Helicopter carrier (part of the Japanese Maritime Self-Defense Force) (DDH 183 Izumo, official helicopter destroyer squadron). Largest warship built in Japan after World War II
Hence the activity of Japan on the issue of "northern territories". Obviously, Japan will not stop at the Kuril Islands. Tokyo is setting the stage for a new intervention in the Far East. Russians should look in the eyes of the Japanese as "aggressors", invaders of the "original" Japanese territories. In recent years, the Japanese have been actively building up the shock capabilities of their armed forces - at sea, air and land. Marines were created, aircraft carrier strike groups and military-space forces were formed. In fact, Japan abandoned the concept of defense and creates a full-fledged armed forces (previously their development was limited), capable of offensive actions, including the landing of naval assault forces. NATO creates the infrastructure for intervention in Russia in the western direction, Japan - in the eastern direction. Moscow’s western and eastern “partners” are waiting for the moment of a new “turmoil” in Russia, when it will be possible to start sharing the skins of the Russian bear.
Japanese expansion in the Far East. Milestones
Russian-Japanese War 1904 — 1905 culminated in a severe political defeat of the Russian Empire in the Far East. Russia was inferior to Japan South Sakhalin. The sphere of influence of Japan departed Korea and South Manchuria. The Japanese received all the ships that surrendered, and raised in Port Arthur and other places. Russia paid 46 million rubles in gold for “keeping prisoners in Japan”, essentially a contribution.
The Japanese Empire did not stop there. After the 1917 revolution, when the Russian Empire collapsed and unrest began in Russia, the Japanese Empire again set its sights on the Russian Far East. The moment was extremely favorable. Russia at that moment could not protect its lands at all. The initiators of the invasion were the United States, England and France. The West and Japan began the intervention to dismember Russia into puppet bantustans, capture strategic cities, districts, wealth and resources of the country. The Japanese authorities recognized the power of the “supreme ruler” Kolchak, but in fact they supported the “independent” atamans Semenov and Kalmykov in the Far East. The Japanese planned to create puppet state formations that were completely politically, militarily and economically dependent on the Japanese Empire.
The Red Army defeated Kolchak, Semenov and other white formations in Siberia and the Far East. Japan’s plans to colonize the Russian Far East collapsed. 25 October 1922, the Japanese fleet, stationed in the Golden Horn Bay, with the last expeditionary forces on board, lifted anchors and began to go to sea. On the same day, red troops entered Vladivostok without a fight. The Japanese remained only in Northern Sakhalin, from where they left only in May 1925.
In the 1930 years, Japan resumed active expansion in the Far East. The Japanese elite had long planned the occupation of Manchuria. The Japanese Empire needed markets and sources of raw materials, a strategic bridgehead on the continent. Island Japan needed a “living space” for development. The Japanese elite believed that it should rightfully belong to the Asia-Pacific region. Back in the 20 years in Japan, the concept of Japanese dominance in the Pacific and Asia was adopted (the so-called "eight corners under one roof"). " The idea of “Great Japan” was introduced into the masses, where the territories of the Russian Far East and Siberia down to the Urals were added to the lands of the empire.
In 1931, the Japanese invaded Manchuria. In 1932, the puppet state of Manzhou-go was created. The Japanese made the last Qing Emperor Pu I. its head. The real power in Manzhou belongs to the Japanese. They invested large capital in the region. Manchuria was turned into the second industrial and agricultural center of the Japanese Empire and a strategic bridgehead for further expansion directed against China, Mongolia and the USSR.
It is worth noting that England and the United States, as during the First Russian-Japanese War, in the 1920 – 1930 years continued the policy of inciting Japan to Russia. The West tried to turn Japan into its "battering ram" for the subjugation and plunder of Chinese and Russian civilizations. Whereas in the West Hitler was raised against the Soviet (Russian) civilization and created the Third Reich, giving him almost all of Europe, in the East Japan was the "club" of England and the USA. For the time being, the Japanese elite followed this strategy, it was beneficial to it. Japan received technology, strategic materials and loans. But Japan was preparing to "liberate" all of Asia from the "white barbarians" (including the British and Americans).
