Military Review

Polish ambition and ... allied honor

40

And where are the Germans?


On August 22 of 1939 of the year, just a day before the signing of the notorious Soviet-German non-aggression pact, Romania opened its border with Poland (330 km). The Polish Embassy in Bucharest was then informed by the Romanian Ministry of Foreign Affairs about the "high probability of a German military invasion of Poland, the borders of which with Germany occupy a predominant part of the Polish external borders."


The protest of the German Foreign Ministry against Romania remained unanswered. But after just three weeks, it was this border corridor that actually saved many tens of thousands of Polish military and civilians from death and captivity.

Polish ambition and ... allied honor

Polish infantry leaves for Romania, September 1939


Moreover: not only Romania, but even pro-German Hungary and even Lithuania, which did not recognize the Polish occupation of Vilnius in the 1920, and barely escaped, thanks to the Soviet Union in the 1938-m Polish occupation, provided indirect political and military assistance to Poland during the Nazi invasion. Moreover, Romania and Hungary advised Poland not to neglect Soviet military assistance. But in vain ...

The Polish-Romanian non-aggression pact of 1921, signed in Bucharest, proclaimed, among other things, the inviolability of the eastern borders of Poland and Romania. That is, their borders with the USSR and military mutual assistance during the Soviet aggression against these countries. This despite the fact that Romania since 1918, we recall, occupied Russian Bessarabia, which was not recognized either by Soviet Russia or the USSR.

And on 27 on March 1926 in Warsaw, the Polish-Romanian military convention was signed, which did not have a specific validity period. Among its provisions was Romania’s obligation to put up divisions to help the ally of 19 in the event of a Polish-Soviet war, if Germany would participate in it on the side of the USSR.

If Germany remains neutral, Romania promised to help the Poles of the entire 9 divisions. Poland in response pledged to send a minimum of 10 divisions in the event of a Romanian war with the USSR, Bulgaria or Hungary. It is characteristic that the scenario of the Polish-German war was not considered at all in the treaty.

But fearing that Hungary, allied with Germany, would invade Romania to restore the Hungarian status of Northern Transylvania (which had become Romanian since the 1921 of the year) and in view of the aggravation of the Romanian-Bulgarian contradictions over northern Dobrudja (Romanian with the 1920 of the year), Bucharest refrained from direct military assistance Poland in 1939.

Gheorghe Gafencu, Minister of Foreign Affairs of Romania in February 1939 - June 1940, in an interview with his Polish counterpart Jozef Beck in July 1939 in Bucharest, advised him "not to reject from the threshold the option of allowing Soviet troops to the Polish borders with Germany, Bohemia and pro-German Slovakia. Geographic factors are such that your country is unlikely to be able to repulse the German invasion on its own. "



In addition, according to G. Gafenkou, the military geography of Poland is such that even the introduction of Romanian troops into the country will not change the military situation in almost all of Poland. But it can also provoke Soviet aggression in Bessarabia.

Here is such a loyal Bucharest


The Polish side did not listen to the Romanian arguments. But the supplies of Romanian oil and oil products to Germany have been increasing since the spring of 1939. And by the end of August 1939, they amounted to almost 40% of the volume of German consumption of oil and oil products versus 25% in the middle of the 30-s, and the Romanian side did not raise oil prices for Germany since 1938 of the year. These supplies also increased in the future.

Thus, Bucharest demonstrated its loyalty to Berlin on the eve of the German invasion of Poland. And many Romanian media at that time noted that Berlin agreed to “deter” Moscow, Budapest and Sofia from vigorous action against Bucharest against a number of Romanian neighboring regions. If Romania does not provide assistance to Poland in case of its military conflict with Germany. Moreover, all such messages and comments in the press were not officially refuted by the Romanian authorities.

And on 27 on August 1939, the Romanian government assured Berlin in its unannounced diplomatic note that "... it seeks to go hand in hand with Germany on the Russian question." And it will remain "neutral in any conflict between Germany and Poland, even if Great Britain and France intervene in it."

But on August 28, Romania agreed to England and France to transit military materials to Poland, although these deliveries were only 40 percent of the previously agreed volumes and schedule. In addition, they seemed hopelessly late. By mid-September, starting on 31 of August, they had completely ceased due to the occupation of Poland.


