Military Review

Pawn beats the king

66
Wilhelm I of Orange, who was both a prince, and a count, and the first stadgalter of Holland and Zeeland, and the leader of the Netherlands bourgeois revolution, for the Spanish king was like a bone in his throat. He interfered, got under his feet and in every way fought for the freedom of the Netherlands. Wilhelm walked on thin ice and once failed. A fanatic Catholic and a devoted fan of Philip II, Gerard Balthazar shot William.


Pawn beats the king


Against the king

In 1555, Philip II received from Father Charles V the rights to manage all possessions, including the Netherlands. The relationship with the Netherlands was extremely complicated. And although Philip made Prince William I of Orange a member of the Council of State and awarded the Order of the Golden Fleece, this did not prevent him from pursuing a harsh and tough policy in the Netherlands. In principle, it is easy to understand the Spanish monarch. The territory under control resembled a hornet's nest. The national liberation movements gained frightening strength, the local nobles considered themselves almost gods and jealously monitored the observance of their rights and privileges. Moreover, in the Netherlands, which irritated the Catholic Philip, there was too much religious diversity. But he could not burn the nest. The fact is that there was an agonizing war with France and it was the Dutch commanders who were taking it upon themselves. Therefore, while the conflict would not be extinguished, the monarch could not come to grips with the "thorn". And the plans for the account of the Dutch nobility he had the most categorical - to eliminate the entire estate.

In the end, Philip decided that a truce must be negotiated with the French. Spending time resolving external problems, he risked launching an internal problem. And Philip acted very clever and cunning. He knew that William of Orange was a brilliant diplomat. Therefore, it was he who was appointed responsible ambassador from Spain, on whose shoulders lay negotiations with the French. And Orange, as they say, could. He managed to turn the talks in such a way that France, having agreed to peace, in fact, practically acknowledged its defeat. Although in fact it was completely wrong. Wilhelm, having coped with the task, probably hoped that Philip would appreciate it on merit. But he was greatly mistaken. Everything that happened is part of the plan of the Spanish king. Philip wanted to enlist the support of the French monarch in order to work together to organize a mass terror of Protestantism in both states.

Now it is necessary to make a small digression. The tough policy that Philip loved so much caused fears among the Dutch nobility. They were justly afraid of losing their positions. Oppositional sentiments grew stronger, but the nobility needed a strong leader. And this was in the face of William. The prince promised all the disgruntled that he would be able to achieve and preserve titles, and property, and privileges. But in return he demanded support. And not only military, but also financial. The Dutch nobles agreed.

Soon Philip II received a message in which demands were made regarding the future of the Netherlands. The nobles wanted not only the standard “observance of the rights and freedoms of the country”, but still did not want to see Spanish soldiers on their land, and most importantly - Antoine Perrin de Granvel - Chief Counselor of the Spanish King in the Netherlands. They did not forget, of course, to mention the fact of persecution on religious grounds. In general, the requirements were not so much, but they all went against the views of the Spanish monarch.

Wilhelm understood that he had started a dangerous game. But he had no choice, by and large. He became the head of the opposition movement, which caused not only approval and respect among the nobles, but significantly strengthened his position among the citizens and residents of numerous villages. In their eyes, William I of Orange became a national hero who, not frightened by the Spanish monarch, began to defend the national interests of all the inhabitants of the Netherlands. The interesting thing is that many nobles who eagerly expressed their thoughts about the struggle against Spain, in fact, were very much afraid of the consequences. Everyone understood that the confrontation with such a powerful opponent could have ended sadly. Therefore, some were very afraid and in every possible way hesitated to make decisions. It came to such an extent that Wilhelm simply became disillusioned with his "allies." But he was not going to give up, because the life of the country and his life were at stake. Therefore, Wilhelm began to look for solutions to the problem. And he found them. The prince was supported by the German princes, the French Huguenots, as well as numerous Calvinist adherents. Yes, having gathered a religiously motley company under its wing, the Orange was in danger. But the risk was justified. And in general, as you know, in war all means are good. Moreover, he himself was not distinguished by some kind of fanatical commitment to any kind of faith. For Wilhelm, she was an excellent way to strengthen her own political position. And he perceived the need for maneuvering between groups as an everyday necessity.


Wilhelm I of Orange


Another interesting thing: in spite of the oppositional moods and the preparation for full-fledged military operations, Wilhelm was initially not under any illusions about obtaining absolute monarchy in the Netherlands and unlimited power. Of course, he was not against such a scenario development, but he did not openly talk about it. At first, he wanted to return the privileges he had taken away for his country, while remaining under the crown of the Spanish monarch. True, he considered the option and with the entry into the German Empire as an Elector.

When the phase of action began, Wilhelm issued a manifesto in which he urged the people who inhabited the northern provinces of the Netherlands to start an uprising. But not against Philip II himself, but against the oppression of the "criminal satrap of Alba, who abuses the trust of the king and deceives him." It is curious that in the manifesto there were such words: “We are sure that His Majesty has incorrect information about Dutch affairs ...”. It is this position, as is commonly believed, that influenced the attitude of the nobility towards Wilhelm. If one part was trivially afraid of the consequences, others doubted its national consciousness.

Not in the political life of Wilhelm and without luck. The fate of the Netherlands, he learned, one might say, quite by accident. Without knowing it, the French king Henry II “leaked” important information to him. As already mentioned, William was one of the ambassadors to whom Philip entrusted the conclusion of peace with France. It is clear that the main negotiator was Duke Fernando Alba, hated by all the Dutch, but the French king confused something and decided that Oransky could also be privy to secret plans. Wilhelm, of course, did not refuse, and listened carefully to the monarch. All his worst fears were confirmed, the Spaniards, together with the French, intended to apply the toughest and crudest scenario to the Netherlands. Having received valuable information and food for thought, William quickly left the palace. By the way, precisely because of this stories Oransky got the nickname Silent.

