I knowingly wrote the word "Designer" with a capital letter. This is a peculiar tribute to Novozhilov. And the recognition that the Designer is not only a title, but also a vocation.
But now we will go through the sad path from the very beginning ...
The birth of the designer
October 27 1925, Moscow. Vasily Vasilyevich Sokolov and Iraida Ivanovna Novozhilova's servicemen had a son, Heinrich.
The center of Moscow, Mashkov Lane, near Chisty Prudy. Who could have seen himself in the dreams of a boy, in whose eyes the triumphs of Chkalov, Gromov, Kokkinaki, the epic with the Chelyuskinites took place?
Of course, the pilot. As the main majority. "Prepared" from the heart. Ran, jumped ... Well, and so it happened that Heinrich himself broke the road to the sky. More precisely, I broke my leg very badly, so I had to undergo several operations. So the dream, alas, remained a dream.
And then there was a war.
Evacuated to Penza. There, Heinrich finished the compulsory nine-year-plan, with a leg that had just started to function normally, they did not take to the front. And in 1942, he returns to Moscow.
Well, that did not go to VGIK. Two of his friends went there, and Novozhilov himself participated in the First All-Union Children's Photo Exhibition in 1939. So he was able to shoot, and could well become a cameraman. But - carried by. Us. And Heinrich Novozhilov at first turned out to be an employee (laboratory assistant) of the MAI, and a year later he became a student. Aircraft Faculty, of course.
There, above, without letting Novozhilov fly, they did everything so that others could do it for him. And I am sure, I have never regretted this once.
At the traditional "get-togethers" before graduating from the graduation course, former graduates came to the students. So one day Novozhilov saw at once two legends - Yakovlev and Ilyushin.
Ilyushin conquered the students with his simplicity, as well as the ability to sing and dance quite well.
The student Novozhilov’s heart was joyful when he went to pre-diploma practice at OKB-240, which was supervised by S. V. Ilyushin.
The bureau was located on Krasnoarmeyskaya street, not far from the Dynamo stadium. There was an unshakable rule in the Design Bureau - students were immediately enrolled in the state. Thus, Heinrich Novozhilov, without even having defended his diploma, from 1 July 1948, became a design engineer with a salary of 900 rubles.
And the practice turned out to be the most that the work in the department of the fuselage, led by Valery Afrikanovich Borog.
By the way, there are no records indicating a change of employment in Novozhilov’s workbook. 68 years in OKB-204. The bureau changed its name, but the essence remained the same. 68 years in the same design office.
What met the young engineer at first at work? Having defended his diploma, in 1949, Novozhilov became a full-fledged specialist and plunged into a frantic rhythm of work.
But the whole country lived in such a rhythm. They restored the cities and factories destroyed by the war, prepared the first atomic bomb, and began the production of ballistic missiles and jets.
Fight for the sky
14 May 1949 was adopted by Il-1890 by a decree of the Council of Ministers No. 700-28. Serial production was launched in Moscow, Voronezh and Omsk, and a little later they connected plants in Irkutsk and Kuibyshev.
By the way, IL-28 developed, without having any technical specifications, in a proactive manner.
In those days, it was very difficult to get involved with the Tupolev Design Bureau, which, in principle, was considered to be the most important for bombers. And Tupolev built (unlike Ilyushin) by state order the Tu-14 plane, which turned out to be a disappointment.
They say that Tupolev very impartially responded to the IL-28, when he made his first successful flight. But such were the times, such were the morals. The IL-28 went into series, and the 6 316 machines were built.
And soon the prototype of the future passenger IL-14 took off into its first flight. Then a whole series of successful developments followed: the IL-40 jet attack aircraft, the experienced IL-46 bomber, the IL-54 front bomber with the swept wing, which the twenty-eighths were going to change ...
It so happened that this time the Tupolev won the competition in two KBs, and its Tu-16 went into the series. “We must be able to take a punch!” Ilyushin’s subordinates often heard this phrase from him.
Novozhilov was appointed lead designer IL-54.
“Being the lead engineer for the Il-54 gave me a truly invaluable practical experience in the process of producing the aircraft. When the fifty-fourth was assembled, I had a chance to do her flight tests for over a year ... ” - recalled Henry Vasilyevich.