Marshal Rydz-Smigly was not the best heir to Pan Pilsudski


Meanwhile, the Polish commander-in-chief, Marshal E. Rydz-Smigly, announced on September 17 the order “... The Soviets also invaded. I order the withdrawal to Romania and Hungary by the shortest routes. We shall not conduct combat operations with the Soviets, only if they attempt to disarm our units. The task for Warsaw and Modlin (the citadel north of Warsaw. - Ed.), Which should be protected from the Germans, is unchanged. The units to which the Soviets approached should negotiate with them with a view to withdrawing units and garrisons to Romania or Hungary. The units that covered the Romanian platform (the southeastern border of Poland. - Ed.) Should continue the resistance. "

16 -21 September 1939, contrary to German protests, at least 85 thousand Poles, including the government and military officials, crossed the Romanian border. The Polish state gold reserve in 80 tons was also evacuated. Already on September 19, 77 tons were delivered to the Romanian port of Constanta and from there it was transported to Southern France (Angers).

Then, in May 1940, this gold was transported to London. And three tons of the Polish gold reserves remained in Romania for the expenses of maintaining the Poles and their "redirection" to other countries. Moreover, Romania returned these three tons to socialist Poland already in 1948 without any compensation whatsoever. Indirect Romanian assistance to Poland was expressed in the autumn of 1939 in the fact that Romania exchanged Polish zlotys for local lei at a rate very favorable for the Poles.

But already on 21 of September, the then Romanian Prime Minister A. Kelinescu was destroyed by German intelligence ...

Lithuania chooses neutrality


As for the position of Lithuania at that time, it was similar to the Romanian one. She declared neutrality on 1 of September, and on August 30, the Lithuanian Ministry of Defense assured Warsaw that Lithuanian troops would not enter the Vilnius region (only about 16 thousand sq. Km), which included, we recall, the Braslavsky border with Lithuania and Latvia, if the Polish troops there redirected to the front with Germany. But Berlin abstained in protest, believing that Lithuania would succumb to the temptation to regain Vilnius.



The German Ambassador to Lithuania R. Tsekhlin on September 9 invited General S. Rastikis, Commander of the Lithuanian Army, to send troops to Poland to occupy Vilna. In response, Rastikis said that "... Lithuania has always been interested in the return of Vilna and Vilnius, but, having declared its neutrality, it cannot openly put forward this proposal, fearing a negative reaction from both the Western powers and the USSR."

In the meantime, Polish troops from there were transported to Warsaw and the nearby Modlin Citadel in the first week of September. Which extended the Polish resistance in Warsaw and Moldina until the end of September.

In this connection, the report of the Chargé d'Affaires of the USSR in Lithuania N. Pozdnyakov from September 13 to Moscow: "... German representatives in Lithuania in every way inspire the Lithuanian government with the idea of ​​the need to seize the opportunity and return Mr. Vilna, captured in 1920, Poland. But the Lithuanian authorities have so far refused. "

On the same day, Major I. Korotkikh, USSR military attaché in Kaunas, informed Moscow that "... the ruling circles of Lithuania, including the military, are not tempted to join Vilna, although this could be easily done now. According to the head of 2 "of the General Staff of the Lithuanian Army Colonel Dulksnis, the Lithuanians do not want to get Vilno from the hands of the Germans. Another thing, he said, if the Soviet Union was involved here."

So, in fact, what happened to Vilenshchina in mid-October on the 1939.

Hungarian Rhapsody Not Sounded in Warsaw


As for Hungary, its authorities, although pro-German, were not predisposed to the defeat of Poland and, accordingly, to German domination in Eastern Europe. Having received in 1938-39 years. “out of the hands” of Berlin, the former Czechoslovak Transcarpathia and many areas of the Slovak border with Hungary, in Budapest set out to play their game in the region.

In the spring of the 1939, Hungary received, thanks to Transcarpathia, a border with Poland with a length of 180 km. And the Polish authorities in 1938-39 years more than once offered Budapest mediation in the settlement of the Transylvanian dispute with Romania.



As Matthias Rakosi, who became the head of Hungary in 1947, later noted in his memoirs, “Budapest and Bucharest agreed to such mediation shortly after the German occupation of Czechoslovakia in March 1939. But subsequent events in Eastern Europe led to the fact that there were only two "a round of mediation consultations in Poland. For Berlin was increasingly hindering Hungary's independent foreign policy."

