Military Review

Polish predator. Why Moscow saw a threat in Warsaw on the eve of World War II

33
Poland was considered by the Soviet military as one of the main threats to the USSR before World War II, unique declassified archival materials published by the Russian Defense Ministry report this.


Polish predator. Why Moscow saw a threat in Warsaw on the eve of World War II

A column of Polish artillerymen with 105-mm Schneider cannons of the 1913 model of the year makes a march along a country road. 1939


Ministry of Defense on its website has opened The new multimedia portal “Fragile Peace on the Threshold of War”, which is dedicated to the situation on the threshold and the initial period of the Second World War. Among the documents made public is a memo from the chief of the General Staff of the Red Army Boris Shaposhnikov to the People’s Commissar of Defense of the USSR, Kliment Voroshilov, dated March 24 1938. The document notes the threat of the possibility of war on the Western Front against Germany and Poland, as well as Italy, with the possible accession of the Limitrophs (Finland, Estonia, Latvia and Romania). In the East, there was a threat from Japan.

Shaposhnikov report


The chief of the General Staff of the Red Army, Shaposhnikov, noted that the emerging political situation in Europe and the Far East "as the most likely opponents of the USSR puts forward the fascist bloc - Germany, Italy, supported by Japan and Poland." These countries set their political goal of bringing relations with the Soviet Union to an armed clash.

However, at this time, Germany and Italy have not yet secured a quiet rear in Europe, and Japan is bound by the war in China. “Poland is in the orbit of the fascist bloc, trying to maintain the apparent independence of its foreign policy,” writes Shaposhnikov. The hesitant stance of England and France allows the fascist bloc to come to terms with Western democracies in the event of its war with the USSR and direct most of the forces against the Union. The same policies of England and France determine the position of Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Romania, as well as Turkey and Bulgaria. It is possible that these states will remain neutral by waiting for the result of the first battles, which does not exclude the possibility of their direct participation in the war on the side of the fascist bloc. Lithuania will be occupied by Germans and Poles in the very first days of the war. Turkey and Bulgaria, even maintaining neutrality, will allow fleets Germany and Italy operate in the Black Sea. Turkey may oppose the USSR in the Caucasus.

In the Far East, Japan, on the one hand, is weakened by the use of human and material resources in the war with China and the use of part of the divisions to control the occupied territories. On the other hand, the Japanese empire has already mobilized an army, which it calmly, without interference, transferred to the mainland. At the same time, the Japanese continue to arm themselves intensely. Therefore, in the event of a war in Europe (Nazi bloc attacks on the USSR), Japan may attack the USSR, as this will be the most favorable moment for Tokyo. In the future, such a favorable situation in the Far East will no longer be.

Thus, the chief of the General Staff of the USSR Shaposhnikov made a completely correct alignment of the future world war. The Soviet Union had to prepare for war on two fronts - in Europe and the Far East. In Europe, the main threat came from Germany and Poland, partly Italy and the state-limitrophs, in the Far East - from the Japanese Empire.

According to the Soviet General Staff, Germany could put out 106 infantry, cavalry and motorized divisions, Poland - 65 infantry divisions, 16 cavalry brigades. Together - 161 infantry divisions, 13 cavalry and 5 motorized divisions. Germany left part of the forces on the borders with France and Czechoslovakia, and Poland on the border with Czechoslovakia. However, the main forces and assets were directed to the war with the USSR: 110-120 infantry and 12 cavalry divisions, 5400 tanks and wedges, 3700 aircraft. Finland, Estonia and Latvia — 20 infantry divisions, 80 tanks and more than 400 aircraft, and Romania — up to 35 infantry divisions, 200 tanks and more than 600 aircraft could also oppose the USSR. In the Far East, Japan, while continuing to wage war in China, could put up its main forces against the USSR (leaving 10-15 divisions for waging war in China and occupying occupied territories), that is, from 27 to 33 infantry divisions, 4 brigades, 1400 tanks and 1000 aircraft (without sea aviation).

