Military Review

The rise and fall of the Templars

237
The First Crusade (1096-1099), which ended in victory for the army of Christians, paradoxically worsened the situation of Christian pilgrims making pilgrimages to Jerusalem. Previously, paying the required taxes and fees, they could hope to protect the local rulers. But the new rulers of the Holy Land actually lost control over the roads, to move on which without armed guards has now become extremely dangerous. Forces to restore the elementary order in the conquered lands were few and every year became less and less. Many of the Crusaders believed that, having captured Jerusalem, they fulfilled their vow, and now happily returned to their homeland, giving God the opportunity to take care of the fate of the "liberated" city. Those who remained were barely enough to hold power in strategically important cities and castles. In 1118, the French knight Hugh de Payen and 8 offered his comrades to free and unarmed pilgrims to ordinary pilgrims to accompany their caravans from the coast of the Mediterranean to Jerusalem.



Hugh de Payen


That was the beginning of a new knightly Order, to which the King of Jerusalem Baldwin II donated the building of the former Al-Aqsa mosque on the Temple Mount - this place once housed the famous temple of King Solomon. And Islamic tradition connects this place with the night journey of Muhammad from Mecca to Jerusalem (Isra) and the ascension of the prophet to Heaven (Miraj).


Modern Al Aqsa Mosque, Jerusalem


Thus, the place is sacred, symbolic for Jews, Christians and Muslims. Of course, such a prestigious location could not help but be reflected in the title of the Order - "The Secret Knighthood of Christ and the Temple of Solomon." But in Europe, he was better known as the Order of the Knights of the Temple, the knights themselves were called "Templar" (if in Russian style) or Templar. It seems that Payen himself did not anticipate the consequences of his initiative.

The disinterested (at first) readiness with a real risk to life to protect strangers made a great impression both in Palestine and in Europe. But the bulk of the pilgrims who needed to protect the Templars was not rich, and their gratitude for 10 years was purely symbolic, almost “platonic”. The gift of Fulk of Anjou, who donated 30 000 to livres in 1124, could rather be considered as an exception to the rule. Only after de Payen's journey across Europe, undertaken in order to attract new knights and collect at least some means, the situation began to change for the better. The great role was played by the church council in the city of Troyes in January 1129, at which the status of the new Order was finally secured. Bernard of Clervaux, abbot of the Cistercian monastery (later canonized), wrote a treatise in the 1228 year, entitled “Praise to the new knighthood”. Now he made a charter for the new Order, later called "Latin" (before that, the Templars observed the charter of the Order of St. Augustine). This charter, in particular, stated:

"The soldiers of Christ are not in the least afraid of what they commit sin by killing enemies, nor the danger threatening their own lives. After all, kill someone for Christ’s sake or wish to die for Him not only completely free of sin, but also very commendable and dignified. "
"To kill an enemy in the name of Christ is to bring him back to Christ."


The rise and fall of the Templars

Bernard of Clairvass, very complacent in appearance to the nuns, who wrote the statutes of the Order of the Templars and called to kill in the name of Christ


In theory, everything was fine and wonderful, but about the first French knights who went to help the Templars, the same Bernard wrote:
"Among them are villains, atheists, perjurers, murderers, robbers, robbers, debauchees, and in this I see a double benefit: thanks to the departure of these people, the country will be spared them, waiting for important services from them."


As the saying goes, "no waste - there are reserves." Of course, it was better for such cruel criminals to let go of all sins in advance and send them far away from France - to kill the Saracens. It remains only to admire the power of the personality and the organizational talent of Hugo de Payen, who even from such “material” managed to create a quite efficient and very effective tool.



Having achieved official recognition and support of the Church, the Knights Templar increasingly began to receive donations from noble people - first money, and then in the form of property. Already in 1129 The Order received the first landed estates in Europe - the initiative was shown by the Queen of Portugal Teresa. In 1134 was The King of Aragon Alfonso I followed her example, bequeathed the Order of some of his possessions in the north of Spain (the whole kingdom was not allowed to be given to the Templars, as the king wished). In 1137 was from Queen Matilda the Templars received their first possessions in England. The Duke of Conton of Conton gave the Knights Templar an island off the coast of France. In 1170, the Order had lands in Germany, in 1204. - in Greece, in 1230 - in Bohemia. The Templars also had possessions in Flanders, Italy, Ireland, Austria, Hungary, Poland and the Kingdom of Jerusalem. Very quickly, literally in front of surprised contemporaries, the Order of the poor knights turned into a powerful military-political organization, its goals and objectives were expanded to geopolitical, and the Templars became a serious factor in international politics. And now not only adventurers began to show interest in serving in its ranks, who were revered for happiness in any European country, but also the younger sons of “good” families. The prospect of becoming, if not a marshal or a seneschal, then a commander or commander for young, full of power and ambitious aspirations of men was a good alternative to a boring life in a monastery. The risk of sitting up in ordinary positions was small: on the one hand, the knights died in constant clashes with Muslims, on the other - the possessions of the Order grew in lands on which new priors were organized - therefore, new vacancies were opened. According to the charter of 1128, the members of the Order consisted of knights and serving brothers. Later "monk brothers" joined them. Knights wore white cloaks with eight-pointed crosses, pledged to keep a vow of chastity, poverty and obedience. In peacetime, they lived in the shelters of the Order. The heir to their property became the Order. Sometimes family members of the Knights Templar were still assigned content from the treasury of the Order - usually relatives or relatives of higher degrees of initiation could rely on it, or relatives left without any means of subsistence for the ordinary knight. The ban on relations with women sometimes pushed some of the “brothers” who were too principled on this issue to homosexual contacts, which subsequently gave reason to accuse them of sodomy. The secular members of the order included donates (people who rendered various services to the Order) and duties (persons from childhood who were assigned to join the Order and were educated according to its rules). Serving brothers were divided into squires and artisans, they could marry, wore brown or black clothes. Please note: the squire in this case is not a boy from a noble family preparing to become a knight, but a servant, an inferior member of the Order, who does not have a knighthood. The Order Hierarchy numbered 11 degrees, the youngest of which was the title of a squire, the eldest being the Grand Master. The standard bearer (9 place in the hierarchy) was commanded by servants (squires). Podmarshal - a warrior of a common origin, was the head of sergeants and enjoyed some of the privileges of a knight, in the order hierarchy he stood on the 8 level. The highest (seventh) degree that a non-nobleman could claim in the Order was the title of brother sergeant - he had the right to own a horse, he could take a servant on a hike, but he was forbidden to have his own tent. The knight brother is already the title of 6 degree, giving the right to have a squire, to own three horses and a marching tent. It is curious that the rank of 5 (higher than that of a knight) was held by a brother-tailor who was engaged in equipping all members of the Order. The commander (4 degree in the hierarchy) ruled one of the order provinces, the commander subordinate to him were the commandants of the castles (during the period of the greatest power of the Order, the number of comtums reached 5 000!). Marshal (3 degree in the hierarchy) was engaged in combat training and led the order troops in wartime. But the seneschal (2 degree), who was the Deputy Grand Master, was engaged in purely administrative work and financial issues, he had no direct relation to military affairs. Thus, the Templars were perfectly familiar with the thesis (later briefly expounded by Napoleon) that "war is a simple matter, for it only three things are needed: money, money, and again money." The power of the Grand Master was somewhat limited to the Chapter - the Council, in which the head of the Order acted as the first among equals and had only one vote. Interestingly, the commander of the mercenary detachments (Turkopoller) had only a 10 degree in the order hierarchy - only henchmen were below him.

With the heretics and the infidels, the Templars were obliged to fight even if they outnumbered them threefold. With co-religionists, they had the right to join the battle only. after a threefold attack on himself. Leave the battlefield templar could see the Order of the banner (Bossean) fell to the ground.


Bossean, the banner of the Templars


The privileges of the Order grew rapidly. Pope Innocent II in 1139 decided that any Templar has the right to cross any borders without paying taxes and duties, and cannot obey anyone except His Holiness Pope himself. In 1162, Pope Alexander III, with a special bull, freed the Templars from the tutelage of the Jerusalem patriarch and allowed him to have his own clergy. As a result, in Europe, the Templars built around 150 own churches and cathedrals. Not only were the “brothers” of the Order forbidden to be excommunicated from the Church - their priests received the right to independently remove the interdict imposed by other hierarchs. Finally, the Templars were allowed to leave a tithe in their treasury collected for the needs of the Church. No other Order had such privileges and privileges from the Vatican - even the Order of Hospitallers based even on 19 years before (in 1099). Therefore, it is quite logical that, in addition to a well-trained professional army, the Templars organized their own police and court.

Initially, it was forbidden to take knights excommunicated from the Church into the Order, but then, on the contrary, it was considered expedient to recruit new members from among them - “in order to help save their souls”. As a result, in full religious fanaticism of the world of medieval Europe, the possessions of the Order became real islands of free-thinking and toleration. After the Wars of Wars, many Qatar knights found salvation in the Knights Templar order. It is with penetration into the order of knights excommunicated by the church that some researchers associate the appearance of some heretical teaching in the XIII century: the Templars allegedly recognized the existence of not only the “higher” god, but also the god of the “lower” —the creator of matter and evil. He was called Baphomet - “baptism with wisdom” (c). However, some historians believe that the notorious Baphomet is, in fact, a distorted Mohammed. That is, some Templars secretly professed Islam. Other researchers believe that the Templars were supporters of the Gnostic sect of the Ophites, the mysteries of which they had already met in the East. Some scholars talk about the possible connection of the Templars with the powerful Islamic Order of the Assassins and draw attention to similar structures of these organizations. The link was, indeed, quite humiliating for the supposedly all-powerful assassins, who were forced to pay the Templars an annual tribute to 2000 gold bezant. Gradually, the Templars amassed enough strength to not only protect pilgrims from robber troops, but also engage in battles with entire armies of the enemy. At the peak of the Order’s power, the total number of its members reached 20 000 people. However, the warriors were not all of them. And the "real" soldiers, not "tournament" fighters and not warriors performing mainly guarding or ceremonial-representative functions, were mostly those of the Templars who were in the Middle East. The lifestyle of the Knights Templar of the Holy Land and Europe was very different. “Nowhere but in Jerusalem do they live in poverty,” is what is written about the Templars in one of the medieval manuscripts. And, it must be assumed that the Knights Templar of the Holy Land did not particularly like the “brothers” from the order residences of England or France. But, to the honor of the Great Masters, it should be said that they did not hide in Europe, they always lived and served their Order in the Holy Land, and six of them died in the battles with the Saracens.


The Templars attack the caravan of Muslims, a frame from the movie "Kingdom of Heaven"


At the same time, the Templars were recognized authorities in the field of diplomacy: they, as a rule, acted as independent mediators in a dispute between the warring parties, including during negotiations between Catholic countries and Orthodox Byzantium and the countries of Islam. The Syrian poet and diplomat Ibn Munkyz spoke of the Templars as friends, “although they were people of a different faith,” while speaking of other “Franks”, he invariably emphasized their folly, savagery and barbarism, and in general, often could not do without curses at them. Also of interest are the epithets that chroniclers of those years used in relation to the knights of various Orders: they are usually called "valiant" hospitallers, and the Templars are called "wise".

Along with the Order of Johannites, the Templars became the main fighting force of the crusaders in Palestine, and with a constant force - in contrast to the armies of European monarchs periodically appearing in the holy land. In 1138, a detachment of the Templars and the secular knights under the command of Robert de Craon, (the successor of Hugh de Peynes) defeated the Turks from Ascalon near the city of Tequio, but was carried away by the gathering of military booty and suffered heavy losses. During the Second Crusade (extremely unsuccessful for Christians), the Templars managed to save the army of Louis VII (January 6, 1148), which was squeezed into the ravine, saved from defeat. The first great military success came to the Order in 1151 - under the Grand Master Bernard de Tremel, who won a number of victories. Two years later, this master and 40 knights will die during the assault on Ascalon. Some ill-wishers then accused them of greed: allegedly, part of the Templars stopped in the breach of the wall and turned their swords against other troops - so as not to let them into the city and not share their loot. Those who came to their senses interrupted the Templars who had embarked on robbery and, having built barricades, repulsed the assault. The city, as a result, was nevertheless captured by Christians. The disaster of the Battle of Hattin (1187) ended in a catastrophe, in which the last King of Jerusalem, Guy de Lusignan, was decided on the advice of the Grand Master of the Templar Gerard de Reidfort. All the Templars who took part in it died (or were executed in captivity), and Reedfor, being captured, dishonored his name by ordering the surrender of the fortress of Gaza, which the Order owned from 1150. Jerusalem was left defenseless - in the whole city it turned out at that time only two knights. But Baron Balian de Ibelin appealed to Saladin with a request to let him go to besieged Jerusalem to take the family, and received permission to spend one night in it.