Wilhelm understood that he needed to act quickly and as efficiently as possible. Without this, defeating such powerful opponents was simply unrealistic. Returning to the Netherlands, he first issued an appeal “on the removal of Spanish soldiers from the territory of the Netherlands”, drawn up on behalf of the States General. Naturally, Philip II was all for himself with anger. From that moment on, both the Spanish monarch and the Dutch prince stopped pretending and dropped their masks. Now they officially considered each other as the main and implacable enemies.

Oransky led the opposition, but the fighting was not in his favor, since the preponderance of forces was clearly on the side of Spain. Having suffered several painful defeats from the invading enemy forces (1567 year), Wilhelm had to leave the Netherlands. He went in search of allies and, most importantly, money. Since Orange had the title of German prince, the leader of the opposition could have his own army. The main thing is money. Therefore, he financed the new army from his own pocket, and then allies - the Huguenots - provided him with financial support. But the money was still not enough. Oransky understood that it was unrealistic to win the Netherlands campaign with the forces that he possessed. But he had no choice, since Philip II was very determined. The Spanish monarch perceived the Dutch prince as a bone stuck in his throat. And it needed to be eliminated.

As for the hostilities, here, Orange expectedly failed. And the union of the Dutch lands, if I may say so, was postponed. People frankly feared bloody reprisals from the Spaniards. But Wilhelm, who signed, in fact, his death sentence, went to the end. And his opponent acted prudently and methodically. In June 1580, the Spanish monarch issued a special manifesto in which he openly called on all Catholics to either find and extradite him to a Dutch prince, or simply to kill him (providing, of course, irrefutable evidence). For this, Philip promised various privileges and “golden mountains”. In general, for Wilhelm everything was probably the worst. Since there was no way out, at the end of July 1581 of the year he published the Act of oath renunciation. In this document it was written in black and white that Philip II did not cope with his responsibilities regarding the Netherlands. And if so, it means that he cannot be considered the legitimate ruler in the Dutch lands. In fact, this manifesto required two signatures - the Spanish king, who agreed with the document and the representative of the General States. For obvious reasons, the signature was only one - the Netherlands side. But, nevertheless, from the Spanish crown came the northern provinces of the Netherlands, which immediately merged into the Republic of the United Provinces. After that, Wilhelm, applying all his oratory skills, managed to convince the General States to recognize France as the sovereign of the Netherlands. Following this, the states of Utrech and the Netherlands designated William as their state halter.

The French, who agreed to take the Netherlands under their wing, of course, put forward a number of conditions. The most stringent was the requirement to put the Duke of Anjou Hercule Francois de Valois at the head of the province of Brabant. That's just the residents did not want to see the French governor and quickly raised a rebellion. Therefore, in May, 1583, Hercule Francois was forced to leave his patrimony. In Delft had to move and William I of Orange. The situation was tense. Wilhelm’s son, Moritz, later recalled that he himself “would rather jump from the tallest tower of The Hague, than he would accept sovereignty on terms that were put to his father.”

Everything went to the fact that William had almost no space for maneuver. Philip, who strictly adhered to his original tactics, managed to drive his opponent into a corner. The Spanish monarch and the Dutch prince understood that they did not get along. And to resolve the protracted conflict could only one thing - the death of either Philip or William.

Three attempts

Since Wilhelm walked on thin ice for a long time, his life repeatedly hung in the balance. It is for certain known about three attempts at the prince.

The first time they tried to kill him in 1582 year. The Spanish merchant Gasparo de Anastro was the victim of a confrontation between Spain and the Netherlands. As the war went on, his trading activities bent safely and Anastro was threatened with bankruptcy. Desperate, the merchant told a friend about his hard life - Juan de Izunka. Despite his long-standing friendship, Gasparo did not know that Izunke was in the secret Jesuit order. Juan pondered and some time later offered a friend a radical method - to eliminate the main cause of all his troubles. Namely - the leader of the liberation movement of the Netherlands, William I of Orange. In addition, Izunke said that the person who will kill William will receive a substantial financial reward, and the church will absolve him of all sins, because the cause is godly. In general, Juan directly told Gasparo that the Dutch prince must be killed. Anastro took time to think. On the one hand, he could solve all his problems in one fell swoop and become almost a hero. On the other hand ... the chances of success were frankly not enough. Indeed, in the event of failure, he would not only finally break up with the business, but also with life. Having suffered for several days, Gasparo nevertheless decided to kill, because he needed money at that moment like air. True, the Spanish merchant decided to cheat and, if possible, secure himself by shifting the responsibility to his cashier Venero. But Venero also was not eager to risk his own skin. He managed to convince his acquaintance Jean Hauregvi, who was a radical Catholic, of the need to kill the “heretic” Wilhelm. And Anastro and Izunke agreed with Venero in the correctness of the choice of "instrument". In addition, the spiritual mentor of Hauregwi named Anthony Timmerman was only in favor. He even blessed Jean for the murder of a Dutch prince.


Philip II


Day X was scheduled for the eighteenth of May 1582. Izunk and Anastro left Antwerp that day and moved to Tournai, where the Spanish soldiers were. And Hauregvi, full of enthusiasm and euphoria from the "godly deed", confidently walked to the church, in which Wilhelm was to appear. But the attempt failed. No, Jean did not change his mind, the human factor intervened. Hauregvi did not think that the church would have so many people. Despite the efforts to break through the crowd to Wilhelm, he did not succeed. And the Dutch prince did not suspect that chance had saved his life that time.

