Great Patriotic War could not have existed.
          . I understand you need to go to school and pass the exam. But it would be nice to include the head. WWII was organized not by Hitler, but by England and the USA. Therefore, less vodka, Svanidze and Khlevnyukov. And more Spitsyn, Fursov and Starikov. The question of backfilling, as an amateur alternative, what would happen if Hitler attacked in 1943? We would carry out rearmament, finish building new fortified areas, etc. etc ..... The correct answer: we would have been gone for 75 years. WWII would not be, we would not be at all. For we would fight with all one world.
        4. Romka47
          Romka47 4 December 2019 15: 58
          +3
          Do you think Stalin declared war on Soviet Russia in 1918 on behalf of Finland? Stalin sent Finnish troops to us ??? Look at the root, the Finns unleashed a war against us much earlier, it was a "generous payment" for what we gave them statehood and independence, let me remind you that Finland left OUR composition as a country, and entered as scattered tribes
  4. Mavrikiy
    Mavrikiy 4 December 2019 07: 31
    0
    It is said that in 1937, Stalin personally signed the death list, which included the name of Lovin.
    They say "in Moscow, they milk chickens," but they came and found no boobs.
    1. Evgeny Fedorov
      4 December 2019 07: 42
      +7
      Casimir Lovin was actually shot in 1937, and later rehabilitated. The fact that Staly personally signed the execution list is the opinion of individual historians. Not all sources mention this. But, given the status and importance of Lovin, this is most likely true.
      1. Mavrikiy
        Mavrikiy 4 December 2019 08: 01
        -1
        there is the opinion of individual historians.
        Why so modest? Can opinion of great historians. We have N.K. Svanidze with a gang.
      2. Olgovich
        Olgovich 4 December 2019 12: 23
        -7
        Quote: Evgeny Fedorov
        But, given the status and importance of Lovin, this is most likely true.

        this is the absolute truth: that is how ALL important people were shot.
        To shoot without his knowledge meant to shoot himself, and everyone knew that very well.

        Thank you for mentioning our great Russian engineer Vladimir G. Shukhov, which, alas, few people today know. hi

        But after all "Russian Leonardo" architects and engineers all over the world call it.
      3. Doliva63
        Doliva63 4 December 2019 18: 26
        -1
        Quote: Yevgeny Fedorov
        Casimir Lovin was actually shot in 1937, and later rehabilitated. The fact that Staly personally signed the execution list is the opinion of individual historians. Not all sources mention this. But, given the status and importance of Lovin, this is most likely true.

        The opinion of individual historians is equal to the price of used toilet paper if they cannot provide evidence, but only their "opinion".
        Tomorrow morning Solne will explode. There is no evidence, but given the status and significance of the sun, this is most likely true. Bullshit, I'm sorry.
  5. rocket757
    rocket757 4 December 2019 07: 33
    +5
    "Tankograd." How the forge of caterpillar equipment of the USSR was born

    Stages of the GREAT WAY!
    From the series "Everyone should know this"!
    History, an object, without knowledge of which the next path is one, somewhere there, but most likely not there.
  6. The leader of the Redskins
    The leader of the Redskins 4 December 2019 07: 38
    +6
    It's sooo interesting to read! The article is a rare example, against the background of "pouring from empty to empty". I never suspected such an amazing history of the great factory. And rare photos are selected. Thank you, I look forward to continuing!
  7. bionik
    bionik 4 December 2019 08: 08
    +6
    Plant production. ChTZ Since October 6, 1941, the plant was renamed the Kirov Plant of the People’s Commissariat of Tank Industry in the city of Chelyabinsk. Its products.

    KV-1 in the assembly shop and courtyard of the Chelyabinsk Kirov Plant.
  8. antivirus
    antivirus 4 December 2019 08: 16
    +1
    the general plan-view of the workshops is similar to VladTrZ. and now the view from Tractor Street is remembered.
    from near Stalingrad (Paulus chicks) prisoners sent him to build
  9. samarin1969
    samarin1969 4 December 2019 10: 17
    +11
    The article is just wonderful in details and facts! There would be more! Interestingly, even before diplomatic recognition, relations between the USSR and the states were substantial.
    Corporations could plant money for pedigree advertising. laughing

    ps The author very skillfully left the "fan" of ideologies. Many people would benefit from his rational position.
    1. Mavrikiy
      Mavrikiy 4 December 2019 11: 21
      -4
      Quote: samarin1969

      ps The author very skillfully left the "fan" of ideologies. Many people would benefit from his rational position.
      Yes Yes. It seems people are not the mother gives birth, but the parent number 2, so calmer. request
  10. Undecim
    Undecim 4 December 2019 11: 54
    +9