Orlando Bloom as Balian de Ibelin, film "Kingdom of Heaven"


Having yielded to the prayers of the patriarch and the townspeople, Ibelin broke his oath. He armed all eligible men to military service, 50 knighted the most eminent and notable townspeople, putting them at the head of the militias and entrusting the defense to various sections of the wall. Salah al-Din offered to surrender Jerusalem on very mild conditions: 30 000 without compensation for the property left, Christians wishing to leave Palestine were promised to send them to Europe at the expense of the sultan's treasury, remaining allowed to settle 5 miles from the city. The ultimatum was rejected, and the soldiers of Saladin vowed to tear down the walls of Jerusalem and destroy all Christians. However, later Saladin asked the mullahs to free them from this oath. He allowed the priests to stay at the shrines, the rest had to pay a ransom: 20 gold for a man, 10 for a woman and 5 for a child. For the poor, the ransom was cut in half. Saladin's brother asked the Christian poor for the Sultan as a gift to 1 000 and released them in the name of the merciful Allah. Saladin gave the Patriarch a 700 man, Balianu de Ibelin presented 500. Ransom for 7 000 the poor paid the Templars. After that, Saladin himself released all the old men and the warriors who had not bought back. In addition, many left Jerusalem illegally - climbing over poorly guarded walls. Others came out through the gate in their Muslim clothing. Part hid in Armenian and Greek families, which Saladin did not banish from the city. Those who wished to leave for Europe were ordered to take out the Genoese and the Venetians, whose 40 ships wintered in Egypt. The deputy of Saladin sent water and bread to the ships, warning that he would confiscate the sails if the shipowners refused to take the people assigned to them. In the case of deception of refugees, Genoa and Venice were threatened with a ban on trade in Egypt. A total of 18 000 people were bought, but from 11 to 16 thousands still fell into slavery.


Salah ad-Din


From 1191, Accra became the new capital of the Crusaders. Despite the hardest losses suffered during the war with Salah ad-Din, the Templars were able to improve their affairs and regain strength when the troops of Richard the Lion-Heart arrived in Palestine. Taking advantage of the opportunity, the Templars then bought the island of Cyprus from the ever-needy king-knight. And Richard’s brother John (the Landless) later laid to the Templars even the great seal of the kingdom of England. In the XIII century, the Templars fought in the army of the King of Aragon on the Balearic Islands (1229-1230 campaign). In 1233, they participated in the storming of Valencia. They took part in the Crusades of the French King Louis IX - in Egypt and in Tunisia. This participation was forced, because Louis, later called the Saints, broke the delicate balance by breaking the contract with the Muslim Damascus, which was concluded precisely by the Templars. Lavrov commander, this unlucky king did not earn, moreover, the consequences of his extremely unsuccessful campaigns were disastrous for the Christians of Palestine. The Templars also had to pay a ransom for Louis, who was taken prisoner - 25 000 gold livres. The time of the crusaders in the Holy Land was steadily coming to an end. Tripoli city was lost in 1289, Accra and Saint-Jean-d'Acres Castle were lost in 1291. The last fortresses of the Templars in the Holy Land - the Pilgrim and Tortosa Castle, were left by them in August of the same year. Without sources of water, the island of Ruad, located two miles from Tortosa, the Templars held 12 for years. After that, they finally left the Holy Land and moved to Cyprus, and this was the end of the Palestinian period. stories Order of the Templars.

But, besides the military, the Order of the Templars had another story. The Templars were engaged in transportation of pilgrims, and also acted as intermediaries in the redemption of prisoners, if necessary, providing a loan for these purposes. They did not disdain to engage in agriculture, set up farms, raised horses, raised cattle and sheep, had their own transport and merchant fleet, and traded grain and other products. In the XII-XIII centuries. The Order minted its own coin, and in the Paris Temple it was kept the reference gold livre made by them. In addition, the Templars provided services for the transport of gold, silver, jewelry - including at the intergovernmental level. Since the 13th century, the treasury storehouses of the order were considered the most reliable in the world, many members of the European high society and even some kings kept their savings in them. At that time, pilgrims and crusaders left their money in the European Templar vaults in exchange for bills of exchange for which they received cash in the Holy Land. At the same time, thanks to the Templars, the practice of non-cash lending has spread to interstate payments. The Templars' high competence in financial matters was also evaluated at the French royal court: in 1204, a member of the Order of Eimar became the treasurer of Philip II Augustus, in 1263 the order's brother Amory, La Roche, held the same position under Louis IX.

However, dark spots sometimes appeared on the business reputation of the Templars. So, the ugly story with the Bishop of Sidon, which happened in 1199, became known: the Templars then refused to return the funds they had deposited. The angry hierarch anathematized the entire Order - it did not help to solve his problem. Another spot on the reputation of the Order of the brothers was the treachery of the Arab sheikh Nasreddin, who had asked for asylum (and even having agreed to be baptized), one of the claimants to the Cairo throne, whom they gave to the enemy for 60 thousand dinars.

So, already a few decades after the founding of the Order, the Templars had branches in all countries of Western Europe, submitting only to their grand master and pope. The state in the state of ownership of the Order, of course, irritated the monarchs of all countries. However, at first the patronage of the Pope of Rome and the military-political situation in the world, and then the increased power of the Order forced the kings to refrain from conflicts with the Templars. The English king Henry III also had to retreat, and in 1252, he tried to threaten the Order with the confiscation of land holdings:
"You, the Templars, enjoy great liberties and privileges and possess such large possessions that your arrogance and pride do not know I will keep. That which was once so ill-conceived is given to you, it can be wise and selected. That which was too quickly ceded can be returned back. "


The head of the English commandership boldly replied to Heinrich:
"It would be better if your lips did not utter such unfriendly and stupid words. As long as you do justice, you will rule. If you violate our rights, you are unlikely to remain a king."


At the beginning of the XIII century, the Order was the richest organization in Europe, whose power seemed to have no limits. If in the second half of the 12th century the annual income of the order reached 54 million francs, then at the beginning of the 13th century it reached already 112 million. And the main store served as the Paris Temple. Therefore, the monarchs of many countries with envy and lust looked at the treasures of the Templars, and for the French king Philip IV (Beautiful) the temptation to patch holes in the state budget at the expense of the treasure of the Temple was simply irresistible. And, unlike English King Henry III, Philip already felt strong enough to try to destroy the mighty Order.


Juan de Flandes, Philip the Handsome, portrait (c. 1500, Museum of Art History, Vienna)


The idea of ​​appropriating someone else's property was not new to this king. In 1291, he ordered the arrest in France of all Italian merchants and bankers whose property was confiscated. In 1306, he expelled from his kingdom the Jews, whose property also passed into his hands. Now Philip IV eagerly looked at the treasures of the Templars. The task was facilitated by the independent and proud behavior of his opponents. English king Richard the Lionheart who knew his fighting comrades well before his death said: "I leave my stinginess to the Cistercian monks, my pride to the Templars, my luxury to the orders of destitute monks." The saying “drink like a templar” was common throughout Europe. But, unlike many graphs and some kings, the Templars drank with their own money, and it was very difficult to bring them to justice. The excuse for the massacre was the testimony of two former Templar, expelled from the Order for the murder of his brother. By writing a denunciation, they hoped to avoid prosecution of the secular authorities. However, the Order of the Templars was a pillar of the secular power of the Roman high priests, and while Philip the Beautiful was alive, Pope Boniface VIII, the hands of the King of France were tied. Therefore, the French Chevalier Guillaume Nogare was sent to Italy. Having come to terms with the Pope's enemy, the Roman patrician Column, he captured Boniface. The governor of St. Peter was humbuged by hunger, after which, through the efforts of Philip the Handsome, the new Pope elected Cardinal Bertrand de Got, who took the name of Clement V.

Meanwhile, the Grand Master of the Templars, Jacques Molay, did not leave the thought of the Palestine abandoned by Christians. There is evidence that at the beginning of the XIV century, the main goal of the Order was to end all wars in Europe and turn all efforts to wage war with the "infidels." It was under the pretext of negotiating a new Crusade that Pope Clement V summoned the grandmaster from Cyprus to Paris. The head of the Templars arrived at the Parisian Temple, accompanied by 60 knights, who brought 150 thousand gold florins and a huge amount of silver. On October 13, 1308, all the Templars of France were arrested (from this date all the bad omens associated with Friday, the 13th, trace their origin). The Templar process lasted for several years. The first victims of this trial were 54 knights who were executed at the monastery of St. Anthony in 1310. Jacques Molay stubbornly denied his guilt and his torment lasted for several more years. Finally, on May 2, 1312, the Pope openly sided with the secular authorities and, in a special bull, notified the whole world about the decision to liquidate the Templar Order and put him under a curse. The set of accusations was quite standard: non-recognition of Christ and the cross, worship of the devil, the image of which they smeared with fat, fried babies born of the girls they seduced (!), Sodomy and cohabitation with demons, etc. A century earlier, similar accusations were brought against the Cathars, a century later - a colleague of Joan of Arc, Marshal of France Gilles de Rais (Duke "Bluebeard"). To believe such nonsense, you need to be either a very gullible person, or the kings of France and England, who immediately and “legally” confiscated the property of the Templars. But in Germany, Spain and Cyprus the Order was justified, in Portugal the remnants of the Templars united into the Order of Christ, in Scotland - into the Order of Thorns.

11 March 1314. The Grand Master of the Order of the Templars, Jacques Molet, and 80-year-old Normandy Prior, Geoffroy de Charnay, were burned at the stake.


Execution of Jacques de Molay


Prior to this, Jacques Mole loudly denied the testimony beaten out by torture and called on Philip IV the Beautiful, Clement V and Guillaume Nogare to the judgment of God. All of them died in the same year in terrible agony, which made a great impression on his contemporaries. Moreover, it was in the Temple that Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette spent their last days before the execution ...

In conclusion, it should be said that the defeat of the Templar Order had very sad consequences for European trade and led to the disorganization of banking and postal communication between different countries.
Author:
Articles from this series:
Ryzhov V.A. The Holy Inquisition
Ryzhov V.A. Black legend Gilles de Rais
237 comments
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  1. Senior manager
    Senior manager 31 December 2018 05: 56
    +13
    Briefly, informative - thanks.
  2. Phil77
    Phil77 31 December 2018 05: 59
    +12
    Author Plusy! Interesting, informative, but ... as regards banking? We are observing the result now! Well, banks are flourishing, however! Happy New Year !!!
    1. 210ox
      210ox 31 December 2018 07: 51
      +8
      I subscribe to your opinion. I can only add the following: The lies and hypocrisy of the Vatican lead their "path" from those years
  3. Korsar4
    Korsar4 31 December 2018 06: 09
    +9
    All right.

    Here Mnih begins to think - "What is good?" Comes to "the right conclusions from the point of view of management." He is canonized.
    1. Phil77
      Phil77 31 December 2018 06: 32
      0
      * corsair * Excuse me, but I did not understand what you mean?
      1. Korsar4
        Korsar4 31 December 2018 06: 36
        +4
        In particular, about Bernan from Clervaux.
        1. Phil77
          Phil77 31 December 2018 06: 40
          +1
          I did not like it, I probably went over it yesterday! Please clarify!
          1. Korsar4
            Korsar4 31 December 2018 06: 48
            +7
            The figure is interesting. Mystic theologian, participant in the compilation of the Charter of the Templars.