But Jean Hauregvi was not going to abandon his plans. It must be said that the residents of the Netherlands were tense with France. A particularly severe aggravation occurred after the French soldiers entered Antwerp. Their goal was noble - to guarantee the inviolability of the city. But the townspeople perceived the appearance of foreign military in their own way. They were confident that the French had arrived in order to undermine the rights of local merchants and bring them to ruin. Given such sentiments of the masses, open conflicts continually occurred, ending in bloodshed. Wilhelm in this situation was between two fires. He needed to be able to change the point of view of the inhabitants of Antwerp in a short time and not lose the support of France during this time. The task, to put it mildly, before the prince was not simple. Therefore, he stayed in the city and held various meetings every day. On them, Wilhelm showed his tolerance (given that the French and the townspeople had different views on that score, it was not easy to do this) and called on the people to unite to achieve a common goal. At the same time, Oransky met with influential people, discussing pressing problems with them. At one of these receptions, Jean Haeuregvi was able to get through. How he managed to do it - is unknown. Barely a religious fanatic turned out to be one-on-one with Wilhelm, as he drew his pistol and fired. But Wilhelm was lucky. But the inaccuracy was saved by both Jean himself and his weapons. Wilhelm was wounded in the face and lightly contused. Guard did not allow to finish off the Dutch prince. The guards burst into the room and killed Hauregvi. During the search, by the way, papers were found which gave out the names of the customers of the attempt - Venero and Timmeran. Of course, they were soon found.

But the third attempt on Wilhelm failed to survive. He was killed by a religious fanatic Balthazar Gerard. It is known that the future enemy of all the inhabitants of the Netherlands, was born in the possession of the Spanish Habsburgs in Franche-Comté. He is a zealous Catholic and a real fan of the policies pursued by the Spanish king Philip II.

When the liberation movement gained strength in the Netherlands and it became clear that Protestantism was established as the main religion here, Balthazar wholeheartedly and truly (as befits fanatics) hated Wilhelm. Several times during conversations with friends, Gerard declared that he wanted to kill the Dutch prince, whom Philip II, so beloved by him, called the "scourge of Christianity and the enemy of humanity." Of course, this intention became known to "who needs it." Catholic monks, including Alexander of Parma, approved and blessed the aspiration of Gerard. And he soon went to create a "godly work."

First, Balthazar changed his name and became Franz Guyon. And then he managed, thanks to the tricks, to enter the service of Orange. Having achieved the original goal, Gerard began to prepare a plan for the assassination. According to one legend, he managed to find a certain soldier who sold a pistol and bullets of irregular shape to Balthazar. The fanatic wanted to be sure that the wound would prove to be fatal. And when that soldier found out against whom his weapons were used, he committed suicide.



As for William, after the attempt of Hauregvi and the surrender of Antwerp, he was forced to move to Delft with his family and settle in the monastery. Since the health of the prince was undermined, he was undergoing treatment, but he found time for personal meetings and official receptions. That Balthazar and had to get on one of these audiences. Interestingly, Gerard initially believed in the correctness and necessity of his action. But then, suddenly, doubts began to plague him. And then his spiritual masters got down to business. They had a conversation with him and managed to convince him that Wilhelm must be eliminated. And on the tenth of July 1584, Balthazar said at the prince’s house and asked for a meeting. Since Wilhelm was busy, Gerard was asked to come in a few hours. But the killer knew that that was the answer. So he managed to hide in a dark corner near the stairs and waited. After some time, Wilhelm appeared in the company of several people. But Balthazar was not embarrassed. He jumped out of his hiding place and shot three times at the Dutch prince. After that, Gerard tried to escape, but the guards caught him. Unlike Hauregvi, Balthaza was unlucky. Soldiers caught the killer, but did not kill. And Wilhelm died almost immediately. Legend has it that before he died, he whispered: "O God, take pity on my soul ... Take pity on this unhappy people."

William I of Orange was buried in the New Church, located in the same Delft. And Balthazar was waiting for a painful trial. More precisely, all this time Gerard was tortured in every possible way, making so that death seemed to him relief. A long and brutal massacre of the murderer was thirsty and the crowd. The people demanded significant torment. And the execution, stretching for four days, began on the fourteenth of July right in front of the Delft Town Hall. Here is what is written about it in the judicial report:
“I was sentenced by the advisers to this Balthazar and a preliminary punishment was determined. Delivered to the utility room of the university, he was first hung on the rack and beat with a lash with copper hooks so that the skin peeled off the back and hips. Then his wounds were smeared with honey in half with salt and a goat was brought in order to lick the mixture with its rough tongue, but the goat refused to touch the body of the convict. After that, one day the master Michel Foucault, the surgeon, by order of the magistrate treated him to prevent him from escaping a fair sentence, but he also, Balthazar, was confused like a ball with his hands and legs back to his back during treatment so that he could not fall asleep. Over the next few days he hung on the rack, and each of his big fingers and toes was tied with a weight of 300 pounds, which was removed every two hours for half an hour. Once at six o'clock, he was reared. On the seventh day, having shod the shoes from well-oiled dog skin, he was placed in front of the brazier so that the skin would crush, crushing the tender bones of the legs. When the shoes were removed, the skin of the legs, half-fried, fell behind by itself. Then he burned his armpits with sulfur, and, having finished with this, they dressed him in a linen shirt, soaked in alcohol. Finally, they poured boiling fat on him, starting from the already burnt places, and they torn his nails from his hands and feet with special forceps. Then, one day before the execution of the sentence, they again entrusted the master Michel Foucault to heal him so that he could be at least somewhat vigorous. ”