    January 1930 Detroit. The signing of an agreement with the architectural and construction company Alberta Kahn regarding the construction of tractor plants in Kharkov, Stalingrad and Chelyabinsk.
    Under the terms of the agreement, Kana became the chief consultant of the Soviet government for industrial construction and received a package of orders for the construction of industrial enterprises worth $ 2 billion (approximately $ 250 billion in current prices). This company provided the construction of more than 500 industrial facilities in the USSR.
    The contract is signed by Albert Kahn (left) and Saul Gershkovich Bron - chairman of the board of the Soviet-American trading company Amtorg.
    In accordance with this agreement, a branch of Albert Kahn Associates - Gosproektstroy - was opened in Moscow.
    Its leader was Moritz Kahn, brother of Albert Kahn (pictured in the center). 25 leading American engineers and about 2,5 thousand Soviet employees worked in it. At that time it was the largest architectural bureau in the world. Over the three years of the existence of Gosproektstroy, more than 4 thousand Soviet architects, engineers and technicians who studied American experience passed through it.
    1. Undecim
      Undecim 4 December 2019 12: 05
      +12

      Perspective aerial view of the Chelyabinsk Tractor Plant under the project of Albert Kahn Associates.
      An example of a "presentation" from the early 1930s.
    2. Undecim
      Undecim 4 December 2019 12: 55
      +2
      An interesting motif is the man embossed minus. What did the body want to say? Or is it someone Mavrikiy in a fit of uncontrolled turbopatriotism?
      1. Mavrikiy
        Mavrikiy 4 December 2019 17: 46
        0
        No, I here (-) set, for
        uncontrolled turbopatriotism
        1. Undecim
          Undecim 4 December 2019 17: 49
          +3
          Well, as a moral compensation for unsubstantiated suspicions, I will put you (+).
          This means a suspicion about a minus.
  11. Mavrikiy
    Mavrikiy 4 December 2019 11: 59
    -10
    Author, and besides the book "History of Stalinism"
    “Tankograd. Secrets of the Russian rear 1917-1953. " Lennart Samuelson
    what did I read on ChTZ? And then washed my hands?
    1. AU Ivanov.
      AU Ivanov. 4 December 2019 12: 41
      -7
      Soviet propaganda propaganda is also not an option to read.
      1. chenia
        chenia 4 December 2019 14: 37
        +3
        Quote: AS Ivanov.
        Soviet propaganda propaganda is also not an option to read.


        And the corresponding manuals?
  12. Operator
    Operator 4 December 2019 12: 19
    +12
    The design bureau of Albert Kahn (head office in Detroit, a branch in Moscow in the building of the future GUM) from 1929 to 1932 designed and organized the construction of 571 industrial facilities in the USSR.

    This is first of all:
    - tractor plants in Stalingrad, Chelyabinsk and Kharkov;
    - Automobile factories in Moscow and Nizhny Novgorod;
    - machine-tool plants in Kaluga, Novosibirsk and Verkhnyaya Salda;
    - Foundries in Chelyabinsk, Dnepropetrovsk, Kharkov, Kolomna, Lyubertsy, Magnitogorsk, Sormovo and Stalingrad;
    - bearing factory in Moscow,
    - aluminum plant in Volkhov;
    - mining and processing plant in Asbest;
    - blacksmith shops in Chelyabinsk, Dnepropetrovsk, Kharkov, Kolomna, Lyubertsy, Magnitogorsk, Nizhny Tagil and Stalingrad;
    - machine shops in Chelyabinsk, Lyubertsy, Podolsk, Stalingrad and Sverdlovsk;
    - steel shops and rolling mills in Moscow, Kamensky, Kolomna, Kuznetsk, Magnitogorsk, Nizhny Tagil, Verkhny Tagil and Sormovo.
    1. Olgovich
      Olgovich 4 December 2019 13: 48
      -5
      Quote: Operator
      e in the building of the future GUM)

      And GUM was created by the great SHUKHOV. How he participated in ChTZ, and in Magnitogorsk, etc.
      Such bizarre interruptions.
      1. Undecim
        Undecim 4 December 2019 14: 57
        +5
        GUM was created by architect Alexander Nikanorovich Pomerantsev and engineer Arthur Ferdinandovich Loleit. The well-known GUM overlap was made by the St. Petersburg Metal Plant. Participation in the construction of Shukhov is a debatable question and until today has no clear answer.
        1. Olgovich
          Olgovich 5 December 2019 09: 52
          -6
          Quote: Undecim
          GUM have created architect Alexander Nikanorovich Pomerantsev and engineer Arthur Ferdinandovich Loleit. Known GUM Overlap made Petersburg Metal Plant.

          If the ceiling was "made" by PMZ, then GUM was created by contractor N, not Pomerantsevs.