The General Staff gave an analysis of the possible deployment of the enemy. On the Western Front, Germany and Poland could concentrate their main forces north or south of Polesie. This question was related to the situation in Europe and whether the Germans and Poles can agree on the Ukrainian issue (as a result, they did not agree, and Germany “ate” Poland). Germans and Poles occupied Lithuania. The Germans used Latvia, Estonia and Finland to attack the northern strategic direction. German troops in the north, and armies of the Baltic states were used for a concentric attack on Leningrad and cutting off the Leningrad region from the rest of the USSR. In the North Sea, cruising operations of the German fleet and blockade with the help of the submarine fleet of Murmansk and Arkhangelsk are possible. In the Baltic, the Germans will try to establish their dominance, as in the Black Sea, with the help of the Italian fleet.

In the Far East, judging by the construction of railways, one should expect the main blow of the Japanese army in the Primorsky and Iman directions, as well as in Blagoveshchensk. Part of the Japanese forces will attack in Mongolia. In addition, under the dominance of a strong Japanese fleet at sea, private landing operations are possible both on the mainland and Kamchatka and the development of an operation to capture all of Sakhalin.

Polish predator


Now a myth is created about an innocent Polish victim who suffered from the aggression of the Third Reich and the USSR. However, in reality, the situation was the opposite. The Second Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (Polish Republic in 1918-1939) was itself a predator. The USSR is perceived as a great power, the victor of Hitler. But in the 1920-1930 years the situation was different. Poland defeated Soviet Russia in the 1919-1921 war. Captured the West Russian region. Warsaw also made money at the expense of the deceased Second Reich. Thus, according to the results of the First World War, the Russian and German empires collapsed, sharply weakened militarily and economically. Germany was forced to limit its military potential to a minimum. Poland became the most powerful military power in Eastern Europe.

The Soviet Union, weakened to the limit by the Civil War and intervention, economic disruption, all this time was forced to reckon with the Polish threat on its western borders. After all, Warsaw cherished plans for creating “Greater Poland” from sea to sea - from the Baltic to the Black Sea, the restoration of the Commonwealth within the borders of the year 1772, with the capture of Lithuania and the Soviet Ukrainian Republic.

At the same time, from the 1920's, Polish politicians began to create the image of Poland in the West as a barrier to Bolshevism. So, in 1921, an alliance agreement was signed with France. At that time, Warsaw hoped that the West would again go on a “crusade” against “red” Russia, and Poland would take advantage of this to capture Ukraine. Only later, when the Nazis seized power in Germany in 1933, did the Polish nationalists see an ally in Hitler. The Polish lords now hoped that Hitler would attack Russia, and Poland would use this war to realize its aggressive plans in the east. Under these plans there were real reasons - the Poles managed to profit at the expense of Czechoslovakia, when Hitler was able to convince England and France to give him the opportunity to dismember the Czechoslovak Republic.

Thus, the Polish elite could not give the country any economic, social reform or prosperity in the 20-30 years. At the same time, the Poles pursued a policy of colonization on the lands of occupied Western Belarus, Galicia and Volyn. The most effective way to colonize social discontent was the image of the enemy - the Russians, the Bolsheviks. And the old slogan “From mozh to mozh” (“from sea to sea”) remained the most effective. In addition, the Poles had territorial claims against other neighbors. Warsaw wanted to capture Danzig, which was inhabited by the Germans and belonged to Prussia for several centuries, but by the will of the Entente became a “free city”. The Poles repeatedly organized military and economic provocations in order to provoke a solution to the Danzig issue. Polish politicians openly demanded further expansion at the expense of Germany - annexation of East Prussia and Silesia to Poland. Warsaw considered Lithuania to be part of its state, had territorial claims against Czechoslovakia.

This explains Poland’s entire foreign policy during these years and its oddities, when Warsaw itself went to suicide, rejecting all Moscow’s attempts to find a common language, to create a collective security system in Eastern Europe. In 1932, Poland concluded a nonaggression pact with the USSR, in 1934, with Germany. But in the documents there was not a word about the borders of Poland. Warsaw wanted a new big war in Europe. The First World War returned to Poland statehood, ethnic Polish lands and part of the West Russian territory (Western Belarus and Ukraine). Now the Polish elite was hoping that a new big war would give Poland the new territories it claimed. Therefore, Poland in the 1930-ies tried with all its might to foment a great war, was a predator who wanted to profit at someone else's expense, and not an innocent sheep. In September 1939, Warsaw reaped the fruits of its aggressive policy.