Most clearly and concisely about the problems of Berlin with Budapest it is said in the well-known German Weiss plan, approved by Hitler as early as 11 of April 1939: "... The German side cannot count on Hungary as an unconditional ally."

As for the then Hungarian appraisal of Warsaw’s policies towards Berlin and Moscow, “Poland, with her narcissistic recklessness, signed a sentence much earlier than September 1 of 1939. Geographically, it could not repulse the German invasion without assistance from the USSR, ”said the Hungarian Prime Minister (February 1939 - March 1941) Pal Teleki de Seki.


Premier Teleki - one of those who did not like to bend "under the Germans"


“But Warsaw, according to his caustic remark, preferred suicide, and the USSR could not allow the Wehrmacht to go to large Soviet cities near the Polish-Soviet border. Therefore, the Soviet-German pact was inevitable. He wouldn’t be there if Warsaw took into account the real plans, actions of the Nazis and the neighborhood with the USSR, which was not interested in German aggression near its borders. ”

In keeping with this completely understandable political logic, the Hungarian authorities on 7 of September refused to transit to the border with Poland and Slovakia two (as a whole) Wehrmacht divisions. This fact was taken into account in the aforementioned order of Marshal Rydz-Smigly on 17 of September - "... I order the withdrawal to Romania and Hungary by the shortest routes"

At the same time, just through Hungary, despite all the protests of Berlin, they crossed to Romania and Yugoslavia in mid-September, up to 25 thousand Polish military and civilians. In other words, a truly manic Polish ambition led, perhaps, only to the "evacuation" of Poland in 1939. In the literal and figurative sense ...
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  1. Same lech
    Same lech 26 August 2019 04: 04
    +12
    Thank you Alexey for the article ... very informative. hihow many more skeletons are stored in this European viper ... very interesting.
  2. Borz
    Borz 26 August 2019 04: 49
    +26
    How many times the Poles "shot themselves in the foot" ...... Everything is logical and historically correct. What has always prevented Poles from living in peace with their neighbors? Greater Poland ambition, unconfirmed high conceit, arrogance and arrogance. Oh yes! More envy and aggression. As soon as there was any nimble in the direction of Russia, the Poles were the first to send troops in the hope of a big jackpot. For which they paid by the repeated division of the country, the loss of statehood.
    1. Pedrodepackes
      Pedrodepackes 26 August 2019 11: 18
      +9
      Quote: Borz
      How many times have the Poles "shot themselves in the foot"

      yes, judging by the article, they shot themselves in the brain. All countries, even pro-German-minded and suffering from Poland's territorial ambitions, warned her, the same USSR offered help, but as our foreman said, “It's like a wall of peas.” What did you expect?
      1. Borz
        Borz 26 August 2019 11: 26
        +7
        Apparently, they counted on the support of England and France, with whose consent they allowed themselves to show off or on the Great Polish gentry valor (as they themselves understand it). With sabers to rush into tanks, of course courage is needed, but do it when the government and generals fled ?! Why ?! A competent retreat is not a shame, but a maneuver.
        1. Pedrodepackes
          Pedrodepackes 26 August 2019 11: 39
          +2
          Quote: Borz
          Apparently, they counted on the support of England and France.

          who were "on the other side" and had a reputation of "peacekeepers" at the expense of foreign lands. But the Poles were all warned that their geographical position was not conducive to the long-term defense of Poland.
          Quote: Borz
          A competent retreat is not a shame, but a maneuver.

          Yes, there was nowhere to retreat, except to flee to Hungary and Romania
          1. Plate
            Plate 27 August 2019 08: 26
            -1
            And can you describe in more detail why the geography of Poland did not contribute to a long defense? I mean, if only the German army acted throughout the conflict.
            1. Pedrodepackes
              Pedrodepackes 27 August 2019 12: 09
              0
              Quote: Plate
              And can you describe in more detail why the geography of Poland did not contribute to a long defense?
              From the article:
              As for the then Hungarian appraisal of Warsaw’s policies towards Berlin and Moscow, “Poland, with her narcissistic recklessness, signed a sentence much earlier than September 1 of 1939. Geographically, it could not repulse the German invasion without assistance from the USSR, ”said the Hungarian Prime Minister (February 1939 - March 1941) Pal Teleki de Seki.

