Military Review

Day of the State Secret Protection Service of the Armed Forces of Russia

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Day of the State Secret Protection Service of the Armed Forces of Russia

Large emblem of the Eighth Directorate of the General Staff of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation


On November 13 in our country people who are directly related to the State Secret Protection Service of the RF Armed Forces celebrate their professional holiday. It is worth noting that in 2018, this service celebrated its 100 anniversary. The official date of creation of the service is November 13 1918 of the year.

The history of the emergence of the state information protection service


The official date from which it leads history The State Secret Protection Service (HRT) is considered November 13 1918 year. It was on this day that the Revolutionary Military Council of the young, newly formed Soviet Republic issued an order under the number 217 / 30, which specified the staff of the organizational management of the All-Russian General Staff. In the new structure, for the first time in history, an encryption department was allocated as an independent unit. It is from this date that Russian military cryptographic agencies trace their history, which in the future will become the basis for the entire system of protecting state secrets of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation. Over time, the branch was transformed into the Eighth Directorate of the General Staff of the Red Army, and in modern realities - the Eighth Directorate of the General Staff of the RF Armed Forces.

At the same time, it would be strange to assume that before the 1918 year they were not involved in the protection of important information in the armed forces. Such work has always been carried out, starting with the origins of Russian statehood, but they were not systemic, did not differ in such organization and orderliness. Encryption was resorted to even in Ancient Russia, so in the XIII century the so-called gibberish letter was used, which was supposed to protect written information from prying eyes. The scientific name for this encryption method is litorea. In Russia, two types of such cryptography were used: simple and wise. Garabar literacy was called just a simple litorea, which provided for the replacement of some consonants with others. The oldest surviving and surviving examples of such encryption date back to 1229. It is known, for example, that Sergius of Radonezh used a similar method in writing.


Head of the State Secret Protection Service of the RF Armed Forces, Lieutenant General Yuri Kuznetsov

Over time, encryption methods and techniques have improved. The issues of protecting state secrets, important political and military information received more and more attention. For these purposes, we used: reverse writing, the use of different alphabets, complex models of digital cryptography, etc. The first officially confirmed use of the domestic cipher dates back to August 1633. The act that has reached us is stored today in the funds of the Russian State Archive; it regulates the implementation of the domestic code at the state level. We are talking about the code of Patriarch Filaret, which they began to use in the Ambassadorial order.

Already under Peter I, ciphers and various codes began to be used in large numbers in Russia, and the first Russian emperor began to introduce specially designed posts and services in offices and colleges, for example, secret (secret) and "digital" departments. In the second half of the 19th century, as part of the country's military reform, a private military key appeared in the Russian military department, which was used to encrypt the most important messages for secret correspondence. At the same time, a feature of the work in those years was that the performers themselves were directly involved in encryption: personally the Minister of War of the Russian Empire, the chief of the General Staff, and down to the top officers who commanded corps and divisions.

After the 1917 revolution and the outbreak of civil war, the very need to encrypt important messages became even more obvious, reaching a new level. For this purpose, on November 13, 1918, a special service was established - the encryption department. At the same time, in the ground forces and on navy started work on the creation of new rules and instructions that explained the work with secret documents and information. Cryptographic work was established not only in Moscow at the General Staff, but also in the field. The process was systematized and regulated. Much attention was paid in the 1930s to the development of special equipment. Scientific progress forced the military to pay attention to special encryption machines, the first models of which appeared in the USSR just in the mid-1930s. And already in 1938, the country managed to launch mass production of encryption machines, which were sent to the troops and were used to accelerate the decryption of incoming reports.


The encryption service during the Great Patriotic War


By the time the Great Patriotic War began, the encryption service was a well-developed and staffed structure with trained personnel, including engineers. Already at night, from 21 to 22 on June 1941, a telegram was sent to the military districts of the General Staff through the encryption body of the General Staff, which talked about a possible German attack on the USSR, so that the cryptographers started working on military posts even before the first German shells and bombs began to burst on Soviet soil.

There is an opinion that work at headquarters is “calm” and safe. But in the conditions of the total war of annihilation waged by Germany and the USSR, there were no more safe places at the front. As Lieutenant General Yuri Kuznetsov, who is the head of the State Secrets Protection Service of the RF Armed Forces, told in an interview with the official newspaper of the Defense Ministry Krasnaya Zvezda, almost every sixth cipher of the army was killed during the Great Patriotic War. So the work was both responsible and dangerous, especially in the first half of the war, when Soviet troops retreated and fought back farther east, often falling into encirclement.

