Military Review

Vienna Armory. Tournament Armor

76
Pride is peculiar to one,
Envy is characteristic of others

The anger shown in battle
Laziness, when pleasure replaces prayer.
Opponent's greed
And his lat
Gluttony at a feast
And the subsequent debauchery.
Robert Manning. The Manual of Sins (1303)


Knights and armor. I always wanted to visit the imperial Vienna armory ward, and finally this dream came true. That is, only one visit there was worth going to Austria. And why I was so drawn to it, that’s understandable. After all, the Vienna Armory of the Habsburgs today is the largest and most complete collection of ancient weapons in Europe. Emperor Frederick III began to collect it in 1450. Well, today it contains at least a thousand unique samples of weapons and armor - from spandex helmets to the weapons of the time of Emperor Franz Joseph. The exposition of the Armory is located in twelve large halls in the building of the New Hofburg Castle, and in comparison with it the Knight's Hall of our Hermitage is nothing more than the most ordinary exhibition. However, a story (and not one) on VO will still follow about the chamber and its exhibits. Moreover, I received permission from the chamber’s administration to use her photos, which are still much better than my own, as well as information. Nevertheless, the mix of those and others, as it seems to me, will allow us to give a very complete impression of the subject - armor and weapons of knightly times. Well, I would like to start with the armor for tournaments, since they are not collected in such a large quantity in any other museum in the world!

Here, at VO, my articles about tournament weapons, written on the materials of the Dresden Armory, have already been published. Today we are starting a series of tournaments based on materials from the Habsburg Armory Chamber from Vienna.


Image of a knightly tournament on the lid of an ivory box of the 13th century. (The State Museum of the Middle Ages - the terms and mansion of Cluny, or simply the Cluny Museum, a unique Parisian museum in the 5 city district, in the center of the Latin Quarter) It is located in the so-called “Hotel Cluny” - a preserved medieval mansion of the 15th century. It contains one of the most significant collections of household items and art of the French Middle Ages in the world, and we will definitely tell you about it somehow.

A tournament is a whirl


The word "tournament" (French turney) came to us from the French language. And this is nothing more than an imitation of a real battle, although limited by the rules that do not allow bringing the matter to death. The tournament was a kind of practice before real fights in the war, and a way to “show oneself”, to win the goodwill of the ladies and the king, and, importantly, as a means of earning, since the rules of the war also applied to the rules of the tournament, and the loser paid a ransom to the winner if not for himself, then for his horse and weapons are necessary.


Duel of the Duke of Jean de Bourbon with the Duke of Brittany Arthur III. Figure from the "Book of Tournaments" by Rene Anjou. 1460 year. (National Library, Paris) Typically, tournaments in textbooks are depicted like this, but one must understand that they didn’t become that way right away, and that the knights never put on anything like this in battle!

It is known that similar military games in Europe were held back in 844 at the court of Louis of Germany, although by what rules and how then they fought it is not known. It is believed that Gottfried of Preya, who died in the year of the Battle of Hastings, that is, in 1066, was the first compiler of special rules for tournament games, which were first called “Buhurt”. Then in the XII century the word "tournament" began to be used in France, and then it turned into other languages. The terms of chivalry included French terms used in the tournament, as well as Italian and then German, since in the XV-XVI centuries. it was the Germans who began to set the tone and most seriously improve the tournament rules. However, the classic form of the tournament was always considered a duel on the spears of two riders.

Vienna Armory. Tournament Armor

A very beautiful exhibition with equestrian figures of the tournament participants was created in the Arsenal at the Dresden Art Gallery. Moreover, it is constantly updated. These two figures, for example, are now replaced by completely different ones. Although not the figures themselves, but what they are wearing. That is, there they sew new blankets and cashmere clothes, and only the weapons in the hands of the fighters do not change!