One can only once again express regret that the outstanding IL-54 machine turned out to be unnecessary to anyone during the period of the collapse of Khrushchev's ballistic missiles.
For the first time the plane took to the air 3 on April 1955 of the year, in the summer it was shown in Kubinka near Moscow by a high-ranking US military, and soon ... an instruction was given: stop all work!
It is said that Khrushchev himself was sentenced by a bomber. Indeed, IL-54 was the last bomber of the Ilyushin Design Bureau. Moreover, at the end of the fifties, the Ilyushin Design Bureau was about to close altogether. Enchanted by the cosmic success of the Queen, Khrushchev began just as vigorously to curtail aircraft building.
Many design bureaus in those years were threatened with liquidation (as unnecessary). But Ilyushin, as they say, "turned around in the air" and directed the work of the OKB to create passenger aircraft. And Novozhilov suddenly found himself in the chair of the party secretary of the plant.
Generally, Genrikh Vasilyevich was, to put it mildly, not happy with such an appointment. By that time, he had already taken place as an engineer, became a first category designer, was engaged in construction, construction, and testing. And here it is ...
Strange as it may seem, Ilyushin himself "squeezed" himself into the chair of the party leader Novozhilov. “If they choose, agree, such work will allow you to get to know people ...” And for two and a half years Novozhilov was engaged in social work. Today, perhaps, this is not very clear, but in those years, the secretary of the party committee played a large role at the plant. Something like a real political officer, solving all questions, from the apartment to the consideration of household complaints.
At the end of 1958, Novozhilov passed the party affairs and returned to a more familiar job, as deputy chief designer of passenger IL-18.
In addition, Ilyushin instructed him to organize the operation of these machines in Aeroflot. So Novozhilov gained experience operating.
For himself, Genrikh Vasilievich considered Il-18 a particularly valuable work. He said more than once in an interview that without that production and operating school there would have been no Novozhilov’s general designer ...
Work on the IL-18 took six years, and upon completion, Novozhilov received another promotion. He was appointed First Deputy General Designer for the IL-62 airliner project.
G. Novozhilov and S. Ilyushin
The result is known to all: the IL-62 was a very long (from 1967 to 1995 years) time "board number 1" in the USSR and Russia, and now two aircraft are in operation of the flight squad "Russia". By the way, IL-62M is used by the Korean leader Kim Jong-un.
In 1970, a group of employees of the Ilyushin Design Bureau (including Novozhilov) was awarded the Lenin Prize, and a year later, after summing up the 8 5th Five Year Plan, by the Decree of the Presidium of the USSR Supreme Council from 26 on April 1971, Novozhilov was awarded the title Hero of Socialist Labor.
However, between these two joyful events, another happened.
At the post of general designer
In the summer of 1970, Sergey Vladimirovich Ilyushin made the final decision to retire. Age in 77 years and a very busy life still affected the health of the designer. After all, even after retirement, Ilyushin lived quite a bit.
On July 28, 1970, the Minister who arrived at OKB aviation Dementyev at the meeting of the leaders of the team read out order No. 378-K on dismissal of S. V. Ilyushin from his post "in accordance with a personal request and for health reasons" and on the appointment of G. V. Novozhilov as general designer of the Design Bureau of the Moscow machine-building plant "Strela" .
Why do we so often refer to the term “great” as applied to people of that time? Probably, because the greatness of a man lies not only in what he did in life, but also in how.
Being a great Designer, Ilyushin also approached the issue of continuity. After all, no one persecuted him, just Sergei Vladimirovich felt that everything, his strength was running out. And slowly forged his successor.
Novozhilov recalled this:
“To tell the truth, I never felt that he, roughly speaking, trained me for those six years that I had been his first deputy with him. Maybe I became the general designer because I never wanted to become one ...”
It so happened that Heinrich Novozhilov grew up without a father since 12 years. Ilyushin largely compensated for this damage. Both professionally and purely human. But - without any extra effects.
"Ilyushin’s current perception doesn’t match his real appearance, they perceive him as an angel with wings who only blessed us - the young. Nothing of the kind! He was simply distinguished by his iron demands to his subordinates. Perhaps, only students who came to the design bureau were an exception ..."
And the student became worthy of his teacher. Even in small things.