Already after the outbreak of the war on October 7, on October 1941, the Office of the General Staff Encryption Service was officially renamed the Eighth Directorate of the General Staff, the office also has this name in the 21st century. In total, during the years of World War II, it was possible to form and reorganize 5530 special bodies, to staffing which personnel were transferred to 15 634 specialists. The work of these people was very responsible, since they did not have the right to make mistakes when compiling cipher telegrams, and in the environment of parts or the death of warships, the ciphers had to take care primarily of saving or destroying documents, and already in the second - of their own life and security.


The fact that the service of Soviet cipher officers often concealed a serious danger to life and left room for heroic deeds is evidenced by the story of N.G. Shestakov, who served in the Northern Fleet. On July 20, 1941, at Cape Sizy in Yekaterininskaya harbor, 11 German Ju-88 bombers attacked the Soviet destroyer Stretitelny, which was one of the newest and most advanced surface ships in the fleet. As a result of a direct hit from three aviation bombs, the destroyer literally broke into two parts, while the bow of the ship lasted the longest (about 20 minutes) on the surface of the water, the waist and bottom went under water in just a couple of minutes. In a difficult situation that directly threatened life, the commander of the special coded communications department (KSK) Shestakov managed to get to the communications post, from where he brought out a sealed special bag with documents. With this bag, Shestakov successfully reached the coast, and valuable military documents were saved.

The high quality of the work of special bodies, including cryptographers, was appreciated during the war years, prominent Soviet military leaders spoke about this. It is no coincidence that in the famous Victory Parade, which took place on Red Square 24 on June 1945, cryptographers of the General Staff also passed as part of the combined regiment of the People’s Commissariat of Defense.

Current state of the State Secret Protection Service


Every year, the importance of protecting and encrypting important information is only growing. In the digital age, when information is transmitted almost instantly and in huge volumes for thousands of kilometers, the protection of transmitted data is becoming increasingly important. This is not unusual, considering that along with the active development and implementation of information technologies in the civilian and military spheres, the number of attempts to unauthorized access to various information, including military information, is also growing. Foreign intelligence is working on obtaining such information, therefore, the State Secret Protection Service of the RF Armed Forces still has a lot of work.


To meet the challenges of the time, the Eighth Directorate of the General Staff works for the future, paying great attention to the training of highly qualified personnel. In recent years, the establishment of a Research Center at one of the country's oldest military universities, the Krasnodar Higher Military School, has become a very important step. The work of this research center is directly related to the development and improvement of the HRT system, which is used today in the Russian army. Similar work is also being actively conducted on the basis of the first Russian military technopolis Era, which is located in Anapa on the Black Sea. The laboratory of "Information Security" operates on the basis of the technopolis. An additional strengthening of the service is the creation of a special scientific company of the Eighth Directorate of the General Staff on the basis of the Krasnodar Higher Military School. The main goal of the work of this scientific company is the implementation of scientific and applied tasks aimed at protecting information in the Russian armed forces.
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  1. Same lech
    Same lech 13 November 2019 06: 06
    +4
    I am skeptical of this service ... it cannot stop betrayal from within (within the system) ... all the important information leaks occurred precisely because of the betrayal of people who possess this state of secrets ... here, at least encrypt, though not encrypt, the enemy will still know he needs to.
    The names of traitors of the highest and not the highest rank are widely heard ... how to deal with this? ... is a difficult task.
    But all the same, the service needed and necessary at the moment ... I wish the specialists success in their field.
    1. rocket757
      rocket757 13 November 2019 08: 13
      +9
      The service provides something that cannot be dispensed with ... counter-intelligence officers must catch spies.
      1. Siberia 75
        Siberia 75 13 November 2019 09: 26
        +5
        The emblem is interesting. All elements are clear except for the six-point gear in the center. This is a hint that for trying to encroach on state secrets, the punishment will be especially painful bully
        1. Leopold
          Leopold 13 November 2019 09: 38
          +6
          The sword is responsible for the punishment. In the center, the stylized scepter and power are more likely - a state secret. IMHO, of course.
          1. Siberia 75
            Siberia 75 13 November 2019 09: 44
            +2
            It may very well be. I did not find a heraldic description on the Internet
            1. thinker
              thinker 13 November 2019 10: 36
              +3
              I can not vouch for reliability, I found this -
              EXPLANATORY NOTE
              with justification of the selected characters
              military heraldic signs of the Eighth Directorate
              General Staff of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation

