Military Review

Polish government in exile. Emigrants are friends of the invaders

32

Trends however


On 25 on October 1939, the German authorities announced the creation of the military police "Governor General for the Occupation of Polish Territory" ("Generalgouvernements für die besetzen pollnischen Gebiete"). Its territory amounted to only about 35 percent of the one that was occupied by the Nazis in September - early October of the 1939 of the year: the rest of the areas they occupied were simply included in the Third Reich.


Polish government in exile. Emigrants are friends of the invaders

The Polish emigration for many years had an authoritative patron. In the photo: Churchill and General Sikorsky


Several Polish presidents and governments in exile for many years consistently settled in France and the UK. However, instead of the active struggle against the Nazis, which supporters expected from them, they mainly continued their obsessive policy of not recognizing the new Soviet-Polish borders. And this continued even after the end of World War II until the self-dissolution of all these “rulers” at the end of 1990.

At the same time, the new post-war western borders of Poland, as well as the inclusion of Gdansk (the former free Danzig), together with the neighboring regions of the former East Prussia, did not provoke any protest from these figures. But what happened before that? Polish "authorities" abroad have repeatedly tried to negotiate with the Reich for a joint struggle with the Soviet troops. And even to restore the eastern pre-war borders of Poland ...

The "Eastern Question" for leading emigrant circles finally became secondary only after 1956. It was then that in parallel with the Hungarian crisis and the debunking of the personality cult in the USSR, the first major anti-Soviet protests in a number of Polish cities, including Warsaw, highlighted the struggle for the removal of communists (PUWP) ) from leading posts in the country.


Government of Poland in exile


However, this struggle was limited mainly to all kinds of assistance to the trend itself, and not to some real actions. As the Polish president in exile (1979-1986), the Polish ambassador to London in the 1930's, Edward Raczynski, noted, "the overthrow of Stalin from the pedestal in the 1956 will further weaken and self-liquidate the Communist Party dictatorship in the USSR and Eastern Europe." As time has shown, he was absolutely right.

In October and December 1939, the emigrant governments and presidents of Poland * officially announced that their native country remained at war with the USSR and Germany, that all the pre-war borders of Poland were "unshakable and retain their status." The same, as is known, was declared by the Polish side more than once much earlier - during 1940, in March of 1941.

Painless divorce


30 July 1941 in London was signed the Soviet-Polish Treaty of May-Sikorsky on the restoration of diplomatic relations and cooperation in the war with Germany and its allies. It entered into force on 1 on August 1941.



The first paragraph in the document reflected what the position of the Polish emigrant government was based on preserving the legitimacy of the eastern borders of Poland:
"1. The Government of the USSR recognizes the Soviet-German treaties of the 1939 of the year regarding territorial changes in Poland as null and void."


In the 1943 year, Moscow’s relations with the Polish emigrant authorities were, as you know, broken, but they constantly appealed to this clause of the treaty, claiming that Moscow officially recognized Poland within the borders of 1 on September 1939. Since even after the breakup, these relations were not Moscow’s official cancellation of that treaty. Which, we note, would be useful political and legal.

The instruction of the emigrant government developed by 1 on October 1943 for the notorious Craiova Army contained the following provisions:
“The Polish government directs a protest to the United Nations against violation of Polish sovereignty - as a result of the entry of the Soviets into Eastern (ie, on the borders of September 17 1939 - Approx. Aut.) Poland without the consent of the Polish government. At the same time, declaring that the country will not interact with the Soviets. The government at the same time warns that in the event of the arrest of representatives of the underground movement and any repression against Polish citizens, the underground organizations will go over to self-defense. ”




That is, to sabotage and terrorist attacks and against Soviet soldiers that continued by Polish nationalist groups ("Craiova Army"; "NO!") With the help of Western intelligence until 1951, inclusive.

On 15 on February 1944, the Polish government in exile declared its disagreement to establish the future eastern border with the USSR along the “Curzon line” (1919). The statement said that "the issue of the border should be considered in the post-war period, and during the war it is necessary to recognize the demarcation line along the border of Poland with the USSR, Lithuania and Latvia on 17 of September 1939." On 24 on July 1944, the same government sent a similar statement to Great Britain in the form of a Note, but the British authorities refused to accept it.

The reaction of the British authorities to similar emigrant notes of March 1946, August 1948 and March 1953 was the same. However, in the future, the "eastern claims" of the emigrant governments came to naught. The thing is that, in view of the well-known events of 1953 and 1956, in the West, the priorities of the struggle against pro-Soviet Poland and other social countries have changed: a bet has already been made to undermine their socialist foundations from the inside.