            Much is in the article. And with a picture.
            1. Phil77
              Phil77 31 December 2018 06: 56
              +3
              I understand you! After the holidays I will get acquainted! Happy you!
              1. Korsar4
                Korsar4 31 December 2018 07: 01
                +3
                Thank. And you with the upcoming!
  4. baudolino
    baudolino 31 December 2018 07: 26
    +4
    I read somewhere that, in addition to order clothes, the Templars wore beards and shaved their heads. Which is justified by the Palestinian heat and does not at all resemble the images of knights of contemporary artists.
    1. The centurion
      The centurion 31 December 2018 19: 54
      +2
      Quote: baudolino
      I read somewhere that

      I read somewhere that some non-poor Templars took refuge, protection and shelter of Prince Ivan Kalita of Moscow and with their capital helped transform Moscow into the financial center of the Zalesskaya Horde (the Russian ulus was called in the Horde) and even sponsored the khans and emirs of the Golden Horde. Is it true or literary-historical fantasy?
      1. Ekaterina Shtepa
        Ekaterina Shtepa 2 January 2019 13: 42
        -1
        It's true. It was the reign of Ivan Kalita on these issues and problematic. Gumilev, too, by the way hinted at something like this, but did not dig deeply. So, there is no fantasy here. A little money was brought, but the main thing was brought ideas that sometimes are thousands of times more expensive than money! And the rise of the Lord Veliky Novgorod is also their work!
    2. Ekaterina Shtepa
      Ekaterina Shtepa 2 January 2019 13: 45
      -2
      I agree that they may have shaved their heads, but I don’t think to have a beard in such heat ... For example, now look at the percentage of bearded people there - not very much. I think that in ancient times it was the same.
      1. Usher
        Usher 2 January 2019 21: 30
        -1
        Little? Do you understand what you said?
  5. Olgovich
    Olgovich 31 December 2018 07: 46
    +17
    Jacques Mollet called Philip IV the Beautiful, Clement V and Guillaume Nogaret to the judgment of God. All of them died in the same year in terrible torment, which made a great impression on contemporaries. Moreover, it was in Temple that they spent their last days before the execution of Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette ...

    The famous Templar curse ...
    Jacques Molay screamed from the fire:
    “In less than a year, I will call you to the judgment of God!” I curse you! A curse on your clan to the thirteenth knee! ”
    ,

    And very soon they remembered the last words of the great master. The pope died a painful death from inflammation of the intestines on April 20 of the same year, and on November 29 from paralysis after falling from a horse he gave his soul and king to God. The remaining participants in the conspiracy against the Templars also suffered an unenviable fate: one was prepared with a dagger in the gateway, and the gallows awaited the others. The three sons of Philip IV, succeeding each other on the paternal throne, ruled mediocre and short-lived - in 1328, Charles IV the Beautiful died without leaving any heirs, being the last representative of the dynasty of the elder Capetings. The throne was inherited by the younger branches of the Hugo Capeta clan - first Valois, and then the Bourbons. The last Bourbon, who had the right to the French throne, Louis XVI, was executed on the guillotine on January 21, 1893 as “citizen of Louis Capet”.

    So do not believe .... recourse request
    1. Korsar4
      Korsar4 31 December 2018 09: 23
      +7
      So the famous Druon series begins with these events.
      1. Ekaterina Shtepa
        Ekaterina Shtepa 2 January 2019 13: 37
        +1
        Druon has a lot of gag ...
    2. DimanC
      DimanC 31 December 2018 10: 18
      +11
      Here it is necessary to sort it out, suddenly they were "helped" to fulfill the curse so that the rest would not have to compete with the global elite
      1. Korsar4
        Korsar4 31 December 2018 12: 59
        +9
        It is completely possible. The same treatment of the pope with crushed emeralds.
      2. Astra wild
        Astra wild 31 December 2018 15: 56
        +7
        I think so myself: very quickly. The death of 1 or 2 may still be natural, but: "one was prepared for a dagger in the gateway, while others were waiting for a hangman" is too suspicious
      3. Ekaterina Shtepa
        Ekaterina Shtepa 2 January 2019 15: 39
        +2
        Oh, by the way, and such an option is possible !!! The global elite has long and tenacious paws.
    3. sivuch
      sivuch 31 December 2018 10: 19
      +5
      Suppose Philip5 Long did not rule for long, but quite talented. If he had lived longer, he would probably have been remembered as one of the best French kings.
    4. Astra wild
      Astra wild 31 December 2018 15: 40
      +3
      You are a little mistaken with the chronology: in 1793 Louis 16 was executed, in 1893 there was a so-called "third republic" in France
    5. Tank jacket
      Tank jacket 1 January 2019 21: 46
      +2
      This is not an accident, if we allow supranational administration.
    6. dobryKot petersciy
      dobryKot petersciy 7 January 2019 22: 45
      0
      Probably in 1793.
  6. Ezekiel 25-17
    Ezekiel 25-17 31 December 2018 08: 07
    +3
    Thanks for the good article.
    1. Krasnodar
      Krasnodar 31 December 2018 10: 22
      0
      The path of the righteous is difficult, because selfish and tyrants from evil people hinder him. Blessed is the shepherd who, in the name of mercy and kindness, leads the weak along the valley of darkness. For he is the one who truly cares for his neighbor and returns the lost children. And I will make great revenge on them with fierce punishments, on those who plan to poison and harm my brothers. And you will know that my name is Lord, when my vengeance falls on you ..
      Are you religious or love Tarantino? hi
  7. Boris55
    Boris55 31 December 2018 08: 09
    +8
    At the beginning of the XIII century, the Order was the richest organization in Europe, the power of which, it seemed, knew no bounds.

    Where did their wealth come from? No, not from the Crusades to the East and robberies. The cross was given to the bearers by the Pope, for the atrocities they committed there and brought the cross there, to engage in usury - to make money without doing anything.



    Therefore, the monarchs of many countries with envy and lust looked at the treasures of the Templars, and for the French king Philip IV (the Beautiful) the temptation to patch holes in the state budget at the expense of the treasures of the Temple was simply irresistible. And, unlike the English king Henry III, Philip already felt strong enough to try to destroy the powerful Order.


    We all remember what Friday 13? No, this is not a movie Kruger, this is when the king of France, not wanting to repay debts, due to lack of money, decided to simply cut his "virtues". The local nobility supported him in this "good" initiative, they did not want to pay the usurers the same. Nowadays it is necessary to remember what happens when excessive greed overshadows the mind.

    The Templars are the meanest of the meanest.
    1. Krasnodar
      Krasnodar 31 December 2018 10: 40
      -10
      1) What is wrong with “making money without doing anything?” laughing
      2) Jason was on Friday the 13th, Freddy was in my favorite Elm Srith))
      1. Boris55
        Boris55 31 December 2018 11: 08
        +8
        Quote: Krasnodar
        What is wrong with “making money without doing anything?”

        1) It means being a parasite, living off the labor of others.
        2) Here you are right. I do not like horror movies.
        1. Krasnodar
          Krasnodar 31 December 2018 11: 29
          -3
          Is it like living at the expense of others? If you were able to accumulate the money you earned until the state of surplus emergence that you can put into growth, then:
          1) Lived within our means
          2) Created certain relationships that allow you to receive a refund from an unscrupulous borrower
          3) You know how to at least keep accounting
          4) You know how to store funds properly, which implies protection, an audit of the current state of cash reserves, etc.
          Not a fig is not parasitism)).
          1. Boris55
            Boris55 31 December 2018 11: 35
            +7
            Quote: Krasnodar
            Is it like living at the expense of others?

            Are you aware that all banks on their current ruble have the right to print ten? These 9 rubles are not provided with anything, but when you give, say, a mortgage, you will not give the drawn papers, but your real earned ruble.

            Everything else is an excuse for the poor and poor bankers. Bankers should receive for their work, but only for the real labor they invested.
            1. Krasnodar
              Krasnodar 31 December 2018 11: 42
              0
              1) Banks printing for each ruble 10, as a rule, get sleepy.
              2) Once again - we must live within our means
              3) What I agree with is the extremely high interest rate that Russian banks charge for their loans compared to Western banks. But, on the other hand, the percentage of non-return in the Russian Federation is much higher than in the West hi
              1. Boris55
                Boris55 31 December 2018 12: 04
                +2
                Quote: Krasnodar
                What I agree with is an extremely high percentage

                And this is the same. Bankers at their interest rates accelerate inflation, devalue our deposits ... hi

                1. Krasnodar
                  Krasnodar 31 December 2018 12: 09
                  -3
                  That's right. Although now under agricultural, for example, entrepreneurs in the Krasnodar Territory are given loans at 2%, in addition, at the federal level, both exporters and foreign importers and even banks are sponsored to purchase Russian products. For agricultural products up to 11%, for high-tech products up to 4.
              2. lucul
                lucul 31 December 2018 12: 33
                +8
                Once again - we must live within our means

                Living within our means and lending interest are incompatible concepts.
          2. DimanC
            DimanC 31 December 2018 11: 37
            +1
            Well, yes, such as the creation of organized crime groups :-)
          3. Korsar4
            Korsar4 31 December 2018 13: 01
            +2
            Is letting money grow?
            1. Mikhail Matyugin
              Mikhail Matyugin 2 January 2019 18: 32
              +2
              Quote: Korsar4
              Is letting money grow?

              According to Old Testament morality, yes, according to New Testament Christian morality, no. The choice is each. By the way, fixed-term fixed-term bank deposits also belong to this category of money in growth.
    2. lucul
      lucul 31 December 2018 11: 35
      +6
      Templars are the meanest of the meanest

      All that I remember - any mention of the Templars by Hollywood is served only in a negative way.
      Something they there, in the "holy land", either discovered or recognized these Templars. That the Zionists to this day are trying to etch out any positive mention of the Templars with a hot iron.
      1. Katyusha
        Katyusha 4 January 2019 14: 00
        0
        Quote: lucul
        Templars are the meanest of the meanest

        All that I remember - any mention of the Templars by Hollywood is served only in a negative way.
        Something they there, in the "holy land", either discovered or recognized these Templars.

        Read more about the "learned" from the Gnostics, Masons, Illuminati. Overly detailed.
        That the Zionists to this day are trying to etch any positive mention of the Templars with a red-hot iron.

        Can you give specific examples? I have an amateur historical interest in this topic.
        So far, I have no information about such "bullying". winked
    3. Trilobite Master
      Trilobite Master 31 December 2018 16: 36
      +10
      Quote: Boris55
      make money without doing anything.

      The Templars created a very extensive and efficient system, both financial and logistic - this is a lot of work. Keeping such systems in working condition is no less labor.
      Should a man, alone, with his work built the mill, the gift of grinding for the villagers grain?
      Quote: Boris55
      what happens when excessive greed overshadows the mind.

      The Templars began to lay claim to political power, they wanted to become a state over states and paid exactly for that.
    4. Antares
      Antares 1 January 2019 11: 51
      0
      Quote: Boris55
      Where did their wealth come from

      ordinary trade (without duties and under protection), banking (reliability and fame of that time)
      loans to kings, agricultural gave little ... but transit duties on trade routes, a lot.
      The scheme in which many sought wealth. Constantinople, Genoa, Venice, Italians, Dutch, British ..
    5. naidas
      naidas 1 January 2019 13: 42
      0
      Quote: Boris55
      Where did their wealth come from?

      1. Where did the Templars get their silver - the metal with which they literally flooded Europe at some point?

      2. Why did they need the port of La Rochelle?

      3. Where did the ships loaded with “treasures” of the order go, which they managed to save in 1307?

      The French historian Jean de la Varand answers these questions this way: the Templars exported silver from America! The main point of their transatlantic trade was La Rochelle, from where the ships of the templars went to the shores of the New World. There, to America, the surviving knights smuggled the treasure chests of the order ...
      1. KORSAR12
        KORSAR12 1 January 2019 17: 20
        0
        somehow it doesn’t stick, given that America was discovered in 1492
        1. naidas
          naidas 1 January 2019 18: 25
          0
          Quote: KORSAR12
          America discovered in 1492

          We didn’t open it, but started the development:
          -the ancestors of the Indians crossed the Bering Strait, when there was a land route 12 years ago.
          the Shang era 3000 years ago, as Joe Ruskamp says
          -Erik the Red-10th Century
          1. Ekaterina Shtepa
            Ekaterina Shtepa 2 January 2019 13: 31
            +1
            The first and third are adopted, the second - delete!
            1. naidas
              naidas 2 January 2019 17: 31
              0
              The petroglyphs found by Ruskamp at a private ranch in Arizona correspond to Chinese inscriptions on the bones of the Shang era (1600-1050 BC). This is just one of hundreds of inscriptions that, according to Ruskamp, ​​correspond to ancient Chinese texts.
              In the 90s, Suna invited Professor C. Chan to Harvard University to study petroglyphs in the form of a human face from northeast Asia and northwest America. The study found similarities between them.
        2. Ilya-spb
          Ilya-spb 1 January 2019 18: 55
          +1
          America was discovered earlier. Firstly, the tribes from Asia that became Indians.
          Secondly, there are legends about the Egyptians and the Phoenicians. Thirdly, the Vikings.