Until the early 1930s, Moscow pursued a very flexible and cautious policy in the Far East, trying to avoid a war with Japan. In particular, the Soviet Union was forced to cede Japan to the CER. After the Japanese occupation of Manchuria, it was obvious that the railway could not be restrained. Soviet diplomats resisted as best they could, dragging on time, but in March 1935, Moscow ceded to Manzhou all rights to the CER for 140 million yen, that is, at a symbolic cost (the road cost much more). At the same time, since 1931, Moscow has begun rapidly restoring the defense capabilities of the Far East. Until that time, the USSR did not have in the Pacific fleet and fortifications.
In 1937, Japan launched a massive invasion of China. In fact, this was the beginning of World War II in Asia. The bloody war continued until 1945, when Japan was defeated under the blows of the USSR and the USA. Japanese troops occupied a significant part of China, millions of Chinese were killed. Celestial Empire suffered huge material and cultural losses.
Japanese interventionists in Vladivostok. 1918
Japanese interventionists from the corpses of the railway workers shot by them. Far East. 1920
Hassan. Khalkhin Gol
Since 1936, the Japanese began to organize serious provocations on the Soviet border. In 1936 — 1937 the Japanese tried to capture the islands on the Amur River. On the one hand, it was a test of strength, on the other, the capture of the islands made it possible to interrupt shipping on the Amur. In May-June of 1938, the Japanese militarists launched a wide propaganda campaign around the so-called disputed territories on the border between Manchuria and Soviet Primorye. In July – August 1938, Japanese forces tried to advance in the area of Lake Hassan, but were defeated.
Along with plans for expansion in Soviet Primorye, the Japanese military and political elite prepared plans for the occupation of Outer Mongolia - the Mongolian People's Republic (MPR). Despite the obvious readiness of the USSR to defend the MPR with military force, the Japanese militarists began aggression. The Japanese command chose the area near the Khalkhin Gol River as the place for invasion. Since January 1939, provocations began in the Khalkhin Gol area. 11 May 1939 g. The Japanese launched an invasion. Active battles continued until mid-September 1939. As a result, the Japanese were defeated in the sky and on land.
Japan appealed to the USSR for a truce. 16 September 1939 g. Hostilities were discontinued. The Japanese military-political elite was forced to press the "brake" and retreat. This was due to two factors. First, Moscow showed a steel position, backed up by the power of the Red Army. Soviet troops crushed the 6-th Japanese army. This made a big impression on the Japanese. Secondly, Tokyo’s position was connected with the Soviet-German non-aggression pact of 23 on August 1939. Tokyo was very surprised by this agreement, as they were waiting for the Germans to attack the Russians soon. As a result, supporters of the “southern strike” prevailed in Japan, expansion to the south, the war with the USSR was postponed indefinitely. And Moscow received almost two years of respite and could strengthen its forces in the Far East.
We defeated the Japanese samurai! September 1939
The issue of "northern territories"
During World War II, Japan remained neutral, although it was ready to start a war with the USSR if the Germans took Moscow in 1941 and won the Volga and the Caucasus in 1942. Throughout the war, the situation in the Far East was tense. The Kwantung army still threatened the USSR, provocations occurred on the border. 9 August 1945 g. The Union, fulfilling its obligations to the Allies in the anti-Hitler coalition, began a war with the Japanese Empire. The Red Army defeated Japanese troops in Manchuria, liberated Northeast China, Korea, South Sakhalin and the Kuril Islands. Japan, having lost the opportunity to continue the war, capitulated.
USSR performance was due to two leading reasons. Firstly, these are national interests. Russia was supposed to regain the position in the Far East, lost as a result of the peace in Portsmouth in 1905. Secondly, the war was inevitable due to the confrontation between the USSR and the West, the forerunners of which began during the war with the Third Reich. If the USSR had not entered the war with Japan, then the Western coalition led by the United States would still have finished off Japan (by about 1947). During this time, the Americans strengthened their alliance with the Chiang Kai-shek regime in China, the Chinese Communists were defeated. The USSR received huge China allied to the Americans. Hostile Chinese armies supported by the western weapons and technology. The Americans would create bases in North China, Korea, Sakhalin and the Kuril Islands, not counting the "Japanese aircraft carrier."