Due to its military-economic potential, Poland could not become the main aggressor in Europe, but Jozef Pilsudski (the head of Poland in the 1926-1935, actually a dictator) was no worse and no better than the same Mussolini or Mannerheim in Italy and Finland. Mussolini dreamed of restoring the Roman Empire, making the Mediterranean Sea Italian, Mannerheim - of "Great Finland" with Russian Karelia, the Kola Peninsula, the Leningrad, Vologda and Arkhangelsk regions. Pilsudski and his heirs are about “Great Poland”, mainly due to Russian lands. The only question is that the Japanese, Italians and Germans at first managed to create their empires, and the Poles were stopped at the very beginning. Therefore, the Polish lords decided to sign up as victims of the aggressors.

In the USSR, in the 20-30 years, they were well aware of the Polish threat. The memory of this was gradually erased only after the victory of 1945, when the Poles from the enemies became allies, and Poland became part of the socialist camp. Then behind the scenes decided not to stir up the bloody past. In the first years after the Riga peace of 1921, the Polish border was military: there were constantly clashes, skirmishes thundered. On the territory of Poland, various White Guard and Petliura gangs were quietly located, which, with the complicity of the Polish military, periodically invaded Soviet Belarus and Ukraine. This situation is perfectly shown in the Soviet feature film "State Border" 1980 - 1988. (second film) - “Peaceful Summer of the 21 Year”. Here, the Soviet border town is attacked by bandits dressed in a Red Army uniform, behind whom are Polish intelligence and white emigrants.

This forced Moscow to hold large military forces on the border with Poland, not counting the NKVD troops and border guards. It is clear that therefore, in the 20 and 30 years, Poland was considered a probable adversary in Moscow. This is confirmed by the report of Shaposhnikov from March 24 1938


Units of the Polish 10-th horse-rifle regiment of the 10-th mechanized brigade are preparing for the solemn parade in front of the regiment commander over the end of Operation Zaluzhie (occupation of Czechoslovak territories). Source: http://waralbum.ru
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  1. bald
    bald 10 September 2019 05: 25 New
    -21
    I think so - conspiracy over conspiracy. After all, there was the same division of the USSR with Germany, even before the Second World War. And there was a distribution of state lands. Who of VO knows - tell the truth, but at the expense of relations, in the land.
    1. Tatyana
      Tatyana 10 September 2019 07: 34 New
      +18
      Wonderful article!
      Yes, such an article by the author place in Russian school history textbooks! The time for this has already come to Russia. Younger generations of Russians should know the historical truth about Poland and our country.
      1. Olgovich
        Olgovich 10 September 2019 08: 34 New
        +15
        Quote: Tatiana
        Wonderful article!
        Yes, such an article by the author should be placed in Russian school history textbooks! The time for this has already come to Russia. Younger generations of Russians should know the historical truth about Poland and our country.

        Now they already know who wants
        And in Soviet times, who knew about the joint Polish-German occupation of Czechoslovakia? Almost nobody, but Poland was represented by the heroic victim of Nazism, who made a great contribution to the Victory.

        Who knew about the mass participation of the Poles in the Holocaust, that the AK fought with us more than with Germany?

        The same situation with other social. "friends" - Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Bulgaria, Romania ...

        If in Soviet times we would simply HONESTLY and OBJECTIVELY tell FOR THE WHOLE WORLD about the unsightly affairs of “friends” and their atrocities, there would be a completely different picture.
        And so we ourselves supported the myth of their "fluffiness" ....
        And to win back today, 70 years ago, is very, very not easy ....
        1. Tatyana
          Tatyana 10 September 2019 09: 00 New
          +7
          Quote: Olgovich
          If in Soviet times we would simply HONESTLY and OBJECTIVELY tell FOR THE WHOLE WORLD about the unsightly affairs of “friends” and their atrocities, there would be a completely different picture.And so we ourselves supported the myth of their "fluffiness" ....

          And not only did we ourselves support the myth of their “fluffiness”, but also we ourselves were at the forefront of rewriting the history of the Great Patriotic War and denigrating the USSR / Russia in the person of the same pro-Western anti-Soviet M.S. Gorbachev, with his forgery of historical documents, executed by his assistant A. Yakovlev in the Katyn case, in favor of the potential aggressor and instigator of WWII Great Velocity of Poland!