          And the Templars! H. Columbus used the Templar cards. And on the sails of his caravel was the Templar cross.
        3. Ekaterina Shtepa
          Ekaterina Shtepa 2 January 2019 13: 32
          +1
          The fact of the stay and discovery of North America around the year 1000 by the Vikings under the leadership of Erik (Eric) Raudi (Red) has already been recognized and proved.
      2. Ekaterina Shtepa
        Ekaterina Shtepa 2 January 2019 13: 35
        +1
        On the first question - it is necessary to raise copies of invoices in Peru for those times on the supply (shipments) of silver to the Templars in Europe. I think that at least some of the documents were preserved there! Not all the conquistadors burned ...
      3. Mikhail Matyugin
        Mikhail Matyugin 2 January 2019 18: 33
        +2
        Quote: naidas
        Where did the Templars get their silver - the metal with which they literally flooded Europe at some point?

        Where does this data come from? that silver and flooded? in general, they had a little tight with a coin, they practiced bill transactions more.

        Quote: naidas
        The French historian Jean de la Varand answers these questions this way: the Templars exported silver from America! The main point of their transatlantic trade was La Rochelle, from where the ships of the templars went to the shores of the New World. There, to America, the surviving knights smuggled the treasure chests of the order ...
        Yeah, only the Frenchman forgot to say that at that time there were no ships suitable for transoceanic sailing, only coastal vessels, no more (that’s why the Vikings went along the northern coastal route, but it’s difficult, long and inefficient).

        And yes, utter nonsense about the active use of the port of La Rochelle by the Templars, the main place of the European courts of the Order of the Temple was ... Aigues-Mortes (read that this will be a revelation for the majority), but in Levant - the harbor of Accon.
        1. naidas
          naidas 2 January 2019 21: 10
          +1
          Quote: Mikhail Matyugin
          in general, they had a little tight with a coin, they practiced bill transactions more.

          In France alone, in less than a hundred years, eighty huge cathedrals and seventy smaller churches were built.

          Construction required the involvement of a large number of people. But workers cannot be paid with bills. Money, especially metal, was rare. Silver was almost completely gone. That silver, only about a ton that the Templars had taken out of Palestine, was clearly not enough. Extraction of precious metals in Europe was practically not conducted. And deposits in Germany, the Czech Republic and Russia have not yet been discovered. Gold was also not enough.

          Nevertheless, the Templars minted their coin, silver, not gold. During the XNUMXth and XNUMXth centuries, so much silver money was produced that it became an ordinary means of payment. With this money, a campaign was launched to build churches.
          1. Mikhail Matyugin
            Mikhail Matyugin 3 January 2019 17: 57
            -1
            Quote: naidas
            In France alone, in less than a hundred years, eighty huge cathedrals and seventy smaller churches were built.
            Ok, although I’m not sure about the number, but I’m sure that what does the Templar’s ​​money have to do with it ?! Are you clearly talking about the Gothic period? Cathedrals were built with money from citizens and the Church! (sometimes donated by major lords or the king) The Order had its own churches - usually small chapels for a small number of people.

            Quote: naidas
            Money, especially metal, was rare. Silver was almost completely gone.
            Oh my god, where did you get such nonsense from what sources? Was it money in the Middle Ages? Yes, the number of treasures is an order of magnitude or orders (!!!) exceeds the number of treasures from the era of Antiquity! Already in the Early Middle Ages, a global trade system is taking shape!

            Quote: naidas
            And deposits in Germany, the Czech Republic and Russia have not yet been discovered. Gold was also not enough.
            That's exactly what is open - see Antares post below. There was always a shortage of gold, yes, but silver was heaps.
      4. Antares
        Antares 3 January 2019 11: 57
        0
        Quote: naidas
        1. Where did the Templars get their silver - the metal with which they literally flooded Europe at some point?

        silver is in Europe. There is little gold. Silver in the Czech Republic, for example, Germany.
        K. Marx mentions in his notebooks the Harz ore district and the imperial free city of Goslar, which owned the Rammelsberg mines, which in the Middle Ages were the largest supplier of silver
        Quote: naidas
        2. Why did they need the port of La Rochelle?

        why do you need ports at all? Trade
        Quote: naidas
        3. Where did the ships loaded with “treasures” of the order go, which they managed to save in 1307?

        Well, this is not proven. There is an alternative. They took it to America.
        America discovered in 1492

        Columbus rediscovered, ancient contacts with the Americas proved, the Phoenicians and Carthage had connections with America, the same Phoenicians
        maps of the ancients were informative, and Columbus knew where to swim.
  8. Krasnodar
    Krasnodar 31 December 2018 09: 05
    +2
    Qualitative, interesting article. Thanks, with the coming!
  9. 3x3zsave
    3x3zsave 31 December 2018 10: 20
    +8
    Thanks for the article, Valery! I will amend. I do not know the source of your information about the income of the order, however, for the period described, the main monetary unit of France was livery, Paris or Tours. Frank came into circulation after the French Revolution.
    1. vladcub
      vladcub 31 December 2018 16: 22
      +3
      Anton, you correctly supplemented. Happy you
  10. Decimam
    Decimam 31 December 2018 10: 21
    +13
    Even though the Templars were such a powerful organization, the leadership of this, perhaps the world's first transnational corporation, was very difficult. Of the 23 Grand Masters who have headed the Order of the Knights Templar in its entire history, 21 "died in execution" and only two died a natural death, and even then the death of the founder of the Order, Hugo de Payet, from old age is presumed.
    Pierre de Montague, who was Grand Master from 1218 to 1232, "managed" to die in his bed from a stroke.
    1. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 31 December 2018 11: 32
      +9
      And somehow, behind all this centuries-old defamation of the order, it is forgotten that it was the Templars who organized the first and most reliable postal and collection service.
    2. vladcub
      vladcub 31 December 2018 16: 31
      0
      Like Emperor Paul?
      1. Decimam
        Decimam 31 December 2018 17: 13
        +2
        No, the person at work burned out.
        1. Astra wild
          Astra wild 31 December 2018 18: 58
          +3
          God forbid from such work
          1. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave 31 December 2018 19: 17
            +4
            And here you will not guess! Fate will determine the work or work rules fate.
  11. sivuch
    sivuch 31 December 2018 10: 33
    +9
    There are a number of inaccuracies. Lui the 9th Saint was not so unlucky, he fought mostly successfully and left his kingdom in much better condition than his son. The picture of Juan Flandes is a portrait of a completely different Philip the Beautiful, Spanish, husband of Juan Mad. It can be seen that the 15th century, just look at the Order of the Golden Fleece. And the intravital portraits of Philip the 4th does not exist in nature.
  12. datur
    datur 31 December 2018 10: 57
    +1
    EUROPEAN MORNERSHIP MYSELF OUTSIDE !!! wink
    1. Boris55
      Boris55 31 December 2018 11: 22
      +3
      Quote: datur
      EUROPEAN MORNERSHIP MYSELF OUTSIDE !!!

      This was the "tuning" of the mechanism. Today there is practically only one "printing press" left in the world and we all know to whom it belongs. At the initial stage, when the Roman throne allowed to grow, this caused a rapid growth in production (16th century), and primarily in the military, aimed at destroying competitors, other "printing presses". In 1992, after "Black Tuesday," the last one fell ... The usurers did not go anywhere, they became smarter and more cunning, today they are called bankers ... Today we all pay them to pay them.
      1. Krasnodar
        Krasnodar 31 December 2018 11: 30
        +2
        No need to take loans, you need to live within our means.
        1. Boris55
          Boris55 31 December 2018 12: 10
          +3
          Quote: Krasnodar
          No need to take loans, you need to live within our means.

          "The fourth priority of human governance is economic
          “Let me manage the money in the country, and I don't care who sets the laws there.” Michael Rothschild.

          For globalizers, it makes no sense to completely destroy peoples; one of the slaves must remain. Therefore, it is possible to subordinate their economy to their narrowly clan interests, so that the people do not even understand what is really happening. This can be done through world money and the institution of credit, with the help of usurious loan interest, when banker clans, without producing anything valuable to society, get crazy income on loan interest, and people, families, entire nations work for a long time to repay them, becoming essentially slaves. To implement this mechanism, it will take more time, since first you need to impose on society a viable economic science, but it pays off with a great effect. Because in this case, the whole society, regardless of people take loans or notwhether they understand these mechanisms or not, is actually economically dependent on a narrow layer of bankers, fueling this system like batteries."
          1. Krasnodar
            Krasnodar 31 December 2018 12: 14
            -6
            Society is dependent on:
            Bread farmers
            Fishermen
            Livestock breeders
            Factory owners
            Programmers
            Doctors
            Teachers
            Etc.
            Money is the same product. Somewhere they are cheaper, somewhere more expensive. In the Russian Federation - more expensive than in the West, for example.
            1. Boris55
              Boris55 31 December 2018 12: 21
              +4
              Quote: Krasnodar
              Society is dependent on:

              Did you hear a thread about the fact that during perestroika we allocated so much money that our children should have paid it? Have you heard that Ukraine will be in debt and the next generation will pay for them?

              Do you really think that we were, and they will (i.e. our power), owe to farmers, fishers, livestock breeders, factory owners, programmers, doctors, teachers, etc. or is it they (farmers, miners, etc.) who will owe the bankers, and even if the farmer himself did not take a single loan?
              1. Krasnodar
                Krasnodar 31 December 2018 12: 34
                -5
                Money, of course, is the most expensive)). The purpose of any commercial production is to obtain babosiks, respectively ...
                1. lucul
                  lucul 31 December 2018 12: 48
                  +6
                  Quote: Krasnodar
                  Money, of course, is the most expensive))

                  Not everyone thinks in Hebrew.
                  And WWII has clearly shown.
                  1. 3x3zsave
                    3x3zsave 31 December 2018 12: 59
                    -3
                    I’m wondering what specifically did the Jews do to you?
                  2. Krasnodar
                    Krasnodar 31 December 2018 13: 10
                    -5
                    laughing ... money is the most expensive product since are the ultimate goal of any commercial production. The fact that grandmothers are needed by the living, and not the dead, we (I am a Jew) showed WWII, I do not argue. )))
                    1. lucul
                      lucul 31 December 2018 15: 05
                      +3
                      money is the most expensive product since are the ultimate goal of any commercial production.

                      Not necessarily)) In a cash-free economy, money has no priority))
                    2. Katyusha
                      Katyusha 4 January 2019 13: 38
                      0
                      Quote: Krasnodar
                      laughing ... money is the most expensive product since are the ultimate goal of any commercial production. The fact that grandmothers are needed by the living, and not the dead, we (I am a Jew) showed WWII, I do not argue. )))