And only after carrying out all these "procedures" the execution began. This document is also preserved:
“Having brought him to the platform, and the executioners shot him with a pistol with frequent shots, a shot, but not to kill him. Then he was completely stripped, lowering pantaloons to his feet. One of the executioners, who had the power, clamped his right hand between two hot plates of iron, burned it and burned it, so that there was no one in the square who could tolerate the terrible stench of burning meat. Then both executioners with red-hot tongs tore up pieces from his chest, arms, legs, thighs, calves and everywhere from everywhere, where there was even a little meat that could be pulled out with these red-hot tongs or tongs. Having done this, he was stretched out on a bench and cut off the male organ and genitals, and, having incised the chest, gradually, little by little, pulled out guts, liver and lungs, and, having pulled out the heart, which was still beating, they whipped it across his face. To his credit, Balthazar all this time, first publicly, in the end, in a low voice, prayed without giving out a cry of suffering. When he finally fell into oblivion and no longer came to himself, cutting off his head, the body was cut into four or four parts, which were thrown at the four main gates of the city, and the head, impaled on the peak, was left at the door of the university, where he was imprisoned, but a little later was secretly filmed from there. ”


By the way, during the terrible torture, according to legend, Balthazar sometimes stopped praying and compared himself to David, who managed to defeat Goliath. True or not, unknown. But to the crowd, enraged by the death of its leader, this seemed insufficient. An eyewitness to those events recalled:
"Many people in the square throughout the execution, and then many in the magistrate, where I went in some important cases, lamented that the punishment imposed on the offender was so mild and condescending, although they were recognized in one voice that it was impossible not to respect the merciful will of the deceased prince, before his death, as everyone knows, who asked in the name of the Lord not to show excessive severity to his murderer. ”



Balthazar Gerard


Balthazar paid a high price. And Philip II, when he learned of the death of the hated Wilhelm, became generous. The first thing he did all the relatives of Gerard nobles, and at the same time granted them several estates in Fransh-Comte. The Spanish monarch hoped that now it would not be difficult to break the resistance of the Netherlands. The same was thought by the Catholic monks, who decided that with the death of William I of Orange, Protestantism would come to an end. But they were all wrong. The death of the leader of the liberation movement only rallied the people in the face of a common enemy. The inhabitants of the Netherlands, headed by Moritz of Orange (son of Wilhelm), began to confront Spanish soldiers with even greater success. And then it was decided to decapitate the liberation movement again. The Jesuit agent Peter Panne became the weapon of political and religious games this time. In 1595, he arrived in Leiden, where Moritz was located. Here, the spiritual teachers handed him the consecrated dagger, which it was necessary to eliminate Oransky. But the idea failed. Panne was exposed and soon executed. And the people continued the struggle for independence. By the way, thanks to the successful military campaigns of Moritz of Orange, the Netherlands found its modern borders.

* * *


The name of Balthazar Gerard, which is interesting, is one of the streets in his hometown Villafans, located in the department of Du (one of the departments of the Burgundy region - Franche-Comté in France).
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  1. Conductor
    Conductor 20 December 2018 05: 52
    +3
    Severely executed muslin !!! I’ve heard about three shots for the first time.
    1. Hole puncher
      Hole puncher 20 December 2018 08: 37
      0
      Quote: Conductor
      This is the first time I hear about three shots.

      Probably it was
      1. Prometey
        Prometey 20 December 2018 09: 03
        +4
        Or the shooting of Commissioner Katani in the TV series Octopus-4, about the same.
      2. vladcub
        vladcub 20 December 2018 19: 17
        0
        The lady fired a minimum of 7 times, and in the drum of a modern revolver -6 rounds. Shot almost point blank and did not hit the heart or head
        1. M0xHaTka
          M0xHaTka 20 January 2019 21: 26
          0
          In revolvers of modern systems, depending on the caliber, up to 12 rounds. In the 19th century there was a system with 36 rounds.
          1. Looking for
            Looking for 29 January 2019 13: 27
            0
            bring at least one serial model. balabol.
    2. Prometey
      Prometey 20 December 2018 08: 59
      +3
      So I have a question - did they throw a revolver from the future to him? Or was there 3 trunk?
      1. Hole puncher
        Hole puncher 20 December 2018 09: 21
        -1
        Quote: Prometey
        Or was there 3 trunk?

        Catholics drove the perk to accelerate reloading.
        1. akunin
          akunin 20 December 2018 10: 42
          +1
          irregular shaped pistol and bullets
          with separable b.h.
          “Turns out it's the wrong bees.” Absolutely wrong. And they probably make the wrong honey.
          blame the pooh (cartoon)
        2. Molot1979
          Molot1979 20 December 2018 20: 11
          +1
          The usual, although not very common in those four-barreled pistol.
      2. Decimam
        Decimam 20 December 2018 10: 09
        +11
        Three shots - this is only on Wikipedia. There was one shot; three bullets were loaded into a wheeled pistol. The Het Prinsenhof Museum details all of this.
      3. Dirty Harry
        Dirty Harry 20 December 2018 13: 00
        0
        Quote: Prometey
        Or was there 3 trunk?

        Probably. They knew how to make three-barrels, but they cost a little more than dofig!
        1. Mikhail Matyugin
          Mikhail Matyugin 21 December 2018 21: 58
          +1
          Quote: Dirty Harry
          Probably. They knew how to make three-barrels, but they cost a little more than dofig!