          Victor Ilyukhin. The truth about Katyn! Published: February 3, 2014
          1. strannik1985
            strannik1985 10 September 2019 10: 54 New
            +2
            You judge from your bell tower, and Stalin needed to assemble a coalition against NATO. There was no need to lose the Cold War and such a question would not have stood.
          2. Plantagenet
            Plantagenet 10 September 2019 12: 35 New
            -8
            “Khrushchev was a man of mood, impulsive, and at such moments was capable of much. But the next time Gomulka started a conversation about Katyn, already Nikita Sergeyevich refused to return to this topic:
            “You wanted to see the documents.” No documents. You just had to tell the people the truth, as I suggested ...
            There were documents, and Khrushchev knew about this. On his behalf, the chairman of the KGB, Alexander Shelepin, took up this. On the third of March of the fifty-ninth year, he presented Khrushchev a hand-written proposal to destroy the accounting files of executed Polish officers.
            For the Soviet authorities, Shelepin reported, they “are of neither operational interest nor historical value. It is unlikely that they can be of real interest to our Polish friends. On the contrary, any unforeseen accident can lead to unmasking of the operation with all undesirable consequences for our state. Moreover, there is an official version regarding those executed in the Katyn Forest.
            For the execution of requests that might be possible through the Central Committee of the CPSU or the Soviet government, one can leave the minutes of the meetings of the troika of the NKVD of the USSR, which condemned these persons to be shot, and the acts on the enforcement of the decision of the troika.
            These documents are insignificant and can be stored in a special folder. ”
            The main documents were destroyed, and the rest, including Beria’s note, the decision of the Politburo on the execution of the fortieth year of March 45 and the letter of Shelepin himself, were kept in a sealed bag in the personal safe of the head of the general department of the CPSU Central Committee, Konstantin Ustinovich Chernenko. Having received a promotion, he transferred the package to the VI sector of the general department, which was in charge of the archive of the Politburo. These documents were shown to Andropov and Gorbachev when they became secretaries general.
            But Gorbachev, even in the midst of perestroika, pretended to know nothing. He handed over a sealed packet of Katyn documents to Yeltsin in December of the ninety-first year, when an official transfer of power took place. And only Yeltsin ordered to disclose documents.
            .
            Leonid Mlechin "Iron Shurik"
            1. Tatyana
              Tatyana 10 September 2019 15: 23 New
              +8
              Quote: Plantagenet
              “Khrushchev was a man of mood, impulsive, and at such moments was capable of much. But the next time Gomulka started a conversation about Katyn, already Nikita Sergeyevich refused to return to this topic:
              “You wanted to see the documents.” No documents. You just had to tell the people the truth, as I suggested ... <...>
              And only Yeltsin ordered to disclose documents.
              .
              Leonid Mlechin "Iron Shurik"
              It's not as simple as you think.

              Today we have 2 versions of the execution of Polish officers in the Katyn Forest. The first is that the Germans did in the fall of 1941. The second - officers were shot by parts of the NKVD in the spring of 1940. Moreover, there are reinforcements of both versions.
              However, the essence of the accusations on the part of Poland is that the Germans' blame for the war crime of Hitler’s Germany committed on Soviet soil should be completely and exclusively transferred exclusively to the NKVD.

              In this regard, I advise you to read the book:
              Prudnikova, E.A. Katyn: a lie that has become history / Elena Prudnikova, Ivan Chigirin. - M .: Veche, 2015 .-- 560 p., Ill. (Myths and true stories)
              in which both versions are considered - with the involvement of documents and testimonies, as well as the recollections of eyewitnesses and officials in the Katyn case. For instance.
              On March 30, 2006, Vladislav Shved met with Major General of Justice Valery Kondratiev and the head of the investigation team in case No. 159, Colonel of Justice Sergei Shalamaev. He formulated his impression of what they told as follows:
              “From the very beginning, the GWP investigation team was aimed at legalizing the political decision of the President of the USSR Gorbachev on the conviction of the former leaders of the USSR and the NKVD. During the period of President Yeltsin, such an interpretation of the Katyn crime was aimed at confirming the “inhumanity” of the Soviet regime. The investigation was also ordered to confine itself to the investigation of events only in March-May 1940.
              In this regard, the version of Nazi involvement in the execution of Polish officers in the fall of 1941 in the Katyn forest was not considered by the GWP investigators. Evidence that contradicts the “assignment from above” version was ignored. Accordingly, the GVP investigators were forced to uncritically even testify to the internally contradictory testimonies of those witnesses who formally confirmed the official version. ”
              (Ibid., P. 466)