Left: Novozhilov, Ilyushin, sits in the center - Tupolev
Example. 25 March 1971 of the year. The central airfield named after M.V. Frunze, or “Khodynka”. From here, all the Ilyushin Design Bureau cars usually performed their first flights.
On this day, the first flight went IL-76, no less epoch-making machine than the IL-62. Novozhilov invited Ilyushin. The two went around the plane, examined everything again, exchanged opinions again. Ilyushin said: "You can!"
It is clear that the flight would take place in any case. That everything was agreed at all levels, but ... This is not a fawning, is it? This is the student’s highest respect for the teacher — to give Ilyushin the opportunity to conduct a car named after him on the first flight ...
And work again. Now Novozhilov carried on his shoulders, as on wings, the entire amount of responsibility for the design bureau.
1969 year. In America, the terrible hype about the first flight of the Boeing-747. The ministers of the aviation industry Dementiev and civil aviation Bugayev set Novozhilov the task of “catching up and overtaking”.
By this time, Soviet domestic transport had reached 100 numbers of millions of passengers per year. We needed a new aircraft to service large flows of passengers to places of mass rest.
The task was very difficult. The liner on the 350 passenger seats, and even with a range of 5000 km - is a difficult thing. And they began it with the study of possible options. Considered the possibility of transforming passenger IL-62 and even transport IL-76.
As a result, the OKB sat down to develop an entirely new aircraft. At the end of 1976, the first experienced IL-86 was rolled out onto the airfield of the Central Aerodrome.
The result of this work became 103 serial IL-86, built in Voronezh. For twenty years, the planes carried approximately 150 to millions of passengers. Among other things, IL-86 entered history as one of the most reliable aircraft in the world and deservedly became a platform for developing the following aircraft models.
In IL-86 designers have invested a huge amount of original solutions. And therefore, deservedly, in 1984, Novozhilova was elected a full member of the USSR Academy of Sciences for the department of mechanics and control processes. His scientific work is related to aerodynamic research, the reliability of complex structures, the development of fundamentally new approaches to the so-called manufacturability of the machines and mechanisms being developed. About one and a half hundred inventions and these "innovations" are protected by patents ...
23 June 1981 was closed by the Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR Novozhilov with the second gold medal of the Hero of Socialist Labor. By that time he was already a deputy of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR, then he was elected a deputy of two more convocations.
Worked OKB, worked "Elah." IL-XNUMHD made flights across Antarctica. IL-18 carried thousands of passengers. In the armed forces plowed Il-86MD transport workers, and Il-76K was developed and built for cosmonaut training. Plus a flying hospital Il-76MD "Scalpel", which still serves in more than one instance.
28 September 1988 for the first time Il-96-300 rises into the sky, and in March 1990, the first flight of a twin-engine turboprop Il-114, a new passenger aircraft for local airlines, made the first flight. 17 May 1994, the multi-purpose IL-103 rose into the sky. 1 August 1995, the IL-76MF takes off, which cannot even be called a modification by the name. This is such a radically reworked base model that the aircraft can be considered a completely different device.
All these years, Henry V. Novozhilov led OKB difficult and difficult road. We have said more than once that, for political and economic reasons, our government dealt a severe blow to the domestic aviation industry, effectively destroying the school of the Soviet passenger aircraft industry.
For the past two decades, the famous OKB turned out to be without a state order, practically without state support. With anger, we wrote that even the work on transport IL-112 OKB led at its own expense and on our own. This is a fact that can not be silent.
But even in such conditions, the OKB team did what it was supposed to do: designed and built airplanes for the needs of their country.
And this was a great merit Novozhilova, which, even after retiring on deserved rest, remained an integral part of the Ilyushin Design Bureau.
Honorary General Designer of PJSC “Aviation Complex named after S. Ilyushin” Heinrich Novozhilov left us on April 28 of the year 2019.
Heinrich Vasilyevich had many state awards. Many honorary titles and titles. It is good, it is wonderful when a person’s work is appreciated.
But, probably, the main title is the Designer. Creator. The creator of the new. And as long as there are planes flying in our sky bearing the name of the great Ilyushin, until then we must remember his no less great student and successor of this noble cause - the creation of a new one.
Passed information that the aircraft of the President of Russia, IL-96-300PU, will be named "Heinrich Novozhilov."