          Yes, there are two options - indeed, they could load a triple bullet (and leave the charge of gunpowder the same - because the shot was planned from close range) or, indeed, there have been multiple-charge pistols since the 15th century, but an exclusive option, but the "case" was planned to be super-exclusive. ..
  2. polpot
    polpot 20 December 2018 05: 59
    +1
    About times about morals, the century was such that it is surprising.
  3. 210ox
    210ox 20 December 2018 06: 41
    0
    Pavel, thanks for the article. Of course I heard about the "butting" of the Spaniards with Wilhelm, but I did not know about the details.
  4. Olgovich
    Olgovich 20 December 2018 08: 59
    +9
    cut off the male organ and genitals, and, having cut the chest, gradually, little by little, extended the intestines, liver and lungs, and tearing out the heart, which was still beating, whipped it in the face. To his credit, Balthazar all this time, at first publicly, at the end he prayed in a quiet voice, not betraying a cry of suffering.

    Liberation fighters are more disgusted than the killer himself.

    He was a strong man — he did not break either in spirit or in body. Not respecting his act, one can admire his courage.
    1. Hole puncher
      Hole puncher 20 December 2018 09: 22
      +1
      Quote: Olgovich
      Not respecting his act, one can admire his courage.

      And what was left for him, I doubt that after the first day he could even make any sounds ...
    2. seti
      seti 20 December 2018 10: 28
      +3
      Really strong man worthy of respect.
    3. Dirty Harry
      Dirty Harry 20 December 2018 13: 11
      +4
      Quote: Olgovich
      Not respecting his act, one can admire his courage.

      Andrey, do you also condemn the murders of Bandera and Yandarbiev? From the point of view of legal authority, Oransky was the leader of the rebellion of the separatists - and no more!

      The name of Balthazar Gerard, which is interesting, is one of the streets in his hometown Villafans, located in the department of Du (one of the departments of the Burgundy region - Franche-Comté in France).

      Respect to the Burgundians! For Protestants a villain - for Catholics a hero and a martyr for faith!
  5. Prometey
    Prometey 20 December 2018 09: 01
    +2
    Torture and execution are cruel, of course. Torture, in general, is a man’s disgusting creation, even in relation to those who deserve it.
    1. Hole puncher
      Hole puncher 20 December 2018 09: 24
      +3
      Quote: Prometey
      Torture and execution are cruel, of course. Torture, in general, is a man’s disgusting creation, even in relation to those who deserve it.

      But how people like to watch this from the outside ... Executions always caused a stir and pandemonium, even today.
  6. Decimam
    Decimam 20 December 2018 09: 43
    +8
    "But Balthazar was not embarrassed. He jumped out of his hiding place and shot three times at the Dutch prince. Then Gerard tried to escape, but the guards caught him "
    Another example of the fact that the information from Wikipedia must be double-checked.
    There were no three shots. There was one shot. Three bullets were loaded into a pistol with a wheeled lock. Two passed by (traces in the wall from them are still carefully preserved), one hit the target.

    This is a gun from the Het Prinsenhof Museum. The museum has been looking for a pistol for a long time, similar to the one used in the assassination attempt, but found only in 2012.
    1. Decimam
      Decimam 20 December 2018 09: 49
      +6

      These are traces of bullets passing by at the assassination site in the Het Prinsenhof.
      1. Cunctator
        Cunctator 20 December 2018 10: 21
        +3
        Quote: Decimam
        These are bullet marks passing by at the assassination site at Het Prinsenhof

        Soul caliber
      2. Yuriy_999
        Yuriy_999 20 December 2018 22: 31
        +1
        Strange as that. Or walls of plasticine. Or just a remake. It is hard to believe that three bullets from the same barrel (simultaneously) do such damage.
        1. Decimam
          Decimam 21 December 2018 08: 23
          +1
          Have you seen many traces of bullets on various materials, for example, on lime plaster?
          1. Yuriy_999
            Yuriy_999 21 December 2018 09: 08
            0
            I saw it on stucco (lime or cement), marble, limestone, brick, wood, iron, concrete.
            Of course, these were damages from more or less modern weapons.
            Maybe the plaster is really soft, or the shooting angle is such, but how can I imagine with what force three flew! not small "pieces of iron" that so entered the wall. What was the recoil (as soon as the hand was not twisted) and what the third bullet did in the body.
            1. Decimam
              Decimam 21 December 2018 09: 55
              +1
              I watched these tracks live, there is nothing unusual in them. The caliber of the pistols of that time was 10-13 mm, the black powder allowed to safely put a double charge. You can do the experiment yourself.
              Charge the cartridge of the hunting rifle with large buckshot, reduce the charge by 20 percent for the purity of the experiment, and flap about five meters into the plastered wall.
              1. Yuriy_999
                Yuriy_999 21 December 2018 10: 03
                0
                I'm afraid the owner of the house will be unhappy laughing , and no guns.
                Probably the angle is such that the potholes look deep and large.
            2. vladcub
              vladcub 21 December 2018 20: 01
              0
              Reasonably noticed, to go deep into the wall of that pool, what kind of charge of gunpowder is needed? How it did not tear
    2. M0xHaTka
      M0xHaTka 20 January 2019 21: 22
      +1
      At that time, the wheel mechanism, although it was not something extraordinary, was extremely expensive. Apparently, the "seller" was not a simple soldier
  7. Molot1979
    Molot1979 20 December 2018 10: 04
    +4
    With these Netherlands, the surrounding gentlemen suffered throughout the Middle Ages. The rebels have lived there for centuries. Either the French get pissed off at Courtrais, or they get it from the Burgundian duke ... The Spaniards got this land through the dynastic marriage of Philip II's great-grandfather, Emperor Maximilian I, with the daughter of the last Duke of Burgundy Charles the Bold, Mary. And Maximilian also had to suffer with the local natives, who did not miss the opportunity to demand more rights and privileges. Therefore, the Netherlands passed to that branch of the Habsburgs, from which Philip II was born, concurrently, the king of Spain. Problems began with the Reformation. Moreover, the locals took as a model not the more tolerant Luther, but rather tough Calvin. As a result, the Dutchmen, scorned by the Calvinist preachers, organized an iconoclastic rebellion, during which they burned and destroyed Catholic churches, killed priests and mocked icons. So they were by no means innocent lambs. The answer was Catholic repressions, and then the occupation of the country, the Duke of Alba, 100 thousand beheading rebels and a 5% new tax on any deal, with the name al-Kabbalah understandable to the Russian ear, which for some reason especially infuriated the natives. From all this arose the bourgeois revolution, the first in Europe. At first, the question was about religious independence, but eventually it became national, which was also very new, because the concept of a nation in the modern sense did not exist at that time. And everything was far from straightforward. Local daughters of officers could well write that "no one wants separation." As a result, after long wars, the southern regions of the country sent their northern counterparts to the farm to catch butterflies, Catholicism was strong enough here. Then Belgium appeared later. The north of the country became the basis of Holland. And the son of William of Orange, Moritz, also became the father of the Military Revolution and the creator of new tactics).
    1. Dirty Harry
      Dirty Harry 20 December 2018 13: 24
      +1
      Quote: Molot1979
      And everything was far from simple. Local daughters of officers could well write that "no one wants separation."