              Elena Prudnikova about Katyn. Published: June 11, 2019
              1. Plantagenet
                Plantagenet 10 September 2019 17: 10 New
                0
                "The chief military prosecutor’s office then opened criminal case N 159" On the shooting of Polish prisoners of war from Kozelsky, Ostashkovsky and Starobelsky special camps of the NKVD in April - May 1940. "
                From March 17, ninety-two, to the second of August, ninety-third, in accordance with a decree of the senior military prosecutor of the Office of the Main Military Prosecutor's Office, a commission of experts headed by the director of the Institute of State and Law of the Russian Academy of Sciences Academician Boris Nikolaevich Topornin worked. ”

                Leonid Mlechin "Iron Shurik"

                PS Under Gorbachev, the events in Katyn did not advertise, the criminal case was initiated only with the coming to power of Yeltsin.
                1. Tatyana
                  Tatyana 10 September 2019 19: 54 New
                  +4
                  Quote: Plantagenet
                  PS Under Gorbachev, events in Katyn did not advertise, a criminal case was initiated only with the coming to power of Yeltsin.
                  Namely, that under Gorbachev the "setup" of the Gorbachevs of the USSR to the Poles was under way !!! In Poland, they were preparing for the 50th anniversary of the Katyn execution in 1991.

                  ... In 1987, the Katyn issue was not included in the agenda. But the team of "truth-seekers" Glrbacheva did not back down, and Alexandrov quite frankly writes how she pushed her line.
                  at the Politburo on May 5, 1988, and a decision was made regarding the arrangement of the burial in Katyn. But the principal side of the crime was not considered then.
                  This decision was in line with preparations for the summit in Warsaw, when the Polish side could raise the issue of Katyn. However, this question was not raised acutely by the Poles at the summits either in 1988 or in 1989, although in both cases the Polish side expressed dissatisfaction with the extremely slow coverage of the “white spots” of history, among which was Katyn. The Soviet-Polish commission of scientists, created on this account in 1988, in which the Soviet side was headed by Smirnov, practically stomped on the spot. ”
                  It was the so-called “Soviet-Polish commission of scholars studying the history of the two countries”, formed in 1987 to clarify the “blank spots” in the history of Soviet-Polish relations. Then there were several topics for study:
                  1) the Soviet-Polish war of 1919-1921;
                  2) the dissolution of the Communist Party of Poland in the 30s and the purge of its leadership;
                  3) a liberation campaign in Western Ukraine and Western Belarus in 1939;
                  3) Katyn execution;
                  4) “Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact”;
                  5) the deportation of Poles from the territory of Western Ukraine and Western Belarus;
                  6) the actions of Soviet troops during the Warsaw Uprising.

                  Already from one list of topics, the bias of the commission's work is visible. Namely.
                  The brutal oppression of the Ukrainian and Belarusian peoples by the Polish government, the activities of the Craiova Army, the fate of captured Red Army soldiers, the sending of gangs to Soviet territory in the 20s, and finally the Warsaw Uprising itself - these are “white spots” commission not considered.
                  In other words. It was under Gorbachev that the POLES “obviously bent” the Soviet Union — and he obediently “bent”, right down to a certain pose. Why, interesting? Indeed, the agents of influence of one state in the upper floors of the power of another are conspiracy theology, schizophrenic science, which cannot be taken seriously ...
                  See in detail - https://www.bookol.ru/nauka_obrazovanie/istoriya/307606/str926.htm#book
                  Page 924-926
                  1. Plantagenet
                    Plantagenet 10 September 2019 21: 47 New
                    -2
                    In 2009, the Security Service of Ukraine declassified documents of the USSR Criminal Code, dedicated to the random excavation of graves by schoolchildren in the 1969 year. They conclude: “It was established that in the indicated place in 1940 of the NKVD in the Kharkov region a significant number (several thousand) of executed officers and generals of bourgeois Poland were buried, the remains of which were discovered by children under random circumstances.” The Ukrainian KGB suggests: “We consider it is advisable to explain to the people around that during the German occupation of Kharkov the German punitive bodies in the indicated place carried out burials without honors executed for desertion and other crimes soldiers and officers of the German and allied armies. At the same time, Germans dying from various dangerous infectious diseases (typhoid, cholera, syphilitics, etc.) were buried in the same place, and therefore, this burial should be recognized by health authorities as dangerous for visiting. ”