              Military heraldic signs reflect the features of the functional purpose of the Eighth Directorate of the General Staff of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation.
              Elements of the emblem symbolize:
              a golden ball (symbol of information) located in the center of the space formed by the intersection of six golden rings (symbol of comprehensive protection) - information protection;
              blue globe with golden meridians and parallels - the fulfillment of the tasks of protecting state secrets in military units and organizations on the territory of the Russian Federation and in other states of the world;
              crossed golden shestoper (a symbol of military supremacy and leadership), a key (a symbol of access to state secrets) and a sword (a traditional symbol of armed struggle) - the leadership of the organization for the protection of state secrets in the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation in peacetime and wartime;
              the form of the heraldic shield is the rank of the Eighth Directorate as the central organ of military command;
              the black color (a symbol of prudence and constancy) of the heraldic shield is the traditional color of the instrument cloth of officers of the General Staff of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation;
              emblem of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation - belonging to the Eighth Directorate to the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation;
              wreath (a symbol of glory and honor) - the Eighth Directorate belongs to the General Staff of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation.
              1. Siberia 75
                Siberia 75 13 November 2019 10: 42
                +2
                Thank you friend. Looking for an hour description hi
                PS All the same, shestoper)))
        2. Nikolay Fedorov
          Nikolay Fedorov 13 November 2019 10: 11
          -1
          Quote: Siberia 75
          The emblem is interesting. All elements are clear except for the six-point gear in the center. This is a hint that for trying to encroach on state secrets, the punishment will be especially painful bully

          And how do you explain the element - the sign of March 8 with a bold dot inside? belay
    2. Nyrobsky
      Nyrobsky 13 November 2019 10: 12
      +7
      Quote: The same LYOKHA
      I am skeptical of this service ... it cannot stop the betrayal from the inside (inside the system) ... all the important information leaks occurred precisely because of the betrayal of people who possess this state secret ..

      What does the service have to do with it? There are people who own state secrets - there are those who become acquainted.
      Quote: The same LYOKHA
      here, at least encrypt, at least not encrypt, the enemy will still find out what he needs.
      There is such an understanding as the strength of the cipher. Even if the enemy receives encrypted text in his hands, this does not mean that he will be able to decrypt it.
      Quote: The same LYOKHA
      The names of traitors of the highest and not the highest rank are widely heard ... how to deal with this? ... is a difficult task.
      This is the work of counterintelligence. You can give information not in a circular, but in a certain sector for a controlled leak, establish a circle of people who have become familiar with the information and gradually work out each one. The matter is not quick, but resolvable.
      Quote: The same LYOKHA
      But all the same, the service needed and necessary at the moment ... I wish the specialists success in their field.

      Very necessary. Happy holiday to all involved!
      1. ccsr
        ccsr 13 November 2019 12: 25
        +2
        Quote: Nyrobsky
        There is such an understanding as the strength of the cipher.

        The resistance of the cipher has nothing to do with the control structure 8 itself - this applies to the field of mathematics and to the theory of signal transmission. Moreover, a large number of military units of a technical orientation can do without ciphertexts altogether, using the ZAS technique, which is not inferior to ciphertexts in cryptographic strength, or, for example, use unique technical developments when closing space radio links.
        The importance of the 8th management is primarily in their coordination work and responsibility for everything related to encryption in the Ministry of Defense, because it is it that is the governing body for all structures and the gas supplier for cryptographic equipment. Well, and most importantly - there are things that the commander (chief) can only entrust to the encryptor, and not to someone else, and therefore this service will always be.
        1. Nyrobsky
          Nyrobsky 13 November 2019 14: 29
          +4
          Quote: ccsr
          The resistance of the cipher has nothing to do with the control structure 8 itself - this applies to the field of mathematics and to the theory of signal transmission.