Tournament "era of chain mail"


Since the knighthood of the “era of chain mail”, that is, that existed before the 1250 year, was “quite poor”, it must be understood that no special armor for the tournament existed. The knights fought in everything in which they went to war, although, of course, the sharp tips of the spears were replaced by blunt ones. Most likely, the spears themselves were replaced by lighter, drilled inside, to reduce the danger to the combatants. Of course, no one forged specially stupid swords either, but did not stupid combat swords, this would be nonsense. Therefore, it can be assumed that the sword fights, if any, were also done with the help of military weapons, but under the strict supervision of the tournament organizers and “before the first blood”, and the ban on many attacks. Or the blades were wrapped in leather, which is also quite possible. However, I want to emphasize that these are nothing more than assumptions, although they are quite substantiated.


Naturally, the theme of tournaments, in the Middle Ages is extremely significant, was reflected among the many miniatures decorating strange manuscripts ... Here we have the duel of the French knights. Thumbnail from the Chronicles of Froissart. 1470 years (British Library, London)

Again, all sources report that until the fourteenth century, tournament participants used the same armor and weapons that they wore in battle. A description of one such armor of the era of mixed chain-plate armor is available in the Song of the Nibelungs. It included a battle shirt of Libyan silk (most likely Spanish); armor made of iron plates sewn onto some, most likely, leather base; helmet with chin ties; shield, whose belt - tug - was decorated with gem stones. The shield itself was large, with a gold ornament on the edges and a thickness of three fingers directly under the umbon.


But this is the same miniature close-up.

By the way, the shield described above, although it was very bulky, was unstable, because it could not stand the blow. In the poem, references to pierced through shields or even shields with spear tips stuck in them are very frequent. The riders' saddles were decorated with precious stones and - for some reason - with golden bells. All these details indicate more likely the middle of the XII century, and not the beginning of the XIII century, when this poem was recorded and edited, because then the knights used lighter shields, but the spears themselves, on the contrary, became heavier and stronger. The fact is that "Songs of the Nibelungs" describe too thin spears of the early times, therefore, in the first parts of the poem, cases when a rider is knocked out of a saddle with a spear are not described. It is written that fragments of spear shafts and no more take off into the air. Only in the very last part, where the battle between Gelpfrat and Hagen takes place, the last one was nearly knocked out of the saddle with a spear, and the first one, although at first it restrained itself, could not cope with the horse, and then it threw it off. That is, all this time there was a process of both strengthening the armor and at the same time the specialization of the copies themselves, which over time became very different from the combat ones. Moreover, as in the case with any technical design, their creators - lance masters - needed to solve two mutually exclusive problems. The spear for the tournament had to be strong so that it could knock the opponent out of the saddle, and at the same time not too heavy for the rider to use it. Special spears also appeared, which were supposed to fly apart from a blow to chips. And to invent and make such a lot of ingenuity and skill were required.


The Armory Building of the New Hofburg Castle. It’s great that the tourist buses stop right in front of him, you just need to cross the square, the tram tracks, enter the gate, turn right and you ... are there!

And here is what Ulrich von Liechtenstein wrote about this ...


Let's turn to such an excellent source of information about tournaments as “Adoration of the Lady” written by Ulrich von Lichtenstein (1200 - 1276), although most likely not by himself, but by his dictation. He distinguishes between a duel between two participants and a tournament in the form of a competition between two teams. However, in both cases, their equipment and weapons only very slightly differed from the combat. For example, worn on top of armor and coat of arms decorated with emblems - surco, worn in a combat setting, but before the tournament they sewed it again, or at least washed it. Horse blankets were made of leather, and could be covered with colored velvet. But chain horse armor and solid forged were not used in tournaments. What for? After all, nobody would send a spear to a horse anyway. He is your potential prey, so why destroy him or mutilate? The shield during the time of Ulrich von Liechtenstein had a triangular shape, and, perhaps, it was slightly smaller than the battle one. The knight put on a heavy pot-like helmet on his head only at the very last moment before the battle with the enemy. The spear already had a small hard disk for the hand. In the book "Adoration of the Lady" such discs are called spear rings. It is curious that during the match in Tarvis, the knight Reinrecht von Murek, who fought with Ulrich von Lichtenstein, held a spear under his arm - the most traditional way, but Ulrich put it on his hip. That is, the methods of holding the spear in the XIII century could still differ in some variety, whereas at a later time caching of the spear, that is, holding it under the armpit, became the only acceptable in horse fights.