                    https://ru.wikipedia.org/
                    1. Tatyana
                      Tatyana 10 September 2019 22: 12 New
                      +1
                      On the video "Elena Prudnikova about Katyn. Published: June 11, 2019" Prudnikova says that there were more than one graves like Katyn on the territory of the USSR and that all of them were deliberately enemy-provocative. But it was the Katyn burial that had an international resonance.
                      See video from 1:00:45 min.
                      1. Plantagenet
                        Plantagenet 10 September 2019 22: 14 New
                        -1
                        Do you consider the Chief Military Prosecutor's Office of the Russian Federation not competent in this matter?
                      2. Tatyana
                        Tatyana 10 September 2019 22: 30 New
                        -2
                        Have you even watched a video? I have this book by Prudnikova in my home library, which I read with a pencil in my hands.
                        There is an interesting phrase: "Perestroika" was clearly planned back under Khrushchev, and when was Khrushchev himself planned? "
                        And you know that the KGB was subordinate to the highest party leaders and party leaders!

                        In addition, there were shootings of the Poles, but only after verification by the prosecutor's office, provided that a particular person committed specific crimes and not at all in the numbers that the Nazis called, and then the Poles repeated them.

                        Poles were needed by Soviet Russia as a labor force and like the future polish army, which was supposed to liberate both independently and jointly with the Red Army to liberate Poland from the German fascists.
                        Therefore, the Polish professional military — officers — for the USSR in a certain sense were worth its weight in gold!
                        The USSR was not interested in either killing them or transferring them to Germany, which also planned to create a Polish army against Soviet Russia.
                      3. Plantagenet
                        Plantagenet 10 September 2019 23: 59 New
                        -5
                        "The Poles needed Soviet Russia as a labor force and as the future Polish army, which was supposed to liberate both independently and together with the Red Army to free Poland from the German fascists."

                        You do not know the story well. Polish officers, by the way there were not only officers there, were shot in the Katyn Forest (Smolensk Region) in the 1940 year. At that time they did not hear about any Polish army, at that time the Poles did not represent any value to the Red Army. On the contrary, these people represented a threat to the Soviet government.
                      4. Tatyana
                        Tatyana 11 September 2019 04: 53 New
                        +3
                        Well, what are you telling me this ?! Well, and where do you think the Polish army of the same Anders came from in the USSR?

                        According to various estimates, 1939–450 thousand Polish soldiers were captured by the Germans in 480.
                        In the USSR, there were 120–150 thousand, including about 9 thousand officers. First, from a legal point of view, they were in the position of internees.
                        18 December 1939 year, after the transfer of the city of Vilna to the USSR with the region of Lithuania, Polish government in exile issued the Angers declaration. The declaration declared Germany No. 1 an enemy and confirmed the state of war with the USSR. Although the war was not declared by either side. In addition, preparations began for the transfer of the Polish army of 100 thousand people to Finland, to participate in the battles of the Winter War on the side of the Finns.
                        After confirming the state of the war between Poland and the USSR, all Polish soldiers on the territory of the Union automatically turned into prisoners of war.
                        July 30, 1941 in London, Ambassador of the USSR to Great Britain I.M. May and Polish Prime Minister V. Sikorski signed an agreement in which the USSR government recognized the Soviet-German treaties of 1939 regarding territorial changes in Poland, which became invalid; diplomatic relations between the two countries were restored; the parties made a mutual obligation to render each other all kinds of help and support in the war against Nazi Germany; The government of the USSR agreed to create a Polish army in the USSR.
                        The first attempt to create a Polish military unit in the USSR dates back to the fall of 1940. On November 2, Lavrenti Beria, following Stalin’s instructions, turned to him with a proposal to form a division from Polish prisoners of war in the USSR and use it in the event of a collision between the USSR and Germany. A group of Polish officers was formed (3 generals, 1 colonel, 8 lieutenant colonels, 6 majors and captains, 6 lieutenants and second lieutenants) under the leadership of General Burling. The group was in a closed summer cottage near Moscow.
                        On August 6, General Vladislav Anders, a prominent Polish military leader and ardent anti-Soviet, was appointed commander of the Polish army.
                        The Polish army was formed both through compulsory draft and on a voluntary basis
                        On August 29, 1941, 8,6 thousand were called up and enlisted in it, on August 31 - more than 20,7 thousand, on October 25, 1941 - 41,5 thousand soldiers and officers, which significantly exceeded the previously planned numbers.
                      5. Tatyana
                        Tatyana 11 September 2019 05: 52 New
                        +4
                        Quote: Tatiana
                        You do not know the story well. Polish officers, by the way there were not only officers there, were shot in the Katyn Forest (Smolensk Region) in 1940.
                        About who was shot from the interned Poles in the USSR, says Wasserman. (see video from 12:30 min.)
                        Of the Poles captured in Soviet territory occupied by Poland in 1920 and liberated in 1939, only those Poles who committed crimes punishable there under Soviet law were tried and executed under Soviet law. There were several hundred such interned Poles in 1939 in the Ukrainian and Belarusian Soviet territories liberated in 1939 from the Poles.
                        Do you want our Polish punitive criminals and anti-Soviet terrorists to stroke our heads? This does not happen.