              And from yourself, you look at the map of 1939 and evaluate for yourself, an arc, slightly dissected by the Danzig corridor.
    2. Nikolaevich I
      Nikolaevich I 27 August 2019 00: 26
      +1
      Quote: Borz
      How many times have the Poles "shot themselves in the foot"

      Yes, it looks like the "now" Poles are ready to shoot themselves in the head! These are they "super. Masochists" ... "to shoot in the leg" they are already "tired"!
  3. polpot
    polpot 26 August 2019 05: 10
    +8
    Thank you, a good article, the Honor Hyena doesn’t teach anything.
  4. svp67
    svp67 26 August 2019 05: 17
    +7
    M, yes ... the main thing is that now the "Russians" are to blame for this defeat. And of course, the logic of inviting and not inviting guests to events marking the 80th anniversary of the outbreak of war is something ... To invite Germany and today's Ukraine, which supports the ideas of Bandera and Shukhevych, is the height of cynicism.
    1. Borz
      Borz 26 August 2019 06: 17
      +7
      All of the above is an explanation of Russophobia. Give Russia to the Poles (hypothetically, of course) half of its land, and then the "noble gentry" will yelp and screech about historical injustice. For this is the mentality.
  5. Amateur
    Amateur 26 August 2019 06: 58
    +3

    Neville Chamberlain, 1938
    That's who provoked 2MB
    1. Alexey RA
      Alexey RA 26 August 2019 11: 24
      +1
      Quote: Amateur
      Neville Chamberlain, 1938
      That's who provoked 2MB

      Come on. By the time Chamberlain came to power, war was already inevitable. And the main task of the "peacemaker" was to buy at least a little time for his country and its armed forces to correct the consequences of twenty years of peace.
      In fact, in 1938 there was nothing to fight with the Reich on land and in the air of Britain. Yes, the Germans were desperately bluffing, inflating the Wehrmacht bubble and the Luftwaffe. But this bluff was a success only because the Allies were no better off.
      1. Den717
        Den717 26 August 2019 17: 06
        +5
        Quote: Alexey RA
        In fact, in 1938 there was nothing to fight with the Reich on land and in the air of Britain.

        Nevertheless, in 1936, Hitler, while occupying the Rhine region, was desperately afraid of the reaction of France. Hitler later said: “48 hours after the march to the Rhine region were the most exhausting in my life. If the French entered the Rhine region, we would have to retreat with their tails tightened. The military resources at our disposal were inadequate even for moderate resistance. ” And France in the 30s in foreign policy was in the wake of London. And in 1938 they had a real opportunity to stop Germany. But they did not have this goal. In fact, they + Poland are the arsonists of the Second World War. Although in my opinion, she (WWII) in 1938 was already on.
        1. Alexey RA
          Alexey RA 27 August 2019 16: 05
          +1
          Quote: Den717
          And France in the 30s in foreign policy was in the wake of London. And in 1938 they had a real opportunity to stop Germany.

          C'mon, after the remilitarization of the Rhine region in 1936, everything was clear with France - the Republic would not fight until it was directly attacked. Yes, he cheeks, he threatens to hit the table with his fist - and that’s all.
          The guarantors of Versailles let the Germans get away with violating all the articles of the Treaty of Versailles - who after that would take them seriously?
          Moreover, if they were preparing the Reich for a campaign to the East, as Soviet propaganda asserted about this, then such a disregard could still be understood. But after all, the same Britain managed to sign a fleet agreement with the Germans, which allowed the Kriegsmarine to have submarines! The very boats that set up terror on the sea lanes of the Island Empire in the last war, which were categorically prohibited for Germany by the Treaty of Versailles - and which against the USSR would be absolutely useless.
          1. Den717
            Den717 27 August 2019 16: 12
            +2
            Quote: Alexey RA
            The guarantors of Versailles let the Germans get away with violating all the articles of the Treaty of Versailles - who after that would take them seriously?

            We are all so smart today. And the Poles in the spring of 1939 fell for the guarantees of England. Hoping that the "gentlemen" will not throw ...
  6. knn54
    knn54 26 August 2019 08: 27
    0
    So the result-ambition led to the Second World War.
  7. bubalik
    bubalik 26 August 2019 08: 48
    +3
    ,,, maybe someone will be interested feel




    1. bubalik
      bubalik 26 August 2019 13: 07
      0

      Reichstag meeting 1 September 1939


      Negotiations on the transfer of the capital to German troops. 8 miles from Warsaw.