Thus, having entered the war with Japan, the Stalinist USSR took historic revenge for the 1904-1905 war, returned the lost territories, secured and strengthened its borders in the Far East, and got the opportunity for the Pacific Fleet to freely enter the ocean. In the near future, our allies will be a huge communist China (in fact, it was the war of the USSR against Japan that led to the appearance of communist China) and North Korea. That is, we secured the Russian Far East (right up to the collapse of the USSR). Only interested politicians or complete fools can consider the Manchu operation of the Soviet troops in August 1945 as aggression and a violation of the Soviet-Japanese treaty of neutrality.
In the first years after the end of the war, Japan had neither a peace treaty nor diplomatic relations with the Soviet Union. Under the 1951 San Francisco Peace Treaty, Japan renounced any claim to Sakhalin and the Kuril Islands. However, the agreement did not determine the ownership of the islands. And Moscow, including for this reason, did not sign it. At the same time, both sides were interested in the development of trade, mutually beneficial economic, cooperation, joint solution of maritime security problems, etc.
Consultations on normalizing relations began in 1954 — 1955. Obviously, it was connected with the death of Stalin and the “perestroika-1” that Khrushchev began. Tokyo decided it was time to make territorial claims. In 1956, Japan raised the question of the return of "historical lands" to Japan - the Shikotan, Habomai, Iturup and Kunashir islands occupied by Soviet troops in 1945. In October 1956 in Moscow, negotiations were held between the head of the Japanese government Itiro Hatoyama and Khrushchev and Bulganin. Moscow's strategic goal was the withdrawal of American troops and the elimination of their bases in Japan. For this, Khrushchev was ready for serious concessions. The USSR agreed to accept Japan as a member of the UN, where we had a veto in the Security Council. Moscow rejected all reparation claims against Japan. Khrushchev also promised to transfer the South Kuril Islands to Japan. That is, it was the intention to complete the transaction, and not the obligation to give the islands to Japan.
However, the Japanese could not expel the Americans from their territory. The Japanese government in January 1960 signed a new "security agreement" with the United States for a period of 10 years. In response, Moscow sent a memo to Tokyo, which noted the actual "occupation" by the Americans of Japan, the granting of its territory to the United States, that is, the actual military, economic and political dependence of the country. The Soviet government stated that only with the withdrawal of US troops from Japanese territory and the signing of a peace treaty between the USSR and Japan, the islands of Habomai and Shikotan would be transferred to Japan, as provided for in the joint USSR and Japan Declaration of October 19 on 1956 of October.
After that, the Japanese government not only did not stop making claims, but also announced new "original Japanese territories." In 1967, in Japan, the special term “northern territories” was introduced to designate territorial claims against Russia. Later, the Ministry of Northern Territory was even established. The content of the term “northern territories” is interpreted differently. In the “narrow sense” - Kunashir, Iturup, Shikotan and Khabomai, in the “broad” - all the Kuril Islands and South Sakhalin with adjacent islands. And Japanese nationalists consider Northern Sakhalin, Kamchatka, Primorye and Amur to be “their” territories. That is, under favorable conditions, Japan may return to the expansion plans of the 1918 and 1930 models.
As a result, this question exists to this day. The modern Russian Federation has expressed its readiness to return to the USSR Declaration of 1956, but on approximately the same conditions - the signing of a peace treaty and Tokyo’s commitment not to allow the islands to be used for US military bases. In Japan, this raised new hopes for the return of the "northern territories."
Lieutenant General K.N. Derevyanko on behalf of the USSR signs the Act of Japan's surrender aboard the American battleship Missouri. 2 September 1945
"Japanese aircraft carrier" USA. Preparing to resolve the issue of "northern territories"
After surrender, Japan, unlike Germany, began to be solely controlled by the Americans. The United States has turned Japan into its unsinkable aircraft carrier in the Pacific Ocean and has maintained bases there to this day. The United States also helped create the global Japanese “factory” (and later the Chinese one), making Japan one of the leading global economies. That is, Japan has created scientific, technological and industrial potential for the rapid construction of first-class armed forces.