                      The Golden Calf, as "the ultimate goal of any commercial production", never brings it good. Ask the same Ostap Beder on the Romanian border or the same Moshe at Sinai, since you are a Jew. Normal people are engaged in commercial production for self-realization (ideas, values, etc.). And "golden calf mankind" is already capable of sending the entire planet to the forefathers ahead of schedule.
                      Not to mention what inhuman perversions the elite of the modern heirs of the Templars are going to, for the super-target performance of their "commercial productions".
            2. vladcub
              vladcub 31 December 2018 17: 37
              0
              Why is it more expensive?
        2. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave 31 December 2018 12: 15
          +2
          In the last sentence, your opponent is right. International payment systems "cut" banks, which in turn, cardholders.
          1. Krasnodar
            Krasnodar 31 December 2018 12: 37
            -4
            Here, dear, there is always a choice. Do not use credit cards, for example)). Another thing is that it is convenient, but still ..
            1. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave 31 December 2018 12: 47
              +3
              I'm talking about debit cards. You can not use, but drag around the world with a suitcase of "cash". But the same Templars proved the inconvenience of such experiments by being the first to introduce the bill system.
              1. Krasnodar
                Krasnodar 31 December 2018 12: 48
                -2
                That's right, I wrote, according to the Israeli habit, credit (there are no debit). )))
                That is, is everything so convenient? And you have to pay for it.
                1. 3x3zsave
                  3x3zsave 31 December 2018 12: 54
                  +1
                  Did I mind?
                  And can you read more about credit cards in Israel?
                  1. Krasnodar
                    Krasnodar 31 December 2018 13: 06
                    0
                    Can. All bank cards (except for an electric check) are credit cards. Funds are debited once a month, limited by the bank in each specific case (depending on the size of the salary and the amount of savings in closed, "program" accounts. ")
                    Cards are directly tied to your bank account. When using it at an ATM, money is immediately withdrawn from the account, when you pay at the store, it is withdrawn from the same account once a month. You can bind your payments to it, up to the rent for renting an apartment. Phone, utilities, etc., will be removed once a month automatically. If you pull money from an ATM abroad - it is withdrawn on a loan basis, i.e. once a month, which is very inconvenient. Therefore, while still not a resident of the Russian Federation, I opened an account with a Russian bank for debit and, being in Russia, put money on it.
                    1. 3x3zsave
                      3x3zsave 31 December 2018 13: 24
                      +2
                      An interesting system. In general, I was greatly surprised by the free circulation in the country of two currencies besides the national one. And are funds in a bank account as freely convertible as cash?
                      1. Krasnodar
                        Krasnodar 31 December 2018 13: 34
                        +1
                        Yes, but not at the best rate. And the restrictions on pulling out currency through an ATM are something like up to 2000 euros or dollars a day.
                      2. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 31 December 2018 13: 51
                        +2
                        Well, that's the case everywhere. Sberbank, for example, limits cashing out to 200 tyras, and on social cards - 50. In Alfa-Bank, withdrawing funds from an account to a card more than 30000 per day arouses the interest of the Security Council.
                      3. Krasnodar
                        Krasnodar 31 December 2018 13: 56
                        +1
                        The Friedman Bank has a cool theme - Alfa Club. Everything is much cheaper there and the sums for withdrawal are different. In Moscow, the contribution is half a lyama of tanks, in the regions - 250. Then you can pick them up, but you are already a “member”. )))
                        And at Sber Premium I was scratched about half a day in cash.
                      4. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 31 December 2018 15: 08
                        +1
                        A friend bought a car in the fall, he works for Gazprom, a corresponding bank. The car came, but the money could not be withdrawn, only 30000 a day. He had to borrow from friends and relatives.
                      5. Krasnodar
                        Krasnodar 31 December 2018 15: 11
                        +1
                        Why didn’t I take it from the cash register? Through the cashier you can take any amount. I shot 30 tanks and more, EMNIP
                      6. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 31 December 2018 15: 23
                        +2
                        Apparently, it is impossible in Gazprombank, each hut has its own rattles. But the funniest thing is that in Russia you still only pay for large purchases in cash! Do you want to buy a car - "cabbage" salt in barrels. Only "cash"!
                        By the way, an interesting observation. In Israel the term "cash" is understood, in Europe it is not.
                      7. Krasnodar
                        Krasnodar 31 December 2018 15: 44
                        +2
                        In Germany and other German-speaking caches, this is a bar. )))
                        In Russia, for a variety of reasons, it is customary to pay in cash for an apartment, a car, etc. Although, I have a Moscow Mayr who managed to buy an S class and cayenne for his wife in the salon .. on the map. Then he bought another fashionable gelding and again on the map laughing Pontus was at Promsvyazbank Imperial, before the ruin of Transaero. For purchases on this card (contribution of 9 million rubles) he received first class to Sigapur and New York, at the time of the bankruptcy of the airline he had 24 such free tickets. Spend so much - you get a ticket. After the rest in the Bose of Transaero, a lot of people left the bank, then the Ananievs moved out, then Promsvyaz almost got sleepy. As a result, now it is the "Bank of the Ministry of Defense." Military mortgages, etc. A friend hung up with these tickets, poor thing ..
                      8. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 31 December 2018 15: 54
                        +2
                        I flew from Rhodes one of the last flights of "Transaero", two days after arrival the company declared itself bankrupt.
                      9. Krasnodar
                        Krasnodar 31 December 2018 16: 07
                        +1
                        They had the only first class in Russia, but I never managed to fly on it. They have economy standards, but I did not like the business.
                      10. Korsar4
                        Korsar4 31 December 2018 17: 00
                        +4
                        In economy class, Transaero plugged Aeroflot in the belt.

                        On long-distance routes - it was very noticeable.
                      11. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 31 December 2018 15: 59
                        +2
                        4-5 Lyamov card?!?! This is aerobatics !!! Although, in Moscow this is not possible.
                      12. Krasnodar
                        Krasnodar 31 December 2018 16: 12
                        +1
                        It's not about Moscow, it's about this man laughing When we met, he was my client, so he managed to get a discount off me ... My partners were shocked by me)) I paid about 8-10 with a card for both cars.
                      13. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 31 December 2018 16: 43
                        +3
                        Indeed, the point is in man. I had a friend, a Jew, too, by the way (don’t think of anything bad, I really respect your people), dumped from the Russian Federation to be removed from the army, then dumped from Israel, to get rid of the IDF, but lifted one of the leading confectionery from the ruins Peter.
                      14. Krasnodar
                        Krasnodar 31 December 2018 16: 56
                        +2
                        There are such)).
                        Well, people respect in general, or dislike ... well, I don’t know, I don’t look at the nation much. Among all the crap, about 10 percent, there are as many good people, the rest are average - they adjoin one or the other, depending on life circumstances. This is my personal observation for any people.
                      15. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 31 December 2018 17: 07
                        +2
                        Simply, I was in Israel and I can appreciate the contribution, the labor that your nation has invested in the development of the region
                      16. Krasnodar
                        Krasnodar 31 December 2018 17: 10
                        +1
                        This, we Jews, need to kiss the feet of the first settlers who drained the swamps in this heat, as well as Edmond (if I'm not mistaken) Rothschild, who poured a bunch of dough into land reclamation and sponsored the first settlements. And thanks to the mountain Jews who sent Arab racketeers to FIG. Following them, the Jews themselves began to guard their villages. Well, thanks to the cadets, Socialist-Revolutionaries and other emigrants from Russia of all nationalities who arrived after 17 years. Without them, the Arabs would simply have squeezed out of the Jews, and quite quickly, moreover, in the early stages. Well, the German Jews who fled from Hitler, who laid a very good foundation for the academic education of Israel.
                      17. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 31 December 2018 17: 35
                        +1
                        I know all this, however, I have been to the deserts of Arava and Negev and as a person born and raised in the Far North I can declare: I adore the labor feat of your people.
                      18. Krasnodar
                        Krasnodar 31 December 2018 18: 18
                        +1
                        Well, thanks, of course .. I will not argue, with you coming, the fulfillment of all your desires in 2019, health, good luck and money!
                      19. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 31 December 2018 18: 23
                        +2
                        And thank you! There is a more successful wording, the Tatar Nagiyev came up with it. "Good luck, love and patience!" What I wish you in the New Year!
        3. Korsar4
          Korsar4 31 December 2018 13: 05
          +3
          Recall Shakespeare:

          “Do not borrow.
          And do not give a loan. "
          1. Boris55
            Boris55 31 December 2018 13: 51
            +3
            A.S. Pushkin:

            And then we went - and fear hugged me.
            Piggy, squeezing his hoof under him,
            Twisted the usurer at the hellish fire.
            Hot dripped fat in the smoked trough,
            And the baked usurer was bursting on fire.

            And me: "Tell me: what is hidden in this execution?"
            Virgil to me: "My son, this execution has a great meaning:
            Having one acquisition is always in the subject,
            Fat of their debtors was sucked by this evil old man
            And he twisted them mercilessly in your world. "
            .....
            1. Krasnodar
              Krasnodar 31 December 2018 15: 14
              -2
              Wrote the former in debt, like silk, living beyond his means, lowering the loot in Pushkin's cards))
              1. 3x3zsave
                3x3zsave 1 January 2019 03: 31
                -1
                You do not confuse Pushkin with Dostoevsky?
                1. Mordvin 3
                  Mordvin 3 1 January 2019 04: 04
                  +3
                  Quote: 3x3zsave
                  You do not confuse Pushkin with Dostoevsky?

                  Somehow "Komsomolskaya Pravda" decided in the 90s to evoke the soul of Pushkin. And they asked him: "And how much were pickled cucumbers?" Pushkin was offended: "I don't remember such trifles." laughing
                  1. 3x3zsave
                    3x3zsave 1 January 2019 04: 11
                    +2
                    With "Komsomolskaya Pravda" Homer will also offend! laughing
                    Meanwhile, Vladimir, I wish you a Happy New Year! Our "Lonely Hearts Club" works until the last visitor!
                    1. Mordvin 3
                      Mordvin 3 1 January 2019 04: 18
                      +2
                      So I remember exactly, Pushkin answered questions, and when they asked a question about the cost of cucumbers in a restaurant, he was offended and disappeared. I remember, neighing for a long time. laughing And you, Anton, Happy New Year! hi
                      1. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 1 January 2019 04: 31
                        +2
                        "Ah, Alexander Sergeevich, dear!
                        Well, didn’t you tell us anything?
                        About how they held, breathed, loved
                        About what you knew in the last autumn "
                        Y. Shevchuk "The Last Autumn"
                      2. Mordvin 3
                        Mordvin 3 1 January 2019 04: 35
                        +3
                        It is a pity that the archive of "Komsomolskaya Pravda" was burned, so I can't find anything. And it was interesting to print. Interview with Basayev, Solonik, Chechen snipers ... sad
                      3. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 1 January 2019 04: 42
                        +3
                        Maybe that's because they burned because there were uncomfortable answers to uncomfortable questions. But fundamentally, if desired, you can reach both Aslamova and Vorsobin.
                      4. Mordvin 3
                        Mordvin 3 1 January 2019 04: 48
                        +2
                        Quote: 3x3zsave
                        to Aslamova

                        Only I missed her. She also consumed vodka with CIA agents in Afghanistan, and in Iraq during the bombing. And she scribbled reports from the brothel. laughing
                      5. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 1 January 2019 04: 56
                        0
                        And what? I somehow believe her more than the guys from Channel One.
                      6. Mordvin 3
                        Mordvin 3 1 January 2019 05: 09
                        0
                        Quote: 3x3zsave
                        And what? I somehow believe her more than the guys from Channel One.

                        No, I don't respect her. Thumps with millionaires, and then writes dirty tricks about them.
                      7. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 1 January 2019 05: 20
                        +1
                        Yes, and the Lord is with her, writes and writes, is alive, and glory to God. But an extraordinary woman, agree?
                      8. Mordvin 3
                        Mordvin 3 1 January 2019 05: 24
                        +2
                        Quote: 3x3zsave
                        But an extraordinary woman, agree?

                        It is so. Well, why bother their lovers in the newspaper? Moreover, she herself was glued to them. This is not good. And, however, she calls herself a crappy girl. wink
                      9. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 1 January 2019 05: 31
                        +1
                        Well, that’s why it was glued so as to bum! Vladimir, women have a different toolkit, motivation and way of communicating with the world. You have to put up with it.
                      10. Mordvin 3
                        Mordvin 3 1 January 2019 05: 38
                        +1
                        Quote: 3x3zsave
                        Vladimir, women have different tools,

                        Well, about the tools I’m in the know. laughing
                        Quote: 3x3zsave
                        motivation

                        As one friend of mine said, a woman needs to buy winter boots, a mink coat, and a hat. And that’s all. She's yours. laughing
                        Quote: 3x3zsave
                        You have to put up with this.

                        Yes, it doesn’t work out. I’m harmful. It's hard to go round me on a crooked mare. sad
                      11. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 1 January 2019 06: 15
                        0
                        Sorry, Vladimir, but here you need to decide: Do you need a woman or a woman? Judging by the "aikyu" - a woman, according to other requests - a woman. Cognitive dissonance occurs.
                      12. Mordvin 3
                        Mordvin 3 1 January 2019 06: 21
                        +1
                        Quote: 3x3zsave
                        Judging by the "aikyu" - a woman

                        And I don’t know what my IQ is. Well-read - yes, I have been reading since I was six, I read War and Peace when I was nine.
                        Quote: 3x3zsave
                        for other requests - a woman.

                        Not a woman.
                        Quote: 3x3zsave
                        Cognitive dissonance arises.

                        It is so. I suffer ... crying
                      13. Korsar4
                        Korsar4 1 January 2019 14: 22
                        +4
                        New Year's morning took the topic from the Templars to another steppe.

                        But because "I always think about them" (c).
                      14. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 1 January 2019 15: 07
                        0
                        Wow !!! We’ll be banned for flood!
                      15. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 1 January 2019 16: 16
                        0
                        "Wherever they say
                        All one, will bring to women "
                        L. Filatov
                      16. Korsar4
                        Korsar4 1 January 2019 18: 07
                        +1
                        Kazbich would not approve.
                      17. Consultant
                        Consultant 1 January 2019 06: 57
                        +1
                        Quote: 3x3zsave
                        women’s other toolkit, motivation and way to communicate with the world

                        Really amused good
                      18. Krasnodar
                        Krasnodar 1 January 2019 05: 35
                        0
                        Quote: 3x3zsave
                        And what? I somehow believe her more than the guys from Channel One.