      March of the troops before the Fuhrer. Warsaw.
  8. Blacksmith 55
    Blacksmith 55 26 August 2019 09: 14
    +8
    Today, a message has slipped that Poland is demanding from Germany for the occupation of nearly a billion euros. And this despite the fact that they received vast territories after the war.
    Stalin made a mistake by insisting on this. After all, as far as I know, the British were against it.
    Appetite comes with eating, they are insatiable.
  9. Olgovich
    Olgovich 26 August 2019 09: 30
    +10
    the Wehrmacht could not allow the Wehrmacht to reach large Soviet cities near the Polish-Soviet border.

    Quite right, the Hungarian said.
    The same thing was stated by W. Churchill. And France. Poland did not declare war on the USSR.
    Those. the whole world then accepted the correct position of the USSR.

    And only TODAY the West is talking about .... the equivalence of the invasion of Germany and the USSR in 1939. Bastards ....
  10. Operator
    Operator 26 August 2019 10: 12
    +4
    In September 1939, the USSR liberated Western Belarus and Western Ukraine from Polish occupation.

    In 1945, according to the decision of the WWII winners, Poland included the historical Polish lands and the western part of Porus - the historical land of the Rus. The latter was a mistake.
    1. Pedrodepackes
      Pedrodepackes 26 August 2019 11: 20
      +1
      Quote: Operator
      Poland included historical Polish lands and the western part of Porus - the historical land of the Rus. The latter was a mistake.

      They wouldn’t give it to the Poles, would attach it to Ukraine, at present there is no difference.
  11. Vol4ara
    Vol4ara 26 August 2019 13: 07
    +1
    Quote: Borz
    Apparently, they counted on the support of England and France, with whose consent they allowed themselves to show off

    Something it reminds me of :)
  12. Alex 1970
    Alex 1970 26 August 2019 16: 05
    0
    I read it with interest, I did not know much. Especially about Romania, but the Poles, as always, frostbite my ears to spite my grandmother, but we will not accept help from the Russians. How will savages save us? It is not possible.
  13. Unknown
    Unknown 26 August 2019 17: 26
    +2
    interesting article. as they say century live century learn about the position of Romania it was interesting to know. look how the Romanians sang with the Polish gentry. and everything on the basis of Russophobia is anti-Soviet. in principle, now the same situation with one difference is no USSR and no I.V. STALIN who took the slightest opportunity to quarrel the so-called ,, allies, ”for the safety of the union.
  14. Edward Vashchenko
    Edward Vashchenko 26 August 2019 18: 44
    +1
    Thank you for the article!
  15. Artashes
    Artashes 26 August 2019 18: 48
    +1
    Exactly ! But it is strange that the Russian officers. structures and do not talk about it ... Ahead of time "tolerance" to please the West and Polish arrogance. Maybe it's connected (most likely) with Nord Stream-2, with other nuances. But from such indirect cowardice, TEs become more impudent.
  16. fuxila
    fuxila 27 August 2019 02: 34
    +1
    An informative article, just a small mistake - the Romanian-Bulgarian contradictions arose not because of the North, but because of the South Dobrudja, which was occupied by Romania in 1913 (during the Second Balkan War). In 1940, Romania was forced to return these lands to Bulgaria.
  17. Angelica
    Angelica 27 August 2019 04: 03
    +2
    The historical "adventures" of Poland will end only with the elimination of this Russophobic MISCENSE.
    1. Doctorleg
      Doctorleg 27 August 2019 09: 51
      -3
      Is it worth wondering about Russophobian sentiments in Poland, if a sufficiently large part of our population considers Poland a misunderstanding? You yourself think. By the way, I myself did not encounter Russophobia in Poland. But with a negative attitude to Putin and Russian politics - yes. But do not confuse these 2 concepts.
      1. Angelica
        Angelica 27 August 2019 10: 43
        -1
        Is it worth wondering about Russophobian sentiments in Poland, if a sufficiently large part of our population considers Poland a misunderstanding? You are what you think.