Over time, fights began to be arranged not only between equestrians, but also between foot knights. Here, for example, is a foot duel between Thomas Woodstock, the Duke of Gloucester and Jean de Montfort, the Duke of Brittany. Thumbnail from the Chronicles of Froissart. XV century (National Library of France, Paris)

By the beginning of the XIII century, the very goal of the tournament was finally determined. Now the main goal of the game was to hit with his spear on the shield on the left shoulder of the enemy, and thus, so that the shaft of the spear would break - this was called "break the spear on the opponent’s shield" or completely throw him off the horse . If the riders, having broken their spears, remained in the saddles, this meant that they could withstand a moderate spear strike, that is, both ... in their military business deserve praise. In the second case, it was believed that a knight brought to the ground was disgraced and subject to punishment for his own clumsiness. And it was expressed in the fact that he lost his horse and armor, which were given to the winner. But in order to drive a rider out of the saddle, a strong spear was required. Therefore, already from the XII century, spears begin to make more and more durable. But their diameter was not more than 6,5 cm, so they still remained so light that they could be held under the arm without any emphasis. For example, each of the squires of Ulrich von Lichtenstein, accompanying him to the tournament, easily held three spears tied together in one hand at once.


Such an impressive figure of a horse and rider in a full tournament battle of the XVI century. meets you in one of the halls of the Vienna arsenal. The chest of the horse, as you can see, is protected by a huge “pillow”, because the horse for such a tournament cost almost as much as our today's tank. The frontal plate is a shaffron, also worn just in case, but the rider’s legs are not protected at all. What for? After all, the fight is held with a dividing barrier!

Tournaments as a means of communication and enrichment


In the 13th century, there were two types of tournaments: a field tournament and an appointment tournament. The Campaign Tournament was a meeting of two knights somewhere on the road (well, remember how it was described in Don Quixote by Cervantes?), Random or intentional, which ended with their duel on spears. The knight who called the enemy to battle was called the instigator, his opponent, who accepted the challenge, was the mantenador. The same Ulrich von Lichtenstein in his “Adoration of the Lady” tells how a certain knight Mathieu on the road behind Klemün put a tent in the way of Ulrich and challenged him to battle. Here he fought with another eleven knights, so that the whole earth was dotted with fragments of shields and spears. So many people gathered to watch the battle that Ulrich had to fence off the tournament site with spears stuck in the ground and shields hung on them. For that time, it was a novelty that made Knight Ulrich von Liechtenstein famous himself.


And here is a pair of riders in helmets such as tournament salad (sallet). The legs are protected only by the longer leg gaiters, because below them, again, covers the barrier. The spears at the back are held by a special lance hook.

Fashion for such a venue existed until the end of the fourteenth century, and in Germany lingered until the fifteenth century. In combat, military weapons were used, so the collisions were very dangerous.


Spandelhelm type helmets, or “segmented helmets” (center and right), of the Early Middle Ages. In such helmets the Frankish noble fought and maybe the legendary King Arthur himself. Tournament participants at the court of Louis the German could also wear something similar to them and simpler helmets on the left.

The “appointed tournament”, on the contrary, was held not somewhere at the request of a knight, but by decision of the king, duke or count — that is, the owners of certain cities or large castles where these tournaments were held. Guests were invited in advance and were given a reception appropriate to their position and fame. Therefore, such tournaments were very magnificent and attracted many spectators. Since many participants in such a tournament came from far away, an active exchange of information took place between them. The knights got acquainted with new items in the field of armor and weapons, and it was just like that at that time that they spread, not counting trophies captured on the battlefield. Moreover, by the 1350 year, tournament armor and weapons began to differ slightly from the combat ones. The reason was that no one wanted to die in games and get injured unless absolutely necessary. Hence the desire to ensure maximum security, even if to the detriment of their mobility, which is absolutely necessary in battle.


Whatever you say, photographing through glass is difficult and inconvenient. That is why the fact that most of the exhibits in Vienna are openly displayed and do not close with glass can only be welcomed. True, these comforters from the fabric involuntarily have to be kept under glass due to their antiquity, but ... fortunately, the museum has their separately made and very high-quality photographs, which can be seen in the following materials.