          And Shukhov, in addition to overlapping GUM, designed in Moscow the glass roofs of the Petrovsky Passage, the Metropol and the Pushkin State Museum of Fine Arts in Moscow, the landing stage of the Kievsky railway station.
          1. Undecim
            Undecim 5 December 2019 12: 59
            +2
            GUM was created by contractor N, not Pomeranian.

            Not for olgovich (throwing beads is useless), for information.
            Alexander Nikanorovich Pomerantsev is an outstanding Russian architect and engineer, no lower than Shukhov.
            1. Olgovich
              Olgovich 5 December 2019 13: 09
              -7
              Quote: Undecim
              Not for olgovich (throwing beads is useless), for information.

              not for undechim, kureza or whatever you are ...., I repeat:
              If anonymous the ceiling was "made" by PMZ, then GUM created anonymous Contractor N, not Orange.

              Did it get there? No.
              Quote: Undecim
              Alexander Nikanorovich Pomerantsev is an outstanding Russian architect and engineer, no lower than Shukhov.

              Ignoramus .....

              throwing beads is useless
              How so? belay You are in front of By yourself mosque ....
  13. Undecim
    Undecim 4 December 2019 14: 40
    +1
    In the meantime, on June 1-3, 1933, the Chelyabinsk Tractor Plant was solemnly launched in the presence of the chairman of the Presidium of the Central Executive Committee of the USSR Kalinin.
  14. mehan
    mehan 4 December 2019 15: 27
    -1
    The production of tanks became possible after the evacuation of the Kharkov plant, together with the backbone of the team ...
  15. flc9800
    flc9800 4 December 2019 17: 32
    +4
    Thanks to the author for a wonderful article!
    Special thanks for the awesome photos. good
    I look forward to continuing.
  16. Doliva63
    Doliva63 4 December 2019 17: 52
    +1
    Cool! And "concrete evenings" were delivered! good drinks
  17. vladcub
    vladcub 4 December 2019 19: 20
    0
    "with the help of another, secondary tractor firm," so whose help was ChTZ built?
  18. vladcub
    vladcub 4 December 2019 19: 56
    +4
    "did not pass by the organizers of the plant" Ordzhonikidze Bereg and cherished personnel in the NKTP, and Kaganovich loved cruelty. He is behind "excesses in collectivization", he is one of the initiators of repression. He introduced a “competition” to “expose“ enemies of the people. ”Khrushchev was not the last in this“ competition. ”In 1956, a real“ miracle ”happened: hundreds of thousands of murders were committed by Stalin and Beria. Others were probably sitting on the sidelines or were in a lethargic dream?
  19. rJIiOK
    rJIiOK 12 December 2019 12: 23
    0
    "
    It is said that in 1937, Stalin personally signed the death list, which included the name of Lovin.
    "
    This is outdated information. According to fresh archival data - Stalin shot Lovin from a machine gun in person, and ate his children.
  20. Kostadinov
    Kostadinov 3 January 2020 11: 34
    0
    Quote: AU Ivanov.
    An interesting thing turns out: the peasant believed the Bolsheviks, in particular the slogan "Land to the peasants" and took their side. Otherwise, the victory of the Reds in the Civil War would be in great doubt. Then the land is forcibly taken away from the peasant, and together with the implements and livestock, he can no longer dispose of the results of his labor: the farmer has every right to sell his products at the prevailing price. Further: the lack of food and the introduction of the rationing system, arose, just after collectivization. During the NEP there was no hunger, just as there was no shortage of consumer goods. Conclusion: industrialization was carried out by robbing the majority of the minority. Here is the alliance of workers and peasants.

    1. They took livestock and equipment and gave the best machines themselves, and the land never beat the peasants' personal property before or after the revolution. All the same, after the revolution, she also beat their property as part of the Soviet people.
    2. Deficiency and hunger in peacetime only beat before collectivization. NEP also ended in the famine of 1928–32. Hunger is forever gone only after collectivization.
    3. Without industrialization, the USSR expected a defeat in the war, and the respected peasants had a happy life in the role of Untermensch (subhuman) in a thousand-year-old German district.
  21. Roster
    Roster 14 October 2020 13: 20
    0
    Cool article, reading non-fiction literature, I am especially interested in the years from 1924 to 1933, I never cease to be surprised at the impulse, enthusiasm, responsibility for the assigned work of many hundreds of thousands of Soviet people, especially those who led such great construction projects. It is a pity that many of them were destroyed during the repressions, they began to introduce labor c / c ...
  22. Roster
    Roster 14 October 2020 13: 34
    0
    An interesting article about how the Americans helped us create a tank city in 1929. We know about Lend-Lease. There is a version that Stalin in 1941, knowing about the concentration of German troops on the border and the Barbarossa plan, deliberately did not allow our attack on the Germans so that they would look like an aggressor in the eyes of the whole world, and most importantly, the United States should be our allies in this war. It cost us a little, of course, but history does not know the subjunctive mood….