        No need to turn upside down.
        This is not about every single Pole "white" and "fluffy", but about the country and its foreign policy as a whole. And it is not Russia that is pursuing an anti-Polish policy, but an anti-Russian one.
        Moreover, it has already become a historical tradition for Poland.
        And so many of my compatriots rightly consider Poland a hostile entity.
        So why do we need such a neighbor? They usually try to get rid of such a neighbor.
      2. ccsr
        ccsr 27 August 2019 12: 14
        +1
        Quote: DoctorOleg
        By the way, I myself did not encounter Russophobia in Poland. But with a negative attitude to Putin and Russian politics - yes.

        And on the eve of World War II Russophobia was not? Or did they feel better about the USSR?
        Study the opinion of a specialist and a historian about the actions of Poland on the eve of the Great Patriotic War - maybe then you will find out what is the negative attitude of the Poles towards us, when even the threat of occupation by the Germans did not force them to go on the proposals of France and the USSR (in the second part of the film more about this)

        https://russia.tv/video/show/brand_id/60650/episode_id/2179623/video_id/2194656/?utm_referrer=https%3A%2F%2Fzen.yandex.com
  18. gorenina91
    gorenina91 27 August 2019 06: 11
    -1
    It is not clear ...- why was the Polish army then so quickly defeated and capitulated ..? -Then the Polish army was strong enough and quite comparable with the German ... -Well, it was inferior to the German in armored vehicles, but it had good artillery; well-trained maneuverable cavalry; aviation was also there; and armored vehicles were also ... -And the Polish army itself was well armed ...
    -If the Poles then fought against the German, as the Finns (and the Finnish army was much weaker and much worse armed than the Polish) fought against the regular Red Army in 1939-1940, then the Germans would have turned out to be a complete bummer in Poland .. .
    1. Doctorleg
      Doctorleg 27 August 2019 09: 48
      -2
      Therefore, why did we fail in the summer of 1941. Our armed forces were also comparable, if not more. And the territory that the Germans occupied in the first months of the war was no less than the whole of Poland.
      Well, as for the fact that Poland refused to help the USSR, then horseradish radish is not sweeter. This was proved later with the Baltic states. After the introduction of Soviet troops, they ceased to be independent, and then simply states.
      1. gorenina91
        gorenina91 27 August 2019 10: 43
        +2
        -Yes, no ...- these are two big differences ...
        -When Germany attacked Poland, then it had neither such military experience nor such military power, it had not yet been so mobilized ... as in 1941 ...
        -And if "that Hitlerite army" that attacked Poland "clashed" with the Red Army .., then the Red Army would "pile" on it ...
        -But the Red Army already had to fight the Nazi army, which easily defeated France and the allied British troops ... -By then, the German army was already
        mobilized, numerous, well trained and armed to the teeth ... with rich combat experience ...
        -And when she fought with the Poles, the Germans did not yet have such powerful resources; in the Polish campaign, the Germans used up all the bombs (in the end there was nothing to bomb); and the German tank forces were not yet so mobile ...- But two years later the Hitler army gained quite a different power and relied on the entire economic and technical potential of the whole of Western Europe ...
        1. Doctorleg
          Doctorleg 27 August 2019 16: 47
          -1
          By 1941, we also became stronger. And new tanks and new planes appeared. And some kind of combat experience appeared- Finland, Japan. Yes, not France, but still. And again, less than a year passed between Poland and France - and the result is the same - complete defeat
          1. IL-18
            IL-18 31 August 2019 23: 12
            0
            At the time of the invasion of France, Germany had been at war for nine months. With the appropriate preparations and plans. And threw into battle everything at hand. The USSR, in turn, was already at war with Europe mobilized against itself; a large territory was not only a plus, but also a problem. It is necessary to guard around the entire perimeter, there were less than 40 (!) Divisions against the Far East against Japan, distances for the transfer of troops, air defense and coastal defense at different ends of the country, protection of long-distance communications, etc. Somewhere analytics met, it was estimated that in order to set up a grouping comparable in size and security against the Germans, we needed at least another 24 days, despite the fact that the transfer of troops to the western border had already taken place before June 22. And much more.
  19. Roster
    Roster 16 October 2020 18: 00
    0
    A very interesting topic about which little is written in our sources. Respect to the author. I would also like the Poles not to forget about the Holocaust of Jews on their territory during World War II, in which they actively participated, about the final expulsion of Jews from Poland in 1968. They apologized for the expulsion twenty years later, but for the Holocaust?
    1. Roster
      Roster 16 October 2020 18: 14
      0
      I have no doubt the Russians would have been treated like Jews if we had not held out.