                        Wasserman about Katyn falsification. Posted Apr 15 2016 year
                    2. Tatyana
                      Tatyana 12 September 2019 04: 25 New
                      0
                      Quote: Plantagenet
                      You do not know the story well. Polish officers, by the way there were not only officers there, were shot in the Katyn Forest (Smolensk Region) in the 1940 year. At that time they did not hear about any Polish army, at that time the Poles did not represent any value to the Red Army. On the contrary, these people represented a threat to the Soviet government.

                      I specially spent time and still found this half-forgotten video of the participant of the Second World War of Guard Sergeant V.I. Trushin.
                      He tells how the Soviet authorities actually related to the Poles. How many of them moved from the territory of Poland occupied by the Germans went to the USSR, who exactly and where they later went.
                      A historically living witness tells us about the Katyn affair.

                      Katyn Guard Sergeant V. And Trunin. Posted: 6 Sep 2016 year
  • Vend
    Vend 10 September 2019 09: 51 New
    +5
    What does it mean why? So the Poles from time immemorial sought to snatch the honor of the territory belonging to Russia, Russia and the USSR.
  • meandr51
    meandr51 11 September 2019 21: 35 New
    +1
    There was no collusion between the USSR and Nazi Germany. Before Hitler, it doesn’t count. It was the same trade cooperation as with the USA, say. Although the United States, indeed, sponsored the development of Germany on a serious scale, realizing that the war in Europe is in their interests.
    As for the contract, it did not differ from the same treaties of European countries with Germany, which were signed even earlier. In any agreements, the boundaries of interests are indicated, otherwise they do not make sense.
  • Amurets
    Amurets 10 September 2019 05: 51 New
    +8
    The First World War returned to Poland statehood, ethnic Polish lands and part of the West Russian territory (Western Belarus and Ukraine). Now the Polish elite was hoping that a new big war would give Poland the new territories it claimed. Therefore, Poland in the 1930s did its best to foment a great war, was a predator who wanted to profit at someone else's expense, and not an innocent sheep. In September 1939, Warsaw reaped the fruits of its aggressive policies.
    How similar to the current situation and how the Poles, Bandera and Rogul in Ukraine, the Balts believe that someone will fight with the Russian Federation, for them, for their interests, and they will rake the heat with the wrong hands. They don’t understand that they will be "cannon fodder", the Americans and the Anglo-Saxons always tried to push others together, and then, after joining the winners in time, reap the fruits of victory.
  • svp67
    svp67 10 September 2019 07: 42 New
    +6
    Throughout the interwar period, Poland pursued a very aggressive policy towards its eastern neighbors, not disdaining military provocations. It is enough to recall the speeches of Pilsudski and, in general, the tops of Poland at that time, in order to understand the fears of the leadership of the USSR, and the desire to get even for the failures of the “Polish campaign” and to return the lands of the Curzon line given to Soviet Russia.
    And how Poland acted with Czechoslovakia, in general ....