Under the 1947 Constitution of the year, the Japanese people “forever” refused war as the sovereign right of the nation, as well as the threat or use of armed force to resolve international disputes. Therefore, Japan refused to create land, naval and air forces, and other means of war. However, the United States still required a "Japanese club" in the Far East, directed against the USSR and China, although now it is under the complete control of America. Therefore, already in the 40 years, the Americans allowed "police units." In 1950, an additional police corps was formed, consisting of 75 thousand people, which became the nucleus of the future Japanese army. On 1951 of the year, a military alliance agreement was signed between Japan and the United States in San Francisco. In Japan, propaganda against the "communist aggressor" is permitted (as if the Russians had occupied Japan!). During the Korean War, Japan became the strategic base and rear base of the United States. In 1952, Japan established the National Security Forces; in 1954, it was reorganized into the Self-Defense Forces of Japan. So the de facto regular army was recreated. Self-defense forces have been consistently developed, with the restoration of the Air Force and Navy.
Currently, Japan has almost completely abandoned military restrictions. The country has one of the largest military budgets in the world, its armed forces are one of the most powerful and modern on the planet. Helicopter carriers (actually light aircraft carriers), destroyers with guided missile weapons, landing ships, attack aircraft and drones receive the armed forces, and modern air defense missile defense systems have been created and are constantly being strengthened. In the United States, airborne early warning (AWACS) and E-2D control aircraft are being bought. There are plans for the purchase of vertical takeoff and landing fighters (for “helicopter carriers”). Means of electronic war are being developed, marines have been created, and a military-space unit is being formed.
In Japan, as in the West, they are actively reviewing the period of World War II and its results. The USSR is already considered as an "aggressor." It is now reported that Japan in 1939 launched a “preemptive strike” to prevent a “forthcoming Soviet invasion” of Manzhou-go. Whereas in the West the myth of the "Hitler's preventive strike" on the USSR is being promoted in order to "save" Europe from the Stalinist occupation, in Japan the myth of "Russian aggression" is being promoted. Like, the command of the Kwantung Army only sought to ensure the safety of the railway being built in the west of Manchuria in the direction of the MPR, but the "Soviet aggressors and their Mongolian satellites" did not allow these peace plans to be realized. Both Japan and Manzhou-go had to "defend themselves." Moreover, some Japanese researchers report that it was Mongolia, under pressure from Moscow, that sent troops into Manchuria, which provoked a conflict. And during the Great Patriotic War, Japan allegedly strictly abided by the terms of the Soviet-Japanese neutrality pact of April 13 1941, which was "treacherously violated by the USSR" in August 1945.
These myths are part of a large-scale campaign to revise the outcome of World War II, which is conducted in Japan and the West. USSR (Russia) put up as "aggressor"which, at least, is no less guilty at the beginning of the World War than Hitler Germany. Under this pretext, we can rewrite the political results of the war. Demand compensation from Russia for material damage and “return of the occupied territories”, including the Kuril Islands, Kaliningrad or Vyborg.
Thus, in addition to propaganda treatment of the population and diplomatic demarches towards Moscow (when members of the government visit the Kuril Islands or military exercises take place there, the Japanese elite no longer excludes the forceful scenario of the return of the "northern territories". Japan already has advanced armed forces, a powerful fleet that surpasses the Pacific Fleet in conventional armaments (it was hardly updated after the collapse of the USSR). If NATO creates the infrastructure for intervention in Russia in the western direction, then Japan - in the eastern direction. The informational "ground" for the new division of Russia is already ready. The USSR and Russia are considered as "aggressors" who illegally occupied the "northern territories" of Japan. Preparations are underway for a new intervention, when “perestroika” begins in Russia in a liberal fashion. And the Kuril Islands is only the first goal.