      I would say - much more ambiguous than in the Crimea! The number of Protestants only slightly exceeded Catholics - even in the 1970s Catholics made up 40% of the population (and now they are 27% - but Protestants in general 13%, and about half of the population are atheists). And in the XIX century. Generals of the Jesuit Order consistently were 2 Dutch (and in total they steered for more than half a century) - Jan Philippe Rotan (1829-1853) and Peter Jan Becks (1853-1887)
      1. Molot1979
        Molot1979 20 December 2018 20: 13
        +1
        Actually, I said this, although I didn’t remember the percentage breakdown)
    2. Antares
      Antares 22 December 2018 17: 14
      0
      Quote: Molot1979
      With these Netherlands, the surrounding gentlemen suffered all the Middle Ages.

      and you would suffer winked in their place --- they brought a lot of income ...
      These rebels did a pretty good job. In between rebellions laughing
      it is necessary to clarify the income figures of the Spanish crown from these lands ...
      Everywhere they mention the figure of 40% of the crown. But something is strange.
      Under Charles V, Spain received from the Netherlands annually 2 million ducats, which accounted for 40% of the income of the Spanish treasury.
      Income from the Netherlands in the 1520s amounted to 360 thousand ducats per year, sometimes reaching as much as 520 thousand ducats (Flanders - 240 thousand ducats, Brabant - 200 thousand ducats, Holland - 80 thousand ducats).
      And here's what's interesting --- spending to pacify ...
      And for comparison:
      The cost of providing the army in Flanders BEFORE REBELLION - 1.1 million ducats
      The first years after the rebellion - 1.83 million ducats.
      The total income of Spain on average is 7,6 million ducats (it could sink to 5 million, could increase to 12, here it is the average figure).
      Data from James D. Tracy "Emperor Charles V, Impresario of War: Campaign Strategy, International Finance, and Domestic Politics"
      The execution of heretics and the confiscation of their property became important sources of income for the Spanish treasury. In 1571, Alcabala was introduced - a system of taxes: 1% - on all movable and immovable property, 5% - on the sale of real estate, 10% - on the sale of each product.
      The Duke of Alba has approved 8 thousand death sentences. Mass migration
      But the main thing is that
      In 1557, Spain declared bankruptcy, which dealt a huge blow to the Dutch bankers and the financial system of this country. In 1560, the duty on Spanish wool imported into the Netherlands was sharply increased. As a result, its import was reduced by 40% and many manufactures began to go bankrupt. Phillip II closed the Dutch merchants access to the Spanish colonies.
      The Spanish policy of confrontation with Great Britain stopped the Anglo-Dutch trade, which was an important source of income in this country.
  8. Cunctator
    Cunctator 20 December 2018 10: 19
    +1
    Powerful article, the author must be nominated for a prize smile Balthazar is sorry.
    And how did he shoot three times - from automatic browning or something like Fanny Kaplan?
    1. Decimam
      Decimam 20 December 2018 11: 47
      +2
      Have you read my comment?
      1. Cunctator
        Cunctator 20 December 2018 12: 19
        0
        Quote: Decimam

        Have you read my comment?

        Yes, thanks, clarified. At first I thought that he had three pistols, and he took turns to defuse them. smile
    2. Molot1979
      Molot1979 20 December 2018 20: 14
      0
      Multilateral systems appeared almost simultaneously with single-barrel systems. There were several articles about them.
  9. BAI
    BAI 20 December 2018 11: 06
    0
    and shot three times at a Dutch prince.

    Multi-shot gun?
    1. Hole puncher
      Hole puncher 21 December 2018 04: 09
      -1
      Quote: BAI
      Multi-shot gun?

      They write three bullets loaded, but one hit.
  10. Dirty Harry
    Dirty Harry 20 December 2018 13: 06
    +4
    And the execution, stretching over four days, began on July fourteenth, right in front of Delft Town Hall.