Taiwan Recognition


Shortly after the announcement of the Tehran Conference of the Allies (November 30 November 1943) about the Curzon line as the natural and only possible Soviet-Polish post-war border, it became known about the contacts of emissaries of the Polish emigrant government (at that time it was headed by Stanislav Mikołajczyk) and the then President of Poland in exile Vladislav Rachkevich with representatives of the German Foreign Ministry in Turkey and Sweden since late December 1943


In this photograph of the Polish government in exile in the front row, Prime Minister Mikołajczyk (left) and President Rachkevich (center)


It was about the formation in Poland of a kind of "temporary Polish administration" in order, in fact, together with the invaders to "resist the Bolshevik expansion." But the Polish side demanded recognition of the legitimacy of its pre-war eastern borders, and the German side demanded recognition of the illegitimacy of the pre-war borders of Germany and Poland, and its recognition of Danzig as German territory.

These consultations were probably conducted with the assistance of Washington and London, judging by the behind-the-scenes negotiations of emissaries of the Western Allies and Berlin from the beginning of the 1943 in the Vatican, Switzerland, Spain, Sweden, Portugal, Turkey, and Liechtenstein. The German emissaries were adamant along the Western Polish borders and Danzig, therefore, meetings with Polish "colleagues" ceased by June 1944.


The fate of Poland was decided in 1945 in Yalta


At the same time, the transcendental Polish authorities officially refused to recognize the well-known decision of the Yalta Conference of Allies (February 1945):
“A new position was created in Poland as a result of its complete liberation by the Red Army. This requires the creation of the Provisional Polish Government, which would have a broader base than was possible before, until the recent liberation of western Poland. The Provisional Government now in force in Poland must therefore be reorganized on a broader democratic basis with the inclusion of democratic figures from Poland itself and Poles from abroad. This new Government should then be called the Polish Provisional Government of National Unity. ”


Nevertheless, in July-September of 1945, Great Britain, its dominions, the USA and France ceased to recognize the Polish authorities in exile. The Vatican, Ireland, Spain and Portugal were the last in Europe to recognize these authorities until the end of the 50's. And the most recent “admirer” of the Polish emigrant authorities was the “Republic of China” in Taiwan before their dissolution.

But the West did not discount plans for the restoration of Poland itself. Emigrant "authorities" continued to function in the London Chelsea region 43 "Еaton" until mid-December 1990. They maintained their previous positions on the eastern borders of Poland, aggressively claimed Vilnius and Braslav, but did not dispute its new borders with Germany (i.e. from the GDR), transfer of Gdansk and the south of East Prussia to Poland.

In short, the Soviet "gifts" to Poland, paid for by many tens of thousands of lives of Soviet soldiers, were Jesuit in demand by Polish emigrant authorities, just as Jesuit. In this regard, it is characteristic that those "authorities" declared their self-dissolution almost immediately after the election of Lech Walesa as President of Poland. Then he was transferred to the presidential regalia from Ryszard Kaczorowski, the last Polish president in exile (in 1989-1990-m).