    A. Hitler - "" If Pilsudski was alive - there would be no war ... " 1 September 1939 years
  • Astra wild
    Astra wild 10 September 2019 07: 58 New
    +2
    I did not understand: report dated March 24, 1934 or dated March 24, 1938?
    Samsonov, apparently, was in a hurry and did not check his text if there were such errors. And this is already a minus to the author
  • vladcub
    vladcub 10 September 2019 08: 43 New
    +8
    For some reason, the author forgot to mention that Poland actually thwarted the conclusion of a military alliance against Hitler in the summer of 1939. At the military negotiations in Moscow, the question arose about the passage of Soviet troops through Polish territory, if necessary. The Poles said that we have a contract with Germany and it is not yet known whether Hitler will attack or not, it’s risky to allow the Bolsheviks to enter their territory
  • Prometheus
    Prometheus 10 September 2019 09: 23 New
    +7
    The first years after the Peace of Riga in 1921, the Polish border was military: skirmishes were constantly taking place, skirmishes were fired. On the territory of Poland, various White Guard and Petlyura gangs were quietly located, which, with the complicity of the Polish military, periodically invaded Soviet Belarus and Ukraine.

    Bulak-Balakhovich, for example.
    And from our side there were also different sabotage formations (partisans), which roamed the territories occupied by the Poles. The same Stanislav Vaupshasov, a professional in his field, for example. This sluggish war continued until 1925.
    1. Moskovit
      Moskovit 10 September 2019 09: 56 New
      +6
      By the way, he writes in his book that an active guerrilla war significantly tempered the ardor of the Poles, who began to actively tighten the screws in Belarus and pose as males. In addition, this forced Poland to disperse the White Guard ford and stop provocations at the border.
  • Pavel57
    Pavel57 10 September 2019 12: 15 New
    +2
    Yes, the story is highly dependent on the political attitude with an eye on relations with neighbors. Now there is an opportunity to look at the history of Poland again.
  • bubalik
    bubalik 10 September 2019 12: 17 New
    +4
    Ribbentrop, a company of the guard of honor in Warsaw, January 1939. ,,, very little before the war.
  • iouris
    iouris 10 September 2019 15: 28 New
    +1
    In principle, of course, a hyena is a predator.
  • Sergelis
    Sergelis 10 September 2019 16: 20 New
    0
    In general, this topic was developed two days ago by Colonell Cassad.
  • Nadir shah
    Nadir shah 10 September 2019 17: 35 New
    -5
    Quote: svp67
    Throughout the interwar period, Poland pursued a very aggressive policy towards its eastern neighbors, not disdaining military provocations. It is enough to recall the speeches of Pilsudski and, in general, the tops of Poland at that time, in order to understand the fears of the leadership of the USSR, and the desire to get even for the failures of the “Polish campaign” and to return the lands of the Curzon line given to Soviet Russia.
    And how Poland acted with Czechoslovakia, in general ....

    A. Hitler - "" If Pilsudski was alive - there would be no war ... " 1 September 1939 years

    with such a neighbor as the USSR, as it turned out, almost everyone was afraid. Like RI before him.
    1. Viktor.N.Aleksandrov.
      Viktor.N.Aleksandrov. 11 September 2019 23: 01 New
      0
      Offended the poor thing?
  • zenion
    zenion 10 September 2019 17: 53 New
    +3
    Many do not remember the series "Border". But Polish gangs broke into Soviet Ukraine even through Bessarabia. Burst at night on the ice of the Dniester River. Sometimes they warned from Bessarabia, sometimes they couldn’t. And that was literally just before the start of the war.
  • Fevralsk. Morev
    Fevralsk. Morev 24 November 2019 17: 23 New
    -1
    Here the Austrians quickly changed their shoes. From an accomplice in the crimes of the Third Reich, turned into a victim. Entire Austrian divisions "partized" with the Wehrmacht on the territory of the USSR, (Schwarzenegger's father fought with us as a tankman), and half of the guards at the end of the camps were "victims" of the Anschluss. If the Poles agreed with Hitler, then the Polish eagle would have a hammer and sickle in its claws, and a broken chain under its tail (see coat of arms of Austria)