          Did I mention the resistance of the cipher, did I write something about the relation of this concept to the control structure 8?
          Quote: ccsr
          Moreover, a large number of military units of a technical orientation generally dispense with cipher bodies, using the ZAS technique, which is not inferior in cryptographic strength to the technology of cipher bodies,

          Who argues that? Just do not forget that it is the strength of the cipher that determines the degree of secrecy of the transmitted information, which can be transmitted through the communication channel of one or another equipment.
          Quote: ccsr
          The importance of the 8th department is primarily in their coordination work and responsibility for everything related to encryption in the Ministry of Defense, because it is it that is the governing body for all structures

          But where did you dig that I wrote something about 8 management? Between the lines subtracted?
          Quote: ccsr
          Well and most importantly - there are things which the commander (chief) can only entrust to the cryptographer, and not to someone else, and therefore this service will always be.
          Ahem. We worked, we know - but nevertheless - "thank you, enlightened."
          1. ccsr
            ccsr 13 November 2019 18: 48
            +2
            Quote: Nyrobsky
            Did mentioning the strength of the cipher,

            Based on the context written by you, this refers to the 8th Office, although the decoders, for
            whose cipher strength is a very important parameter, mainly work in other structures.
            Quote: Nyrobsky
            Just do not forget that it is the strength of the cipher that determines the degree of secrecy of the secrecy of the transmitted information,

            Yes, come on - sometimes they’re forced to write such garbage in ciphers that they assign a degree so that they don’t get stuck in the test.
            Quote: Nyrobsky
            Between the lines subtracted?

            That's exactly what I read. You yourself wrote:
            What does the service have to do with it?

            What service were you talking about, if not about 8 Management?
            Quote: Nyrobsky
            We worked, we know - but nevertheless - "thank you, enlightened."

            Well, if you worked, then you understand that the role of this service is more organizational than technical, due to the fact that even our special services are confused by the current level of digital technology, since they organized a run over the Telegram messenger. And this says everything to those who understand what we are faced with now, and what tasks those who are developing new information protection systems will have to solve.
  2. aszzz888
    aszzz888 13 November 2019 08: 42
    +6
    State secret, without its protection, is no longer a secret. Happy holiday !!! soldier
    1. gridasov
      gridasov 13 November 2019 14: 04
      0
      It's ridiculous! Disinformation, veiled information, information that has step-by-step or derivative processes do not need protection. They are on the nose and no one will see it. You can yell and repeat about it and it will not be perceived. Therefore, the question of where and on which processes do you need to use certain methods of managing information flows
  3. SERGEY SERGEEVICS
    SERGEY SERGEEVICS 13 November 2019 08: 47
    +3
    Congratulations to all those associated with this holiday !!! drinks soldier
  4. VeteranVSSSR
    VeteranVSSSR 13 November 2019 09: 20
    +1
    Quote: SERGEY SERGEEVICS
    Congratulations to all those associated with this holiday !!! drinks soldier

    As well as all the happy holidays who have read the book of A. Gaidar, Military Secret !!!
    1. voyaka uh
      voyaka uh 13 November 2019 10: 46
      -2
      And who watched the movie:
      "Adjutant of His Excellency" laughing
      "Pavel Andreevich, are you a spy?"
      "You see, Yura ..."
      1. gridasov
        gridasov 13 November 2019 14: 11
        0
        Currently, the spy has other attributes of manifestation. This is not the one who is the representative of the hostile side and detrimental to the activities of either side. Because in quickly variable and capacious life processes, you can do everything relatively correctly, but to be there where they will lead you.
  5. faterdom
    faterdom 13 November 2019 09: 26
    +3
    Eighties happy holiday!
  6. VeteranVSSSR
    VeteranVSSSR 13 November 2019 14: 00
    +1
    Quote: voyaka uh
    And who watched the movie:
    "Adjutant of His Excellency" laughing
    "Pavel Andreevich, are you a spy?"
    "You see, Yura ..."

    ... you had a gardener ...

    ... Mickey, do you want mulled wine? ...
  7. Andrey Zhdanov-Nedilko
    Andrey Zhdanov-Nedilko 13 November 2019 15: 24
    +1
    Happy holiday! Keep and protect secrets!
  8. MrFox
    MrFox 13 November 2019 17: 13
    +1
    Congratulations on the professional holiday of all graduates of military unit 23290
  9. Sewer krainiy
    Sewer krainiy 13 November 2019 19: 32
    0
    All colleagues operating, in reserve, retired, especially cadets of military unit 72133 (41 schools of junior communications specialists, Nikolaev), May 1968 graduation. Good to all, health .... and be silent, be silent lol drinks In Belarus, this is the Day of the encryption service of the Armed Forces.