    Civilized Europa - where can we, bastards ... By the way, Ivan the Terrible died just a few months earlier. And in good old England, the execution "half-hang, castrate, gut and quarter" (as in the movie "Braveheart") was practiced until 1820 inclusive (and was officially canceled in 1870)
  11. Andrey VOV
    Andrey VOV 20 December 2018 13: 40
    +4
    Oh damn the beasts .... the imagination of their torment a man oh how developed was ... enlightened Europe ... go nuts
  12. Trilobite Master
    Trilobite Master 20 December 2018 13: 44
    +4
    I, too, the first thing I wanted to ask about was how the killer managed to make three shots. Saved the habit of first reading the comments, then writing them. smile
    I have a bad attitude towards the Balthasars, as well as towards Pedro - this is how I was influenced by the reading of the book "Amphibian Man" by A. Belyaev in my childhood, therefore the prince's killer does not cause sympathy for me. Of course, they did not treat him humanly, but in general he knew what he was doing - to each his own.
    As for the murder itself, this wonderful tradition - to settle political issues by eliminating a political opponent in Europe took root - Gaspard de Coligny, Francois de Guise and his two sons - Henry and Louis, Henry III and IV, French kings come to mind. , you can still remember ... I remembered only those who were killed for sure, with no options, and, most likely, there were more political liquidations, because opponents actively used poisons ...
    Yes, there were funny times ...
    1. Dirty Harry
      Dirty Harry 20 December 2018 16: 46
      +7
      Quote: Trilobite Master
      most likely there were more political liquidations, since the opponents actively used poisons ...

      In my youth I was amused by the phrase from the film "Ivan Vasilievich Changes His Profession": "Taste you from my cup!" And it doesn't make me laugh now when I found out that:
      Ivan the Terrible’s mother — poisoned;
      1st wife (Anastasia) - poisoned;
      son Ivan (yes, whom he allegedly killed with a staff) - poisoned in real life;
      3rd wife (the same Marfa Vasilievna) - similarly;
      Ivan himself, too, in the end did not save himself from the poison;
      his son, Tsar Fedor, is poisoned;
      his successor Boris Godunov is poisoned.
      Only Tsarevich Dimitri did not poison - just cut the throat!
      1. Trilobite Master
        Trilobite Master 20 December 2018 17: 07
        +2
        Quote: Dirty Harry
        Only Prince Dimitri did not poison

        Still, the facts of poisoning of the persons listed by you are not scientifically established. Suspicions - yes, but they have not yet been able to confirm or deny them. I read somewhere, in particular, about Ivan Ivanovich - there are no definitive conclusions about the cause of death. So I would be careful not to say anything.
        In general, the profession of a ruler, as I recall, was recognized as the most dangerous - since ancient times, the percentage of leaders of states who have died in the Bose from old age or their own diseases is indecently low, even if we assume that those whose cause of death has not been reliably established have died by their death .
        I once figured across Russia - Russia, interpreting all doubts in favor of natural causes ... it turned out about a quarter of our leaders exactly died not their own death. Minimum 25% mortality - where there miners and military ...
        1. Dirty Harry
          Dirty Harry 20 December 2018 17: 21
          +3
          Quote: Trilobite Master
          Still, the facts of poisoning of the persons you listed are not scientifically established.

          Arsenic in hair and mercury in bones - was their favorite food? Infa about Tsarevich Ivan - the result of the analysis of bones!
          1. Trilobite Master
            Trilobite Master 20 December 2018 19: 51
            0
            Quote: Dirty Harry
            Arsenic in hair and mercury in bones

            That is what this conversation was about. Still found antimony, in my opinion. I do not remember the motivating part. But the resolution was unequivocal - you can not talk about poisoning. Now, probably, I can hardly find a quick link, but if I can, I’ll send it.
            As for Balthazar, he was remembered to me by some vile, cruel, servile, in short, to the extreme unpleasant type, like his brother, who, in my opinion, was called Christo - he, it seems, was a bit of a fool who could be searched. smile
            And then I also came across the book "The Life and Work of Baltazar Kossa", also at a fairly young age, which only aggravated the impression and convinced me that it is better not to mess with the Baltazars ... smile So with this name I have had firm associations since childhood. smile
            1. Dirty Harry
              Dirty Harry 21 December 2018 10: 42
              +1
              Quote: Trilobite Master
              And then I also came across the book "The Life and Work of Balthazar Kossa"

              Well, I read it. In fiction, this type is called a "magnificent bastard" - at least not a coward or a weakling. But given the fact that he was removed from the post of Pope, it is difficult to say how much truth in this story and how much black PR. Judge for yourself: after he refused to renounce the dignity of the Pope, he was deposed on charges of a heap of crimes, such as: the poisoning of the previous Pope Alexander V; the rape of three hundred nuns; sexual intercourse with his brother's wife and monks; the corruption of an entire family, consisting of a mother, a son and three daughters, the oldest of whom was only twelve years old; trade in episcopal sees and even excommunications; torture of thousands of innocent people in Bologna and Rome (well, there are a lot of other things - 74 points in total).
              And when he did surrender and voluntarily appeared to the new Pope Martin V, that ... appointed him bishop of Tuskulansky. Is this a worthy punishment for all these horrible atrocities? Or are these accusations as true as those leveled against Mark Twain (see the story "How I was elected governor")?
              1. Trilobite Master
                Trilobite Master 21 December 2018 10: 53
                0
                I think that even if everything imputed to Balthazar is true, then he was a little different from most of the other members of any conclave, except by some brute force with the number of nuns ... smile It is clear that he was, as they say, "in the stream", was perceived by the cardinals as "their own", the overwhelming majority of them did the same at their leisure, perhaps in smaller quantities, and the reasons for his deposition were purely political.
                I talked about the impression a book made on me at the age of thirteen (or so).
                1. Dirty Harry
                  Dirty Harry 21 December 2018 10: 59
                  +1
                  Quote: Trilobite Master
                  at the age of thirteen (or so).