Ryszard Kocharovsky, the last president of Poland in exile


Who knows, maybe after some time the authorities of post-socialist Poland will “remember” the position of their predecessor emigrants about the eastern borders of this country, that is, with Latvia, Lithuania and now with the former USSR? At least, this is logical, given that the main task of those authorities and their Western counterparts has already been completed: the overthrow of socialist Poland. And then you can take up the "remaining" questions? ..
Author:
Articles from this series:
Polish ambition and ... allied honor
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  1. Basil50
    Basil50 30 October 2019 08: 18
    +1
    The author did not consider the cooperation of * Poles in exile * with the Nazis. But it was. The British suspected that it was the Poles who informed the Germans about the plans for the capture and occupation of Norway. The British planned to use the Poles for landing, but they did not want to leaked the information.
    The British had many complaints about the Poles, it came to the point that some * Poles in exile * were simply destroyed in a plane crash, the rest was tried to be tamed. The Poles began to fully focus on the British-Americans only when they realized that the Nazis would soon be over ..
    There were many demarches of the Poles for various reasons, right up to the * declaration of war * to the SOVIET UNION.
    It is very instructive to read what the Poles wrote to themselves when asked to join the EU and NATO. If you believe those publications, then almost a quarter of all German troops consisted of Poles. Well and much more ......
    1. Greg Miller
      Greg Miller 30 October 2019 10: 20
      +1
      Poland is such a strange state, which only appears on the political map and immediately claims territorial claims against all neighboring states ...
      1. antivirus
        antivirus 30 October 2019 20: 12
        +2
        I agree to give Vilnius to the Poles in exchange for the south of Prussia; it is necessary to strengthen the Kaliningrad region
    2. Reptiloid
      Reptiloid 31 October 2019 11: 17
      0
      Vasily50 -----The authors did not ...Given the fact that at the end of the previous article there were no words about the continuation, then, perhaps, even after this, a further Polish topic awaits us ?? But the Polish theme can be developed even earlier.
      Authors, sometimes, cover the events of the Soviet past. For me it is always interesting. In my opinion, a series of articles about Khrushchev should be continued. Having described there some cases unknown to me, they still remained, nevertheless.
    3. Nikolai Korovin
      Nikolai Korovin 1 November 2019 23: 18
      0
      Well, about the quarter - they exaggerate. And 10% probably wasn’t. But still something. And about Norway, apparently, the British had claims to Sikorsky. Something the plane crashed near Gibraltar, when the Germans and Italians didn’t even smell there.
    4. stroybat ZABVO
      stroybat ZABVO 4 January 2020 20: 28
      0
      B7 Hi
      How strange the phrase "Polish government in exile" sounds
      In my opinion, it should sound "Polish government in RUNS" or as "SELF-RUNNING Polish government.
      Although the latter is probably not quite suitable for late time.
  2. Dalton
    Dalton 30 October 2019 09: 01
    -2
    No matter how puffed up, but still did not give birth.
    The Polish government in exile was one of the most consistent fighters against Nazism.
    Unlike their former friends, who came to Berlin in 45
    1. Greg Miller
      Greg Miller 30 October 2019 10: 23
      +1
      And why then the Germans, on the territory of occupied Poland, were more afraid of the Army of Ludov, and not of the “emigrant” Army of Home?
    2. Alexander Suvorov
      Alexander Suvorov 30 October 2019 10: 27
      +4
      Dalton (Dalton)
      The Polish government in exile was one of the most consistent fighters against Nazism.
      And how did it sideways they fought with Nazism? Enlighten, do not consider it work.
      Unlike their former friends, who came to Berlin in 45
      And we in Berlin apparently did not fight with the Nazis, but with the Martians?
      The bakers, they are, in their anti-Soviet malice, are ready to whitewash the Nazis, just to spit on the Soviet past. Which by the way, they raised, learned and protected in every way.
      1. tesser
        tesser 30 October 2019 10: 57
        -1
        Quote: Alexander Suvorov
        And how did it sideways they fought with Nazism? Enlighten, do not consider it work.

        Mr. Churchill would like Poland to be ruled by Sosnkovsky and Anders, Yugoslavia - Mikhailovich and Pavelic, Romania - Prince Stirbey and Radescu, Hungary and Austria - some king from the house of the Habsburgs, etc. Mr. Churchill wants to assure us that these are the Lord of fascist gateways can provide "true democracy." Such is the "democratism" of Mr. Churchill.

        What did Messrs. Sosnkovsky and Anders from the fascist gate do during the war? In particular, the latter is interested in the history of his relationship with both the Germans and the Comrade’s department. Beria.
    3. Sugar Honeyovich
      Sugar Honeyovich 30 October 2019 10: 30
      +2
      This is especially evident in the example of Katyn. Interestingly, the British fed Sikorsky to the sharks because of this "sequence" or for another reason?
  3. Operator
    Operator 30 October 2019 11: 13
    +4
    Under the constitution of the Commonwealth, the powers of the head of state could only be transferred to the Marshal of the Sejm. Nevertheless, the last elected president, Moscitsky, in September 1939, transferred his powers to Interior Minister Rachkevich. After that, there was no question of any president and government of Poland in exile.

    The clowns who claimed it were nothing more than a public organization.
    1. tesser
      tesser 30 October 2019 12: 00
      -1
      Quote: Operator
      After that, there was no question of any president and government of Poland in exile.