                        The girl is trying to "take" shocking. She is also a "serious journalist."
                      19. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 1 January 2019 05: 47
                        +2
                        Say, the girl is still the same, our age-mate. And as for the shocking ... You can love such a woman, you can admire her, but living with her is difficult. Trust my experience
                      20. Krasnodar
                        Krasnodar 1 January 2019 05: 52
                        0
                        I believe. I have had experience with similar women. After three months of such a life, you can become a neurotic laughing
                      21. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 1 January 2019 05: 57
                        +1
                        So I became!
                      22. Krasnodar
                        Krasnodar 1 January 2019 06: 09
                        0
                        The search for an “extraordinary personality” as a wife for a man with a normal, traditional worldview does not make sense. Here you have to be either a bohemian brow with a very flexible outlook on life, loyalty, family values ​​or a complete nonsense. Or a philosopher. )))
                        From my 42 years of life, I have endured the following:
                        The wife should be sympathetic, a good mother, mistress, not a fool. Everything else is superfluous. And such “interesting women of creative professions” can be spent in their free time, and the less, the better, maintaining friendly bed relations with them and not succumb to provocations in terms of “something more”.
                        After a few depressions, I realized this.
                      23. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 1 January 2019 15: 27
                        0
                        Yes, you are a happy person! Found a "golden mean", and at 45 I am all rushing between extremes. "Creative people" don't need me, "stupid sheep" don't need me.
                      24. Krasnodar
                        Krasnodar 1 January 2019 16: 33
                        -1
                        For the sake of the “golden mean,” I refused a cozy Israel. )) Happiness is ephemeral ..
                      25. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 1 January 2019 16: 40
                        0
                        Very interesting! Was your "Greek" born and raised in Anapa? (Sorry, maybe I'm overstepping my personal space)
                      26. Krasnodar
                        Krasnodar 1 January 2019 16: 44
                        -1
                        In Krasnodar.
                      27. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 1 January 2019 17: 02
                        +1
                        You are so lucky! And I will probably become a philosopher. One can argue about the comfort of Israel.
                      28. Krasnodar
                        Krasnodar 1 January 2019 17: 13
                        -1
                        I do not advise becoming a philosopher, especially at 45, especially to you.
                        Izrailovka is comfortable by the presence of great opportunities with an almost complete lack of class and behavioral problems. In any eatery, it’s tasty and safe (you don’t get around), you stagger around the city center in shorts and slates, unshaven and disheveled - do not care for everyone.
                        The proximity and accessibility of any European country, to Cyprus as a cottage, to Greece as in Sochi, to London, as to Moscow. I bought a ticket and flew)). Etc.
                      29. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 1 January 2019 17: 50
                        +2
                        Well FIG knows! I got to Bethlehem at the time of the next Palestinian misunderstanding, I personally didn’t care, well, I got a little closer, I began to turn my head in different directions, with a certain interest. But the people from the bus strongly landed on treason, including the guide.
                      30. Krasnodar
                        Krasnodar 1 January 2019 17: 59
                        +1
                        Matter of habit. )) My office was opposite the General Staff (in the area of ​​three towers in Tel Aviv). In 2014, we are standing with my wife near the window of my office during an air raid. We look out the window - the bus drops off passengers, about eleven people. Three girls immediately run into the building, and the rest raise their smartphones to the sky in the hope of removing the interception of the Faders)).
                        During the terrorist attacks in Jerusalem, as soon as they heard the noise of the explosion, they asked the lecturer to go out for a call. We went out calmly, taking turns, for a couple of seconds, to make sure that everything was ok with the family. After three minutes, they simply dropped the mobile network for an hour and a half. And everything is somehow routine. )))
                      31. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 1 January 2019 18: 35
                        0
                        Only not for Russian tourists. Perhaps I was the only one who drove off a companion from the window.
                      32. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 1 January 2019 18: 18
                        +1
                        Just go nuts like everything is expensive! I lived in Barcelona for a hundred hundred euros for two days without straining and without denying anything to myself, and in Eilat I had dinner once ...
                      33. Krasnodar
                        Krasnodar 1 January 2019 18: 27
                        -1
                        High cost - there is such a thing.
                        An average apartment in Israel (4 rooms, 120 meters) costs 20 million rubles
                        Tel Aviv - 65-68 million
                        In Switzerland it’s even more expensive - in Zurich, I paid 80 francs for a bun with wurst and beer in a kiosk near the “central bank”.
                      34. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 1 January 2019 18: 51
                        +1
                        I’m not attracted to Switzerland, it’s not even about money, skukotish ... But I would go to Israel again, and I’m a "savage".
                      35. Krasnodar
                        Krasnodar 1 January 2019 18: 58
                        0
                        Not a fig Switzerland is not a bore - species, nature - another planet!
                        If you decide to go to Izrailovka, write, I will drive an honest guide to what I need, I will tell you cool places.
                      36. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 1 January 2019 19: 04
                        +1
                        Are you talking to a person who grew up in the Khibiny? laughing
                        Here Arava is really another planet! Martian landscapes!
                      37. Krasnodar
                        Krasnodar 1 January 2019 19: 33
                        0
                        Ah, well then you need to rent some sort of jeep from the Dead Sea to Eilat on your own)).
                      38. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 1 January 2019 19: 48
                        0
                        Yeah, and stand for half an hour at each checkpoint, and on this route there are five of them! Cool temptation! What other sucker can I still offer to rent a car on Friday, for a day ...
                      39. Krasnodar
                        Krasnodar 2 January 2019 10: 44
                        -1
                        ??
                        You can only travel in Israel, where there are no checkpoints laughing
                      40. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 2 January 2019 10: 59
                        0
                        You can, of course, only the equipment you need is a serious, all-wheel drive and frame. And so a decent road from Eilat to the Dead Sea is one and the same checkpoints on it, the first - kilometers five from Eilat.
                      41. Krasnodar
                        Krasnodar 2 January 2019 11: 34
                        0
                        The last 10 years I flew to Eilat by plane, but about the checkpoint near this city I don’t remember something point blank. And, as I understand it, your task is to drive through the desert. Where there are no checkpoints by definition)).
                        In short, it will be relevant - write to the email, we will find out.
                      42. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 2 January 2019 11: 45
                        0
                        Well thank you!
                      43. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 1 January 2019 19: 12
                        +2
                        Thanks for the offer! Gather - I will turn. It is only necessary to exchange electronic circuits, because nothing lasts forever ...
                        In turn: get together in St. Petersburg, let us know, organize in the best possible way.
                      44. Krasnodar
                        Krasnodar 1 January 2019 19: 52
                        0
                        Thank. I send an electronica in PM
                      45. Mikhail Matyugin
                        Mikhail Matyugin 2 January 2019 18: 38
                        0
                        Quote: Krasnodar
                        An average apartment in Israel (4 rooms, 120 meters) costs 20 million rubles
                        Tel Aviv - 65-68 million

                        I did not understand that, over the past few years, real estate prices in Izrailovka have increased several times ?! wassat
                      46. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 1 January 2019 16: 06
                        +1
                        Akhmatova:
                        -Kola, we need to explain ...
                        Gumilev:
                        -Yes, Anya, I need ...
                2. The comment was deleted.
                3. Krasnodar
                  Krasnodar 1 January 2019 05: 31
                  0
                  Quote: 3x3zsave
                  You do not confuse Pushkin with Dostoevsky?

                  No way, he was still a reveler.
                  1. 3x3zsave
                    3x3zsave 1 January 2019 05: 50
                    +2
                    Of course, there was a walk, but to Fedor Mikhalych oh how it falls short!
                    1. Krasnodar
                      Krasnodar 1 January 2019 05: 54
                      -1
                      Fedor Mikhalych - a separate story. One of my favorite writers, by the way)).
                      1. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 1 January 2019 15: 55
                        +1
                        And I hate it! A writer who forever determined the tendency of "Sunday morning" in Russian literature: "I am lying, or I have plans."
                      2. Krasnodar
                        Krasnodar 1 January 2019 16: 36
                        -1
                        “I am lying or have plans” - a find laughing
                      3. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 1 January 2019 17: 05
                        +1
                        Not mine, a couple of years ago tore off the web.
  13. Adjutant
    Adjutant 31 December 2018 11: 39
    +9
    And I feel sorry for the Templars, even though they don’t justify much. Along with the minuses, there were pluses, the largest of which is the struggle with animals and unchristians in the Holy Land.
    Of course, they were slandered in many ways (we were also once accused of people working for 10 intelligence services, and you still don’t admit to torture) - just to get to their capital.
    The Templars case is a vivid illustration of the fact that the state is the first racketeer.
    Thank you for the article) plus
    1. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 31 December 2018 11: 55
      0
      You would be more careful hanging labels. The site has users professing Islam. Which, by the way, is more tolerant than Christianity.
      1. vladcub
        vladcub 31 December 2018 17: 56
        +5
        I agree: one should be careful with labels, otherwise those who distribute labels suffer from pride. By the way, according to the Bible: pride is one of the grave sins.
        Initially, Islam and Christianity are aimed at goodness and compassion, but then, from political or some other considerations, a perversion began.
        1. Ekaterina Shtepa
          Ekaterina Shtepa 2 January 2019 13: 18
          +1
          Are you a new reformer of both? Christians still calmly listen to you and repent, but Muslims for such speeches can easily cut off their heads.
      2. Ekaterina Shtepa
        Ekaterina Shtepa 2 January 2019 13: 25
        +2
        Do not tell, is Islam more tolerant and tolerant than all other faiths ???
        1. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave 2 January 2019 13: 52
          -2
          Don't juggle. Where did I say about "all other faiths"? Canonical Islam is more tolerant of Christianity.
          1. Ekaterina Shtepa
            Ekaterina Shtepa 2 January 2019 13: 56
            +2
            What year sample do you know canonical Islam? I judge by the Sunnis I know from Central Asian countries that I talked to while traveling there. There is a certain tolerance, I do not argue. But in general - a tough, solid religion with many unwritten rules and regulations.
            1. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave 2 January 2019 14: 18
              0
              Yes, at least for the period described. As for the present, I agree with you.
    2. Krasnodar
      Krasnodar 31 December 2018 12: 17
      +2
      The state is the largest institution of violence, I agree, but humanity still has not come up with anything better. But about unchristians ... laughing In the 12th century, Muslims were much more civilized and tolerant of Europeans, patronized sciences, and their Sharia court was much more humane than any Catholic, for example. hi
      1. Antares
        Antares 1 January 2019 12: 23
        0
        Quote: Krasnodar
        The state is the largest institution of violence, I agree, but humanity still has not come up with anything better.

        but how to get people to work on large projects in order to survive? How to unite this and that village and build a dam? How to adjust after construction? How to build in general if they are also illiterate (irrigation has given the world the development of exact sciences)
        Competition of systems. Without the apparatus of violence / purchase of services, little can be done with people. There are two types of get-take (force) and buy.
        Quote: Krasnodar
        In the 12th century, Muslims were much more civilized and tolerant of Europeans, patronized sciences, and their Sharia court was much more humane than any Catholic, for example

        yes they picked up the torch of civilization. But at the same time, we all remember that the Arabs borrowed a lot from the Egyptians, Indians (the same numbers) and developed science and art within the permissible framework.
        I don’t know if they burned down the remains of the Library of Alexandria or not (disputes) that the emperors and Christians themselves destroyed. But the fact that they saved a part is already good.
        All the same, the climate swings — the Arab was flourishing, Europe stagnated. Apart from the Arabs themselves, few in Europe were interested in science (judging by the libraries, Kordova completely overtook all of Europe with Russia)
        1. Krasnodar
          Krasnodar 1 January 2019 13: 56
          -1
          1) In the state - I’m talking about that.
          2) So the Muslims made their contribution to the preservation and even to the development of the same Greek philosophy, a frantic contribution to medicine, etc.
          By the way, in modern brain neurosurgery, figures that are identical in importance to Einstein in physics are the Isergil Turk and the Iranian Sami Maji. The first was pulled to Switzerland, the second to Hamburg.
          1. Antares
            Antares 3 January 2019 12: 01
            0
            Quote: Krasnodar
            So Muslims have contributed to the preservation and even to the development of the same Greek philosophy, a frantic contribution to medicine, etc.