In the fourteenth century a group tournament became popular in southern France and Italy, wall to wall, during which the knights first struck each other with a spear and then chopped with blunt swords. But in this case, this innovation has not yet brought about any special changes in weapons. Serious changes began later, at the beginning of the 15th century.

PS The author and the site administration express their heartfelt gratitude to the curators of the chamber Ilse Jung and Florian Kugler for the opportunity to use the photographic materials of the Vienna Armory.

To be continued ...
Author:
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  1. bubalik
    bubalik 31 August 2019 05: 59
    +10
    ,,, one can only envy the author "white envy" for such an interesting excursion good which he shared with us, what and a sweepstake during the tournament arranged?
    1. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 31 August 2019 07: 12
      +5
      "And you are passionate, Paramosha!"
      Good morning, Sergey!
      1. bubalik
        bubalik 31 August 2019 07: 20
        +5
        3x3zsave
        Today, 08: 12
        Good morning, Anton hi
        ,,,there was a time crying fool

        Man is a gambling creature. Good for him is not enough. Give him the best.
      2. Korsar4
        Korsar4 31 August 2019 07: 33
        +3
        “I found a fraer to play with you.
        You have nine aces in the deck! ” (with).
        1. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave 31 August 2019 07: 44
          +2
          "On the table a deck, gentlemen,
          The speckled deck!
          He replaced her when
          Viscount, you drank water "(c)
          1. Korsar4
            Korsar4 31 August 2019 07: 52
            +3
            “Something, your will, unkind lies in men who avoid wine, games, the company of pretty women, a banquet” (c)
            1. bubalik
              bubalik 31 August 2019 08: 03
              +3
              And you do not break the rules of billiards?
              Money game?
              So this is only boys playing slobs.
              And real players are interested.
              (C)
              1. Korsar4
                Korsar4 31 August 2019 08: 13
                +3
                "Take me one ticket to Monte Carlo.
                I will disturb their cheaters "(c).
                1. kalibr
                  31 August 2019 08: 29
                  +5
                  By the way, Sergey. I was in Monte Carlo, I saw everything there ... I will write more about it.
                  1. Korsar4
                    Korsar4 31 August 2019 08: 36
                    +3
                    Only passage was. So I don’t know how the casino is arranged.
                    1. 3x3zsave
                      3x3zsave 31 August 2019 08: 54
                      +2
                      But they didn’t let me go to the casino in Rhodes, I didn’t have any documents with me.
                      1. kalibr
                        31 August 2019 09: 12
                        +3
                        In Monte Carlo, they are allowed into the "hallway". However, it is also very interesting there. And in the halls themselves - show your passport, and you need to buy chips for 17 euros.
                    2. Olgovich
                      Olgovich 31 August 2019 09: 19
                      +4
                      Quote: Korsar4
                      Only passage was. So I don’t know how the casino is arranged.