      And with whom is Comrade May signed contracts? Or was he an English spy at that time?
      1. Operator
        Operator 30 October 2019 12: 04
        +2
        With a public organization, of course.
        1. tesser
          tesser 30 October 2019 12: 17
          -2
          Quote: Operator
          With a public organization, apparently

          Like with the Soros Foundation? OK, the topic is normal.
    2. Nikolai
      Nikolai 7 January 2020 19: 30
      0
      I wonder how and by whom the president and the Sejm of Poland in exile were elected?
      1. Operator
        Operator 7 January 2020 21: 19
        +1
        According to the Constitution of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in effect in September 1939, the president could transfer his post to other Polish officials in a certain sequence, which at one stage (almost at the first - he did not want to delve into their history) was violated and all subsequent "presidents" were impostors.

        The diet was not elected in any way for a simple reason - after the declaration of war, it did not become needed, since all power passed to the president.
        1. Nikolai
          Nikolai 7 January 2020 22: 18
          0
          Thank you.
  4. Alexga
    Alexga 30 October 2019 11: 16
    +2
    The Poles should think about whether Germany would have the idea of ​​returning her lands from Poland, which she got for free. Indeed, no one from European countries will come out in their defense. In my opinion, this would be fair. It is no coincidence that this under-state several times disappeared from world maps.
    1. tesser
      tesser 30 October 2019 11: 55
      -1
      Quote: AlexGa
      The Poles should think about whether Germany would have the idea of ​​returning her lands from Poland, which she got for free

      Will not arise. Firstly, now they don’t do that, secondly, Poland has an army larger than the German, and thirdly, if anyone is kicked out of NATO for stowaways, this is Germany, not Poland.
  5. Olgovich
    Olgovich 30 October 2019 11: 51
    +1
    In the 1943 year, Moscow’s relations with the Polish emigrant authorities were, as you know, broken, but they constantly appealed to this clause of the treaty, claiming that Moscow officially recognized Poland within the borders of 1 on September 1939. Since even after the breakup, these relations were not Moscow’s official cancellation of that treaty. Which, we note, would be useful political and legal.

    The eastern (and western) borders of Poland were defined in Yalta and Potsdam in 1945 and RECOGNIZED BY ALL.
    This is the question and is closed.
    In short, Soviet "gifts" to Poland, paid for by many tens of thousands of lives of Soviet soldierswere Jesuit claimed Polish immigrant authorities, just as Jesuit.

    So they have already been donated, how can they be reclaimed again ... "? recourse
    Another question is WHY at such a high price to recreate your ETERNAL Polish enemy in SUCH sizes? Poland acquired from Germany at our expense as much as if it were the main winner of WWII.
    Stalin, February 6, 45 g, Yalta:
    in Russian in the past there were many sins before Poland. Soviet government seeks to make amends for these sins

    What is this? Fought for IT ?!
    1. tesser
      tesser 30 October 2019 12: 14
      +2
      Quote: Olgovich
      What is this? Fought for IT ?!

      You should not be so offended by Comrade Stalin. He was a cunning man - not a couple of the current.

      Stalin's task at that time was to ensure the presence of the liberating army as far as possible to the West as long as possible in time. Comrade Stalin did not even understand at that time what meaningless insignificance he was dealing with in the person of the leaders of the great democracies.

      Accordingly, by giving Poland "debts" at the expense of Germany, he ensured a territorial dispute much steeper than the Danzig corridor, and, accordingly, he could expect that any Polish government, not even controlled by the USSR, would insist on the presence of the Red Army in the German voivodeships in order to avoid their annexation. Germany.

      In February 45, Stalin did not know anything about the GDR, the countries of people's democracy, and his other future successes. He seriously feared that former enemies and former friends would arrange a new Vienna Congress as soon as possible, at which the liberators would be put out the door. I must admit that many friends with whom Comrade. Stalin spoke directly - to Churchill, Harriman, Dean - it was this idea that seemed right, which not even all of them were hiding. Stalin did everything to prevent such a development of events.
      1. Olgovich
        Olgovich 30 October 2019 12: 34
        0
        Quote: tesser
        Accordingly, by giving Poland "debts" at the expense of Germany, he provided territorial dispute is much coolerthan the Danzig corridor, and, accordingly, could countthat any Polish government, not even controlled by the USSR, will insist on the presence of the red army in German voivodships to avoid annexation by Germany.

        NOTHING of this happened at all.
        What .. annexation by the disarmed forever Germany?
        Quote: tesser
        In February 45th, Stalin did not know anything about the GDR, the countries of people's democracy, and his other future successes. He seriously feared that former enemies and former friends would arrange a new Vienna Congress as soon as possible, at which the liberators would be put out the door. I must admit that many friends with whom Comrade. Stalin spoke directly - to Churchill, Harriman, Dean - it was this idea that seemed right, which not even all of them were hiding. Stalin did everything to ensure such a development prevent.