            Yes, development went on continuously. The Egyptians, Babylonians, Greeks, Chinese, Indians, Arabs - accumulated and transmitted experience, developing it.
      2. Ekaterina Shtepa
        Ekaterina Shtepa 2 January 2019 13: 19
        +1
        As for humanity, I bet. Do not be so clear!
    3. Semurg
      Semurg 31 December 2018 12: 34
      +3
      Quote: Adjutant
      And I feel sorry for the Templars, even though they don’t justify much. Along with the minuses, there were pluses, the largest of which is the struggle with animals and unchristians in the Holy Land.
      т

      Well, it is still not known who the beast was during the Crusades in the holy land. By the way, why did your ancestors do so badly with other crusaders on Lake Nevsky and in Pskov? They brought the light of true faith to their lost Eastern brothers in Christ. laughing
      1. Ekaterina Shtepa
        Ekaterina Shtepa 2 January 2019 13: 23
        +1
        ... yes, in the summer of 1941, other already "crusaders" also tried to turn us, lost oriental subhumans, to culture! ... It turns out that on May 9, 1945, too, we came to Berlin in vain - wasn’t it necessary ??? We had to pity the poor culture-bearers - neo-Crusaders?!?
    4. Decimam
      Decimam 31 December 2018 21: 11
      +4
      Adjutant, what kind of animals were there in the Holy Land with whom the Templars fought?
      1. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 1 January 2019 03: 41
        +3
        Apparently with Aliens. "Templars against Aliens", from January 1, in every cinema in the country!
        1. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave 1 January 2019 05: 08
          +2
          And Sigourney Weaver as Hugo de Payen!
    5. Mikhail Matyugin
      Mikhail Matyugin 2 January 2019 18: 40
      +1
      Quote: Adjutant
      And I feel sorry for the Templars, even though they don’t justify much. Along with the minuses, there were pluses, the largest of which is the struggle with animals and unchristians in the Holy Land.

      Yes, it is a fact that they started out with dignity (at least officially). But then ... they went into business, and left military affairs "for the sake of form."
  14. Fedor egoist
    Fedor egoist 31 December 2018 12: 00
    +2
    Everything is described in detail, I did not know some facts before, now I have broadened my horizons)) I added to my favorites, from me a plus sign and congratulations on the upcoming NG :)
  15. Operator
    Operator 31 December 2018 12: 25
    +2
    And what else did the Order of the Temple (public organization) expect from the states (the highest institution of legitimized violence) in whose territory they operated?

    Article plus, especially for authorship.
  16. NF68
    NF68 31 December 2018 16: 12
    +2
    Interesting article.
  17. vladcub
    vladcub 31 December 2018 17: 33
    +2
    "The rise and fall of the Templars" can not be better said. If Hugo da Payen and the first Templars really risked their lives in the name of noble goals, then their successors were already thinking more about something else.
    Of course, collection is necessary, but the opinion is risky, and most importantly profitable.
    RS It is believed that the Masonic organizations were created by the surviving Templars, and the Masonic organizations are still fruit. Historians noticed that there were many "free masons" among the Decembrists.
    1. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 31 December 2018 17: 58
      +3
      Svyatoslav, can you be sure that when you leave London with a suitcase of cash you will reach Jerusalem? Do not know? But a 13th-century man who trusted the Templars knew this for sure!
  18. vladcub
    vladcub 31 December 2018 17: 44
    +3
    "in Germany, Spain and Cyprus, the order was justified", apparently, there were no financial difficulties there? So tell me after that that the then Europe lived at the behest of the Vatican
    1. Ekaterina Shtepa
      Ekaterina Shtepa 2 January 2019 13: 16
      +1
      Sometimes and still the Vatican obeys ...
  19. Avior
    Avior 31 December 2018 17: 51
    +5
    Cite island, center of Paris
    Place, execution of the Templars
  20. Lamatinets
    Lamatinets 31 December 2018 18: 34
    +2
    It is a pity that during the divorce my library did not go to me, there was a book, I don’t remember the author. such a capacious, 800-page monograph on the Templars, and so, just then, the Pope resisted there for a long time and did not admit the Templars' guilt, I will not mention the reasons already, but it was Clement 5
    1. Antares
      Antares 1 January 2019 12: 29
      +2
      Quote: Lamatinets
      Dad resisted there for a long time, and did not admit the Templars' guilt, here are the reasons I will not mention already, but it was Clement 5

      and did the right thing. There was a time when the Popes were in charge of the kings, but such frauds when you are helped to become the Pope, and then you lose some of your (giving to a secular court) authority. And you turn into just a symbol.
      It was not easy to hand over the Order; moreover, it was also a betrayal of our own. Dad haggled for a long time.
      However, it became a brick in strengthening the power of kings and a cannonball in the walls of the fortress of power of the Popes.
  21. VLR
    1 January 2019 01: 19
    +6
    I wish everyone a Happy New Year and thank you for the good feedback. As an afterword, I suggest (for those who have not heard these songs) to type in the search line: "Temple, Duet of the squire and the soul of Jacques Molay" and "Temple, Jerusalem is lost" - mp3. You might like it.
    1. SASHA OLD
      SASHA OLD 2 January 2019 06: 16
      +2
      Quote: VlR
      Happy New Year and thank you for your good feedback.

      Thank you for the article, briefly and meaningfully, read at night in silence))
      Happy New Year, too!
  22. Operator
    Operator 1 January 2019 11: 05
    0
    Quote: 3x3zsave
    Such a woman can be loved

    To love a woman with a complex of whores - you have obvious problems in this area, contact your psychoanalyst laughing
    1. Krasnodar
      Krasnodar 1 January 2019 16: 44
      -1
      What is the “whore complex”?
      And, by the way, Pts can easily crack into extraordinary women, a problem with the future.
      1. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 1 January 2019 17: 17
        +1
        Do not delve into this, for this comrade, the Simon Wiesenthal Center has definitely not been finalized.
        1. Krasnodar
          Krasnodar 1 January 2019 17: 19
          -1
          According to this companion, life passed through a harsh rink.
          1. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave 1 January 2019 17: 35
            0
            Yes FIG knows. The fact that everyone present has an unambiguous diagnosis: "acute sensory hunger", yes! And the cockroaches are different for everyone, here it is important for them to give out "Mashenka" crayons in time so that they can sit quietly and draw. Someone does not have time ...
      2. Operator
        Operator 1 January 2019 18: 43
        0
        Quote: Krasnodar
        What is the “whore complex”?

        Aslamova - as an example.

        Sapiens differ from homo in their ability to track cause and effect relationships. laughing
        1. Krasnodar
          Krasnodar 1 January 2019 18: 54
          0
          So you, in philosophy, are directly kosher orthodox Jew. Cold mind without feelings. )))
          By the way, I was always attracted to such girls, because it’s interesting.
          1. Operator
            Operator 1 January 2019 19: 34
            0
            Quote: Krasnodar
            kosher orthodox Jew. Cold mind without feelings

            It could not be otherwise - the rational Moses of the Coen / Leviev, in contrast to the impulsive Abraham, was a descendant of the Mittanian Aryans, our blood relatives laughing
            1. Krasnodar
              Krasnodar 1 January 2019 19: 51
              0
              Duc ... Moses he is this, well, a descendant of Abraham)). Abraham has ancestors from the city of Urra, near present Basra. The Babylonians are Akkadians. Chocks - chocks, not a fig not Aryans. )) Yes, and Aron, the brother of Moses, from whom the Coens came, was a very impulsive brow)).
              1. Operator
                Operator 1 January 2019 20: 12
                +2
                Jews are the most advanced people in the sense of DNA testing, according to the results of which it turned out that the southern Semites (descendants of Abraham proper from Urra) make up only a third of the Jewish population, the rest are descendants of the northern Semites, Hamites, Erbins, etc. At the same time, 8,5% of the population are descendants of the Black Sea Aryans (according to the subclade of their haplogroups), and almost all of them are concentrated in the Cohen / Leviev estate, from which Moses came.

                According to the Torah, the Levi did not enter into any of the tribes of Israel at the time of their departure from Egypt (they were taken into account under the balance of the tribe, so to speak). The socles of synagogues built in Palestine before the 2 century A.D. are covered with swastikas - the patrimonial sign of the Aryans. The swastika as a religious Jewish symbol was replaced by a six-pointed star only in the 19 century in honor of the Austro-Hungarian barons of the Rothschilds, who financed the emigration of Jews to Palestine and had a similar star on their noble coat of arms.
                1. Krasnodar
                  Krasnodar 1 January 2019 20: 33
                  +1
                  The Levites are the descendants of Aaron. Cohens are straight along the male line, the rest are near Coen, i.e. guards at the temple, singing, etc. Those. priests - Coens, all other worshipers - Levites. The swastika is an image of the sun, according to Jewish religion, the image of this symbol is strictly haram, because many pagan peoples deified him, in addition, there is a ban on the image of "what is in heaven" in Judaism. The Star of David as a Jewish symbol began to be used in the 14th century A.D. in Prague. The Rothschilds - yes, was on the coat of arms.
                  But in general - we Jews are originally a hodgepodge from various Middle Eastern chocks. We have nothing to do with the Persians or the Indians (that is, the Aryans). The only ones among modern Jews who can at least be attributed to the Aryans are Tajik-speaking Bukhara Jews. Tajiks are really descendants of the Aryans. Part of them.
                  1. Ekaterina Shtepa
                    Ekaterina Shtepa 2 January 2019 13: 13
                    0
                    Tajiks are not descendants of the Aryans. Go back to school! Run!
                    1. Krasnodar
                      Krasnodar 2 January 2019 18: 54
                      0
                      Farsi-speaking Pamiri - fair-haired and blue-eyed - Tajiks hi
                      1. Ekaterina Shtepa
                        Ekaterina Shtepa 3 January 2019 09: 54
                        0
                        With your description, I met Khorassans in Iran (they say that these are descendants of the soldiers of Alexander the Great). I didn’t see blond Tajiks. I will not lie. Maybe so ... Sorry if not right!
                  2. Mikhail Matyugin
                    Mikhail Matyugin 2 January 2019 18: 48
                    +2
                    Quote: Krasnodar
                    because many pagan peoples deified him, in addition, there is a ban on the image of "what is in heaven" in Judaism.

                    Yeah, but you probably don’t share modern Judaism (the Pharisee tradition itself, which took shape in Late Antiquity and later in the Middle Ages) - and the Jewish Old Testament tradition (for how many ruins of synagogues were found in the same Israel - and in many mosaics with various symbols and drawings ), but these are two big differences. hi In general, some archaeologists have the opinion that the ancient synagogues of the era of Christ - in their design rather resembled almost Christian churches by an abundance of various images, mosaics, etc. (probably the influence of Hellenic-Roman art, or they belonged to such a trend in ancient Judaism as phyllins).
                    1. Krasnodar
                      Krasnodar 2 January 2019 19: 07
                      -2
                      A synagogue can be in any room, there can be a mosaic in the room, but, again, without pagan symbols. )))
                      Even the very Hellenized, but visiting the synagogue Jews did not violate this commandment. As for modern Judaism - yes, we are descendants of the Pharisees, but judging by archaeological excavations in Israel, we do not differ much from the Old Testament ancestors)).
                      1. Mikhail Matyugin
                        Mikhail Matyugin 3 January 2019 18: 05
                        +1
                        Quote: Krasnodar
                        A synagogue can be in any room, there can be a mosaic in the room, but, again, without pagan symbols. )))
                        Even the very Hellenized, but visiting the synagogue Jews did not violate this commandment.

                        In order not to be unfounded and a little to dispel the pseudo-historical dust from modern Judaism, which is very far from some of its currents of the Hellenistic era - here is the interior of the synagogue found by archaeologists under the ruins of Durra Europos (I emphasize, synagogues, not the church and not the Roman pagan building!).

                        So far from everything is so simple with the prohibition of images in early Judaism. hi
                        Previously, the object was exhibited at the National Museum of Damascus, where it is now and how much has been preserved - I don’t know.
                      2. Operator
                        Operator 3 January 2019 19: 10
                        0
                        Durra Europos is a great example of Judaism at the beginning of our era: all plots of frescoes are taken from Tanakh, if that laughing

                        The safety of the frescoes was provided by the Roman legionnaires during the Judean Wars, who overwhelmed the synagogue, which stood on the side of the mountain, with sand in order to create a fortification.

                        The synagogue was excavated by the Russian archaeologist Rostovtsev in the 1930's, frescoes were exhibited in the State Museum of Damascus (before the civil war in Syria).

                        As for the ban on religious images in Judaism, it arose only after the Roman deportation of Jews from Palestine - the need was elevated to virtue.