                      He visited a casino in Baden-Baden (Dostoevsky played there): the most luxurious palace in gold and red velvet
                2. bubalik
                  bubalik 31 August 2019 09: 36
                  +1
                  Dear ... from our casino ... just do not leave am (C)
                  1. 3x3zsave
                    3x3zsave 31 August 2019 10: 54
                    +1
                    "Happiness. Everyone. Free. And let no one leave offended!" (from)
              2. vladcub
                vladcub 31 August 2019 16: 42
                +2
                The series: "The meeting place cannot be changed", when Zhiglov spoke with: "smoked"
            2. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave 31 August 2019 08: 23
              +2
              "Smoke and fumes in this creepy den,
              But all night long, until dawn,
              I read poetry to prostitutes
              M with bandjugs fry alcohol "(c)
              1. Korsar4
                Korsar4 31 August 2019 08: 27
                +2
                "The windows are forever clogged:
                What is there, frost or thunderstorm?
                On the eyes of a cautious cat
                Your eyes look like "(c).
                1. 3x3zsave
                  3x3zsave 31 August 2019 08: 35
                  +2
                  "A man and a cat are crying at the window,
                  Gray rain pours into the dirty glass "(c)
                  1. Korsar4
                    Korsar4 31 August 2019 08: 44
                    +2
                    "Hold on tightly to the steering wheel, driver" (c).
                    1. 3x3zsave
                      3x3zsave 31 August 2019 08: 50
                      +2
                      "Gasoline to capacity, spare tire checked,
                      And technical standard
                      Now we have, Seryoga,
                      You are the same road
                      Keep the style! "(C)
                      1. Korsar4
                        Korsar4 31 August 2019 08: 56
                        +2
                        "My finish line is the horizon.
                        And the tape is the edge of the earth.
                        I must be the first on the horizon "(c).
                      2. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 31 August 2019 09: 00
                        +2
                        "Slippery streets,
                        Foreign cars "kiss"
                        Rumpled wings
                        Accidental love "(c)
                      3. Korsar4
                        Korsar4 31 August 2019 10: 10
                        +1
                        "You delayed
                        Light gray "(c).
                      4. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 31 August 2019 10: 51
                        +1
                        "I can feel your nerves ringing
                        "Five" will not stand it, will pull first "(c)
                      5. Korsar4
                        Korsar4 31 August 2019 13: 14
                        +1
                        "Swords ringing like a ringing glass
                        Since childhood, I have been fond of hearing ”(c).
                      6. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 31 August 2019 13: 19
                        +1
                        "Where have you gone to the devil, sir?
                        Can't you afford peace? "(C)
                      7. Korsar4
                        Korsar4 31 August 2019 13: 44
                        +1
                        “There is no happiness in the world,
                        But there is peace and will ”(c).
                      8. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 31 August 2019 14: 13
                        +1
                        "To the free - will, and to the saved - paradise!
                        Leave a long story for the freshmen "(c)
                      9. Korsar4
                        Korsar4 31 August 2019 15: 25
                        +1
                        "And they blow ancient beliefs
                        Her elastic silk ”(c).
                      10. Pane Kohanku
                        Pane Kohanku 1 September 2019 01: 40
                        +1
                        Lanfren-lanfra, lan-tati-ta
                        Go and feed the cat
                        Something back and forth
                        In short, here, darling
                        request
                      11. vladcub
                        vladcub 31 August 2019 19: 11
                        +1
                        This is about three musketeers, and what screen version I don’t remember now.
              2. Catfish
                Catfish 31 August 2019 09: 42
                +4
                Damn, yes here some players gathered, all over the world are hanging around casinos!
                Or better yet:
                I read poetry to prostitutes
                M with bandjugs fry alcohol "(c)

                And then in general:

                On the eyes of a cautious cat
                Your eyes look like "(c).

                What is being done, what is being done (ellipsis) belay
                1. bubalik
                  bubalik 31 August 2019 09: 50
                  +2
                  Yes, here some players have gathered, all over the world casinos are hanging around!

                  ,, You’re right, dear Konstantin, I’m doing the same in a quarter century crying I’ll retire and go around the world, squandering my money tongue
                  1. Catfish
                    Catfish 31 August 2019 10: 27
                    +2
                    I do not advise you to wait, I retire beyond Ryazan to my retirement and do not wave it. And if everything continues this way further, then the pension will be through a quarter century (ellipsis), etc. laughing
                2. 3x3zsave
                  3x3zsave 31 August 2019 10: 01
                  +1
                  "In our madhouse,
                  "Open Day" (c)
                  1. Catfish
                    Catfish 31 August 2019 10: 28
                    +1
                    Have they ever been locked? recourse
                    1. 3x3zsave
                      3x3zsave 31 August 2019 10: 49
                      -1
                      "The beasts stood
                      Near the door
                      Animals shouted
                      They were not allowed "(c)
                      1. Cat man null
                        Cat man null 31 August 2019 10: 54
                        +4
                        Quote: 3x3zsave
                        ... animals shouted
                        They were not allowed

                        First, the quote is twisted. Not good.