                  early you started laughing I read it, EMNIP, about 20 years old
        2. vladcub
          vladcub 20 December 2018 19: 52
          0
          "Milk should be given for harm," remember how Bunsha said? And if without joke, then the rulers, neither then nor now, are not particularly envious: there will always be a Baltazar or Ravenjak, remember the fanatic toga that killed Henry the 4th?
          1. Trilobite Master
            Trilobite Master 20 December 2018 20: 49
            +2
            Quote: vladcub
            Balthazar or Ravenyak

            Ravallac (Ravaillac), although it is more correct, probably, Ravayak.
            "You, monsignor, would you please to talk about a dagger strike on Mednikov Street?" (from) smile
            There was also Jacques Clement, who killed Henry III and Jean Poltre de Mere, who shot Francois de Guise ...
            In short, this is a profession - to manage the state.
            1. Dirty Harry
              Dirty Harry 21 December 2018 10: 28
              0
              Quote: Trilobite Master
              although it’s more correct, probably, Ravayyak.

              It's hard to say. In modern French, "Rawajak" is unambiguously pronounced, but in those days it was questionable. There is no stable tradition - it is customary to write, for example, Pierre Terrail de Bayard (modern pronunciation Pierre Terrail, Senor de Bayard) - but Francois Villon, who lived half a century earlier, stubbornly refer to in New French - "Villon"
        3. Antares
          Antares 22 December 2018 17: 44
          0
          Quote: Trilobite Master
          Still, the facts of poisoning of the persons listed by you are not scientifically established. Suspicions - yes, but they have not yet been able to confirm or deny them. I read somewhere, in particular, about Ivan Ivanovich - there are no definitive conclusions about the cause of death. So I would be careful not to say anything.

          death from poisoning women is easily explained - lead in white and other things ...
          It was beneficial for Tsarevich to declare him killed at the hands of Godunov (or his servants) ... but he suffered from epilepsy or not .. is also an option ..
    2. Dirty Harry
      Dirty Harry 20 December 2018 17: 24
      0
      Quote: Trilobite Master
      I have a bad attitude to the Balthasars, as well as to Pedro - this is how I was influenced by reading the book "Amphibian Man" by A. Belyaev in my childhood.

      As for Pedro - it’s clear (although actually it’s fantasy), but why didn’t the real dad Ihtiandra (who is just Balthazar) please you so much? laughing
  13. Free wind
    Free wind 20 December 2018 16: 44
    0
    Fun boys came off. As for executions, Turks with Persians are big entertainers, and even the Chinese had a lot of things.
  14. BAI
    BAI 20 December 2018 16: 54
    0
    execution is somewhat reminiscent of a combination of the ten.
    https://pressa.tv/top/38530-top-10-samye-muchitelnye-i-zhestokie-kazni-v-istorii-chelovechestva-10-foto.html
  15. vladcub
    vladcub 20 December 2018 19: 43
    0
    "they lamented that the punishment assigned to the criminal was so mild and bearable" and they call it mild! It only takes horror to read, but to look ...
  16. vladcub
    vladcub 20 December 2018 19: 54
    +1
    Quote: Dirty Harry
    Quote: Trilobite Master
    Still, the facts of poisoning of the persons you listed are not scientifically established.

    Arsenic in hair and mercury in bones - was their favorite food? Infa about Tsarevich Ivan - the result of the analysis of bones!

    Actually, then both arsenic and mercury were rewarded as cosmetics
  17. faterdom
    faterdom 20 December 2018 21: 52
    +1
    Those were interesting times ... In Spain, Philip II and the Duke of Alba + Jesuits everywhere, wherever possible. In France - St. Bartholomew's Night and the Huguenots. In England - Elizabeth I with her famous pirate travelers-admirals and the "autocephalous" Anglican church. In the Swiss, German and Swedish lands - Lutheranism and Calvinism. In Moscow - Ivan the Terrible with oprichnina, parochialism, and, slightly later, the establishment of the Patriarchate. Italy is the arena of struggle between the Popes (sometimes from two or more at the same time), Spain and France, Venice, Genoa, and the Mediterranean Sea is the supremacy of the Turkish pirate admirals Barbaross, the mass trade of Christians in the markets of the Ottoman Empire and the Maghreb countries. But in the course of the sale of indulgences - Mavrodi never dreamed of!
    1. vladcub
      vladcub 21 December 2018 20: 08
      0
      there were "funny" times. It's good that they are in the past
    2. M0xHaTka
      M0xHaTka 20 January 2019 21: 11
      0
      Another list should be added a small ice age and several years of crop failures in a row.
  18. Alexander not great
    Alexander not great 21 December 2018 00: 25
    +1
    savages ((((
  19. Shurale
    Shurale 26 December 2018 10: 57
    0
    As a child, I read the book "Kess, Admiral of Tulips" just about the times of the Dutch liberation movement, the war with the Spaniards, William of Orange, the flood, etc., it was a very informative children's book, historical.
  20. M0xHaTka
    M0xHaTka 20 January 2019 21: 09
    0
    1584 year. Shot 3 times. From one gun. In a house full of servants and guards. Given the fact that even trained fighters fired no more than 2 rounds per minute.
    Chota smells like a lie. But they made one of them.