                        Up to this point, even the question of the ban on religious images was not raised - the Jewish people, along with Judaism, widely practiced the pagan beliefs of their ancestors - the Habir in the form of Kabbalah, based on the Sepher Yetzirah (Book of Creation), whose authorship is attributed to Patriarch Abraham.
    2. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 1 January 2019 16: 53
      0
      Dear Operator! It has already been found out for a long time that you and I are clear antagonists, and therefore, go in peace, good man!
  23. Tank jacket
    Tank jacket 1 January 2019 19: 54
    +6
    I really liked the parallels with today's events and in general with the device. Banks Network structures. Cross-border transfers. Evacuation of the Genoese Venetians. Moving the control center. Supranational management. Globalization.
    1. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 1 January 2019 20: 47
      +4
      So the Order of the Temple was essentially the first transnational corporation
      1. Tank jacket
        Tank jacket 1 January 2019 20: 52
        +2
        Yes. And manipulations on BV by puppet states. But still, they are not the first, or rather they are another specious screen.
      2. Ekaterina Shtepa
        Ekaterina Shtepa 2 January 2019 13: 07
        0
        Even a super corporation!
      3. Ekaterina Shtepa
        Ekaterina Shtepa 2 January 2019 13: 12
        0
        The writer from Kiev (Ukraine) Andrey Zhdanov-Nedilko (in Israel he is known as En Grossman) has an interesting novel "The Death of a Templar", I don't remember, either 2002 or 2005. There, this topic of transnational relations is well sucked and brought up - but in the novel it is false that the Jews were the hidden masters of the order. Maybe, I admit, crossed Jews, as an option, but 100% is not true. It can not be !
        1. Tank jacket
          Tank jacket 2 January 2019 16: 10
          +1
          Let's see the hierarchy, the tailor above the knight.
          1. Ekaterina Shtepa
            Ekaterina Shtepa 2 January 2019 17: 20
            0
            God, so did you read this novel?!? So how is it ? Liked ?
            1. Tank jacket
              Tank jacket 2 January 2019 17: 30
              +3
              I did not read this novel, but I read Aivengo. But I understand the essence of the owners of the Templars, why they created them and why they abolished. Based on the materials of this magnificent article. Thanks to the author for the excursion.
  24. Operator
    Operator 1 January 2019 21: 59
    +2
    Quote: Krasnodar
    Neither the Persians nor the Indians (i.e., the Aryans) have a relationship

    Really? laughing


    With the "descendants of Aaron" in the Torah, a mistake came out.
    1. Krasnodar
      Krasnodar 2 January 2019 07: 48
      0
      And is this a synagogue? )))
      1. Operator
        Operator 2 January 2019 12: 27
        +3
        The Internet is full of addresses with tourist routes in Israel, where you can see archaeological sites of synagogues built before the 2 century A.D. with swastika signs on the surviving parts of buildings


        By the way, the last photo indicates that before the Roman deportation of Jews, the religious symbols of Judaism were the menorah and swastika, and not a six-pointed star.
        1. Krasnodar
          Krasnodar 2 January 2019 12: 37
          -2
          It certainly never was a symbol of Judaism because of pagan origin (a symbol of the Sun, which was worshiped by many neighbors), and I will ask my guide (in Israel, he was engaged in medical tourism, among other things, at the same time organizing any excursions through it). Interesting.
          1. Operator
            Operator 2 January 2019 13: 04
            +1
            The swastika is primarily a tribal symbol of the Aryans: it is found on ceramics in excavations in Altai (the place of origin of the Aryans), along the way of the Aryans from Asia to Europe, the Balkans, in Central and Eastern Europe (places of resettlement of the Aryans), in Central Asia, Iran, India, Northern China, Anatolia and the Middle East (places of migration of Aryans).

            After the migrating Arians took the highest places in the social hierarchy of the indigenous peoples, including the clergy, the swastika sign also became associated with Hinduism, Buddhism and Judaism. The reason was that Hinduism is the ideological heir to the pagan religion of the Aryans, and the preachers of the monotheistic religions were direct descendants of the Aryans - Moses and Siddhartha Gautama.

            At the same time, the swastika did not become a religious symbol of Christianity and Islam, despite the fact that their preachers - John the Baptist and Muhammad - were also direct descendants of the Aryans.
          2. Ekaterina Shtepa
            Ekaterina Shtepa 2 January 2019 13: 06
            0
            Do not ask - I will answer you: swastikas are not typical for the Middle East! Or is it a fake of later periods, but which - no one knows. And the five-pointed and six-pointed stars are characteristic.
            1. Operator
              Operator 2 January 2019 13: 12
              +2
              The swastika where the Arians settled or migrated, and the religions founded by them (Buddhism in Tibet and Japan, Hinduism in Indonesia) spread.
              1. Ekaterina Shtepa
                Ekaterina Shtepa 2 January 2019 13: 50
                0
                I agree, accepted!
        2. Ekaterina Shtepa
          Ekaterina Shtepa 2 January 2019 13: 03
          0
          Menorah - yes. The swastika is not.
  25. Ekaterina Shtepa
    Ekaterina Shtepa 2 January 2019 13: 01
    +4
    Excellent article and interestingly submitted material! Thank.
  26. tanit
    tanit 2 January 2019 13: 58
    0
    Вот- мы Ломим и звучит -Босеан!!![media=http://https://yandex.kz/video/search?text=%D0%BA%D1%80%D1%8B%D1%81%20%D0%B0%D0%BB%D0%B5%D0%B1%D0%B0%D1%80%D0%B4%D1%8B%20%D1%81%D0%BB%D1%83%D1%88%D0%B0%D1%82%D1%8C&path=wizard&noreask=1&filmId=17014435473000563254]
  27. tanit
    tanit 2 January 2019 14: 03
    +1
    Lyrics of The Rats - Halberds
    Hm
    "Order, build!" - our captain commands,
    G
    He made the squad of monkeys
    DA
    He became an infantry.
    Hm
    Ahead are the shield bearers and the knights of color,
    G
    What is proud for several years
    DA
    White cotta.
    Em F #
    And you will not immediately notice us behind them:
    Hm g
    No shields, chaplains - military mud -
    Em a
    Nothing like a weapon without a guard.
    Em F #
    Two - to support the system, and not a step back,
    Source teksty-pesenok.ru
    Hm g
    The rest - hit the vat, we were covered by the first row.
    Em a
    Things will do smoothly yours
    Hm
    Halberds.

    Not as often as a sword, our fool whistles.
    But how it gets - the enemy with hooves,
    And to the side.
    Pole between knees, play all-in
    Have you ever seen a tank fall? -
    It is loud.
    Where there are mantlets, there will be firewood!
    "Halberds, go ahead!", "Do one, do two!" -
    The pole dances in fighting passion.
    Each of this excitement, like vodka, is drunk.
    Here we are breaking. The end! And it sounds: "BOSEAN!",
    We give praise to the Lord and the halberd.
    Praise the Lord and halberd!
    Praise the Lord and halberd!
    1. Tank jacket
      Tank jacket 2 January 2019 16: 16
      +1
      Yes, praise be to the Lord, praise of democracy ... The Templars of all stripes are riding on hammers and jihadmobiles of all stripes. Mercenaries-s, jmhadists and thugs, the principles of selection of mercenaries in the BV have not changed for millennia.
  28. Mikhail Matyugin
    Mikhail Matyugin 2 January 2019 18: 10
    0
    What a big and "serious" dialogue, that's just 80% off-topic flood, oh well. It should be slightly diluted with historical comments.
    Quote: Valery A. Ryzhov
    I Crusade (1096-1099 gg.), The victory of the army of Christians, paradoxically worsened the situation of Christian pilgrims making a pilgrimage to Jerusalem. Previously, having paid the required taxes and fees, they could hope for the protection of local rulers. But the new rulers of the Holy Land actually lost control of the roads, which now became extremely dangerous to move along without armed guards.

    The author was probably guided by incorrect or purely journalistic materials. The fact is that there is no need to talk about any normal pilgrimage to the Holy Land in the 11th century. Prior to that, from about the 8th to the 10th century, there were agreements on pilgrims between the Byzantine emperors (if there was no war) and between the kings of the West with the caliphs and emirs of the Near East, who seized the former Byzantine provinces. But after the coming to power of the Fatimid dynasty, especially the Caliph Al-Hakim, the situation changed absolutely - the pilgrimage as such to Yeursalim became impossible, and local Christians, those who were not massacred, were turned into half-slaves. This, together with the collapse of Byzantium after the defeat at Manzikert in 1071, is the reason for the beginning of the movement that later became known as the "Crusades". And it was the liberation of the Holy Land from Muslim rule that stimulated a huge surge of medieval pilgrimage to these lands.

    Quote: Valery A. Ryzhov
    Bernard of Clairvass, very complacent in appearance to the nuns, who wrote the statutes of the Order of the Templars and called to kill in the name of Christ
    Why throw stones into your garden, because Muslims don't do that!?! Yes Yes. exactly its own, after all, even now Russia (not to mention the past centuries) is considered by jihadists as a classical "country of crusaders", if the author is not aware. So, St. Bernard urged not to kill in the name of Christ, but first of all to defend Christianity and His flock with arms from the cruelties of Muslims.

    Quote: Valery A. Ryzhov
    The Templar could leave the battlefield when he saw the banner of the Order (Bossean) falling to the ground.
    Well, why so, dear author, it would be more careful with the sources !? Firstly, with the fall of the order's banner and the defeat of the "Temple" contingent, the warrior of the order had to join the banner of the Hospitallers, and if that was captured by the enemy or was not available, then stand under the standard of King Yeursalim (or, later, the King of Cyprus and Jerusalem), or - under the banner of any other Christian European monarch. And ONLY after that the flight was already dispersed.

    Quote: Valery A. Ryzhov
    As a result, in the world of medieval Europe, full of religious fanaticism, the possession of the order became real islands of freedom of thought and religious tolerance. After the Albigensian wars, many Cathar knights found salvation in the Knights Templar.
    I didn’t expect these words directly from the author, I already choked. Where does the heresy about free-thinking and religious tolerance come from in the MILITARY MONKEY spiritual-chivalric order ?! Most of his history - at least until the fall of Acre - does not have to be talked about any tolerance and liberalism, BACK!

    Quote: Valery A. Ryzhov
    Some scholars talk about the possible connection of the Templars with the powerful Islamic order of the Assassins and pay attention to similar structures of these organizations.
    There is no connection, from the word "absolutely", only a complete war - as a result of which these forerunners of modern jihadists for the first time in history, thanks to the Templars and Hospitallers, were pacified and subordinated to the Jerusalem king.

    Quote: Valery A. Ryzhov
    ibn Munkyz spoke of the Templars as friends, "although they were people of a different faith," while talking about other "Franks", he invariably emphasized their stupidity, savagery and barbarism, and in general, often could not do without curses against them.
    What else could an Islamist say about Christians? especially in official memoirs? the author does not yet know why the Arabic chronicles are not translated into Russian, and those that are being translated were published with bills - there are such curses against Christians that they simply "wither their ears" (one friend of mine is an Orthodox Arab Christian, forced to leave Syria Many years ago, he translated something for me, so I will say under great impression - there is no difference in the texts of the chronicles of the 12-14 centuries and in the appeals of modern jihadists).

    Quote: Valery A. Ryzhov
    To believe such nonsense you need to be either a very gullible person, or the kings of France and England, who immediately and “legally” confiscated the Templars' property.
    Or just read the interrogation protocols in Latin, which the author clearly didn’t do — and personally signed by the knights, those of which were written voluntarily without any torture (this was immediately indicated in the preamble) are of particular interest — as most scholars of the Temple Order history are silent.
  29. andrew42
    andrew42 9 January 2019 18: 21
    0
    The article is interesting for the presentation of the very genesis of the Order of the Knights Templar. Only here is no pity for the death of this order. No matter how insignificant, greedy and narrow-minded the individual personalities of kings are, but this is secular power, the basis of the classical national state. And any order is essentially a Masonic lodge, where the privileges are only for the initiated and the elect, depending on the degree of initiation. There is no question of any subjects, and even of any "flock". One can blame the medieval obscurantism, the politicking of the popes, the intrigues of the greedy cardinals, but the fact is that the revolutions in Europe were delayed by 400 years, and this is precisely due to the defeat of such a sect as the Order of the Templars. Forerunner of the notorious "pyramid" with modern Masonic lodges at the base and in the middle. Secrecy, closedness is always an intention, and an unkind intention. it was, is, and will be. All these supposedly secret "good knowledge" are just an excuse for an imaginary benefit that will never take place. And about the Templars "on Moscow" so it is generally nonsense, firstly, a pitiful attempt to cling to the "unknown, but kind of great", and secondly, the humiliation of our ancestors, standing at the roots of Muscovy.