                        And secondly - weren't you here trying to read my morality, on the topic "don't flood"? wink
                      2. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 31 August 2019 11: 09
                        -1
                        Yes I. Just not specifically for you alone, but coupled with your opponent. And it was not morality, but my opinion about your vendetta with him.
                        The fact is that my talk is harmless and welcomed by the authors of articles and comrades-forum users. Your correspondence with Ingvar (so it seems?) Carries a huge negative charge. Personally, to you, or to him, taken separately, I have no complaints hi
                      3. Catfish
                        Catfish 31 August 2019 11: 26
                        +3
                        Hi Kotu. hi You shouldn’t be so in vain, Roman, it’s better to join, we usually have fun here and have a rest with your soul. I appreciate the sense of humor, but the men here have enough of it.

                        "Guys let's be friends!" (C) And, by the way, also the Cat, which Leopold is known to be. smile

                        I once had the pleasure of talking with the author of the cartoon and appreciated his sense of humor. drinks
                3. vladcub
                  vladcub 31 August 2019 16: 52
                  +3
                  Yes, at the end of society has deteriorated. There would be no lobeshnik in the church to beat at the bows, and they stagger around in the grim places.
                  Apparently, in childhood, their fathers did not flog or little flogged
                  1. bubalik
                    bubalik 31 August 2019 17: 13
                    +2
                    Yes, at the end of society has deteriorated.
                    ,,, come to us fellow
                    -And you will be cured. feel
                    1. vladcub
                      vladcub 31 August 2019 19: 14
                      +2
                      "they will cure you" - "Ivan Vasilievich changes his profession"
                4. Pane Kohanku
                  Pane Kohanku 1 September 2019 01: 42
                  +1
                  Damn, yes here some players gathered, all over the world are hanging around casinos!

                  He was pleasant, besides a poet,
                  Let with a small, but lumpy power! fellow drinks
              3. vladcub
                vladcub 31 August 2019 16: 45
                +1
                Good afternoon Anton, I would venture to suggest that the author of these poems: "Uncle Gilyay"
                1. 3x3zsave
                  3x3zsave 31 August 2019 19: 15
                  +1
                  Good evening! Which ones?
      3. Catfish
        Catfish 31 August 2019 07: 47
        +2
        Hailushki, comrade Anton! soldier

        These guys were funny, the growers of the Growl image - they hang tin cans on themselves and horses, and let's gobble each other no matter what they get. But even then, these guys came up with Leonardo and a certain Vinci, such an interesting thing.

        No, what would we think: biathlon - so biathlon! laughing
        Specialist. For you, I know that tanks are not indifferent. smile
        1. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave 31 August 2019 07: 56
          +2
          Hello, Konstantin!
          "Soldiers, brave children!
          Where are your tanks?
          Our tanks are tattered footcloths!
          That's where our tanks are. "
          1. Catfish
            Catfish 31 August 2019 08: 28
            +1
            "And as soon as he said these words, it suddenly became as dark at night,
            The masts fell, the ship crackled and sank to the black bottom ... " love
            1. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave 31 August 2019 10: 56
              +1
              "When a tired submarine,
              From the depths goes home "(c)
              1. Catfish
                Catfish 31 August 2019 11: 28
                +1
                "The upper hatches are battened down, the steering wheel is shining,
                In view of long-term separation, Abrau Durso was issued to everyone. "(C)
                1. 3x3zsave
                  3x3zsave 31 August 2019 11: 43
                  +1
                  "Aimed at tablets,
                  Space cards,
                  And the navigator checks
                  Last time route. "(S)
                  1. Catfish
                    Catfish 31 August 2019 11: 59
                    +1
                    "Goodbye beauties, goodbye sky,
                    The submarine goes under the ice
                    Submarine - Sea Thunderstorm,
                    Under the black cap - steel eyes. "(C)
                    1. 3x3zsave
                      3x3zsave 31 August 2019 13: 06
                      +1
                      "We can
                      Spit on the weather
                      But if they cover
                      The speakers howl
                      About our trouble "(c)
                      1. Cat man null
                        Cat man null 31 August 2019 13: 27
                        +2
                        Quote: 3x3zsave
                        Speakers howl