        Neither "successes" have existed for a long time, and even parts of the country have been in NATO for a long time (Estonia, etc.).
        This is the result .....
        1. tesser
          tesser 30 October 2019 13: 26
          0
          Quote: Olgovich
          No "successes" have existed for a long time,

          Excuse me, is this a claim to Comrade Stalin? While he was alive - this was not.
          Quote: Olgovich
          What .. annexation from the part of Germany disarmed forever?

          This crazy plan to disarm Germany, as well as the idea of ​​complete and unconditional surrender, is Roosevelt's obsession. He could change his mind and replay any day. In reality, the Americans outplayed, but in the late 40s. Roosevelt rested to the end.
          Quote: Olgovich
          NOTHING of this happened at all.

          You stubbornly do not want to understand a simple thing. Comrade Stalin did not have an intranet; he knew what he knew at the beginning of the 45th year. At that time, there was a bridgehead on the Oder, namely a bridgehead, the territories southeast of Breslau and north of Bygdoszcz were behind the German. Comrade Stalin wanted to stake out the Oder-Neisse line one way or another, and then how it goes. The transfer of the eastern Haus to Poland (Pomerania, Brandenburg east of the Oder, Upper and Lower Silesia) solved this problem quite elegantly and reliably, even with the most bad development of relations with the Allies (well, except for direct war).
          1. Olgovich
            Olgovich 31 October 2019 09: 48
            +1
            Quote: tesser
            Excuse me, is this a claim to Comrade Stalin? Till he was alive - this was not.

            Is this the criterion ... for success (8 years)? belay
            Success is Hundred Years of Creation
            Quote: tesser
            . Comrade Stalin did not have an intranet; he knew what he knew at the beginning of the 45th year. At that time, there was a bridgehead on the Oder, namely a bridgehead, the territories southeast of Breslau and north of Bygdoszcz were behind the Germans. Comrade Stalin wanted to stake out the Oder-Neisse line one way or another, and then how it goes. The transfer of the eastern Haus to Poland (Pomerania, Brandenburg east of the Oder, Upper and Lower Silesia) solved this problem quite elegantly and reliably, even with the most bad development of relations with the Allies (well, except for direct war).

            For such "smart" calculations, one should not know HISTORY at all: Poland is the most consistent and irreconcilable the enemy of Russia for centuries.

            create a huge enemy and feed the enemy again is .. no words!
  6. Operator
    Operator 30 October 2019 12: 20
    0
    Quote: tesser
    whom and expelled from NATO

    Like Kurds from the US coalition bully
    1. tesser
      tesser 30 October 2019 13: 06
      -3
      The Kurds are still relatively lucky. Above, Comrade Stalin mentioned Dragolyub Mikhailovich, whom the American degenerates had betrayed by Tito. Shot in the 46th.
      1. tesser
        tesser 30 October 2019 13: 56
        -1
        Quote: tesser
        Dragolyub Mikhailovich, whom the American geeks betrayed by Tito.

        Guilty, slandered the Allies. They did not give out Mikhailovich specifically, he refused to leave Yugoslavia and was arrested in the 46th. Of the defendants in that process, the Americans issued only one (Dinich), one French, three Englishmen.
  7. Operator
    Operator 30 October 2019 13: 59
    +2
    Quote: tesser
    the Americans gave out only one (Dinich), one French, three British

    And then they bombed Yugoslavia in the 1999 year - which is what Poland expects bully
  8. iouris
    iouris 30 October 2019 14: 59
    +1
    In a relationship with the Jesuits, you have to be great Jesuits. Force must be opposed with great force. In general, we need a "national elite", and this elite needs to learn. study and study again.
  9. Nikolai Korovin
    Nikolai Korovin 1 November 2019 23: 15
    0
    Himmler and Goebbels polemic is curious about the possibility of inviting one of the Polish leaders to Katyn in 1943. Unfortunately, I won’t tell you who they were polemicizing specifically about - Sikorsky or Mikolajchik. I forgot. But the question was raised.
  10. Jarserge
    Jarserge 2 January 2020 16: 59
    0
    Churchill patronized the Poles only against the USSR. And so he knew very well what these gentlemen were like and more than once expressed his low opinion of them ....