                        Locators, mumble !!! If you are already flood - do not at least distort the classics am
                      2. Catfish
                        Catfish 31 August 2019 16: 38
                        +2
                        "For all sorts of known reasons
                        women are all good to us
                        Standing on the quays of the divine
                        but at the Pole there is not a soul.
                        Submarine - Sea Thunderstorm,
                        Capital vodka - steel eyes! " drinks
                  2. Pane Kohanku
                    Pane Kohanku 1 September 2019 01: 45
                    0
                    "Aimed at tablets,
                    Space cards

                    "This song, comrade Mitrofanov, Gagarin sang in space!" winked
              2. vladcub
                vladcub 31 August 2019 16: 53
                +1
                Words from a song
          2. vladcub
            vladcub 31 August 2019 19: 23
            +1
            Anton, the original was
            Soldiers, brave guys!
            Where are your wives?
            Our wives are loaded guns
            A tattered footcloths are cool
    2. CTABEP
      CTABEP 31 August 2019 14: 50
      +2
      Quote: bubalik
      ,,, one can only envy the author "white envy" for such an interesting excursion good which he shared with us, what and a sweepstake during the tournament arranged?


      For hundreds of years, people have not changed much - of course they did :)
  2. vomag
    vomag 31 August 2019 06: 05
    0
    I would not be in a hurry to conclude .. paid armor is sheet steel .. sheet steel is the end of the 18th century! ... now the question is what tournaments? what kind of armor? who writes what to us ... and why? ..... (I'm talking about historians now)
    1. mat-vey
      mat-vey 31 August 2019 06: 20
      +3
      "Plate armor is sheet steel." - it seems that there were steel cuirasses in the time of Alexander the Great.
  3. kalibr
    31 August 2019 06: 57
    +3
    Quote: bubalik
    and a sweepstake during the tournament arranged?

    Of course, people are always people!
  4. kalibr
    31 August 2019 07: 06
    +4
    Quote: mat-vey
    Like back in the time of Alexander the Great, steel cuirasses were. Not?

    An iron shell was found in the tomb of Father Alexander.
  5. Catfish
    Catfish 31 August 2019 07: 24
    +3
    Good morning friends! hi
    I am with you again and am glad to communicate.
    Vyacheslav, as always, is my Merci for beautiful material. hi
    1. kalibr
      31 August 2019 07: 38
      +2
      18.00 will be continued, stay tuned ...
      1. vladcub
        vladcub 31 August 2019 16: 55
        +2
        Thank . I will wait
        1. kalibr
          31 August 2019 19: 45
          0
          Apparently coming out tomorrow ...
          1. vladcub
            vladcub 31 August 2019 21: 22
            0
            Let's hope
  6. bubalik
    bubalik 31 August 2019 07: 36
    +3
    tournament ”, on the contrary, was held not somewhere at the request of one or another knight, but by decision of the king, duke or count - that is, the owners of certain cities or large castles, where these tournaments were organized. Guests were invited in advance and were given a reception appropriate to their position and fame. Therefore, such tournaments were distinguished by great splendor

    got acquainted with the latest in armor and weapons

    ,,, by analogy to today's realities, a mixture of the World Cup and an arms exhibition smile
  7. kalibr
    31 August 2019 07: 44
    +2
    Quote: bubalik
    ,,, by analogy to today's realities, a mixture of the World Cup and an arms exhibition

    That's it!
  8. Senior seaman
    Senior seaman 31 August 2019 09: 23
    +3
    He is not your potential prey, why destroy him or mutilate?

    Some kind of illogical phrase ... maybe
    He same your potential booty, why destroy it or disfigure it?
    1. kalibr
      31 August 2019 18: 23
      +1
      Of course SAME ... wrong. It happens...
  9. Edward Vashchenko
    Edward Vashchenko 31 August 2019 10: 57
    +2
    Vyacheslav Olegovich thanks for the material, although recently he was there himself, as if he had been again)
  10. The comment was deleted.
  11. kalibr
    31 August 2019 18: 22
    +1
    Thanks Edward! I regret that there was little. In Paris, the Museum of the Army - 5 hours, and here, where the most and best exhibited - all 2. And as always, the camera failed, the battery died, although it signaled to me that it was fully charged. And my granddaughter had to shoot an iPhone ...