Military Review

Sengoku-era armor (part of 1)

40
Barking dogs -
Chapman in the village came.

Peaches in bloom ...
Buson


So we came, finally, to perhaps the most interesting era in stories Japan - the “era of the fighting provinces”, the era of the war of all against all, the result of which was the unification of the country under the authority of the Tokugawa clan. How this happened is described at once in several materials published here on HE, and in this article we will deal exclusively with armor. Let me remind you that here on the site there were already articles about Toshi-Gusoku armor, that is, “modern armor”, which appeared after the firearms were brought to Japan in 1543. weapon.


The armor of the samurai of the Sengoku era (in the center is children's armor). The figures on the left and on the right are traditional armor with tight lacing. (Anne and Gabriel Barbier-Mueller Museum, Dallas, Texas)

However, this topic is so interesting that it makes sense to return to it at a new level. Which is primarily associated ... with illustrative material. In previous articles on Japanese armor, mostly photographs from the Metropolitan Museum in New York were used. In this material we will get acquainted with the cuirass of the Japanese samurai and their helmets of the Sengoku era, we will be based on photographic materials from a very interesting museum, by the way, American too - the Anna and Gabriel Barbier-Muller Museum, which is located in Dallas, Texas. Well, this is the same city where President Kennedy was shot. But, as you can see, there is a very interesting museum of Japanese culture in it. So, if any of the visitors to the VO website suddenly find themselves in the United States in the city of Dallas (or already live in the States, and do not know about it!), Then ... he may well visit him and see with his own eyes all that we are here and now see in photos from this museum!


The figure of the samurai rider of the Edo era in the hockey armor.

Well, we need to start with the fact that since the ancient Japanese were horse archers, then the armor initially, and later, was calculated on protection from arrows. Therefore, unlike the European ones, they didn’t apply mail at all for a long time. All armor was plate. Breastplate - to (or ko - “tortoise shell) was assembled from plates woven together with cords. Either leather or silk. It is hardly worth mentioning the Japanese names of these plates, it is more important to note that in the early armor of the Heian era three types of plates were used: with three, two and one row of holes, and later - narrower, with two and three rows. In traditional armor, an o-plate plate with two and three rows of holes overlapped each other so that they overlap each other by two thirds. Single-row plates were attached at the edges of the cuirass, which strengthened them even more.

Sengoku-era armor (part of 1)

Mogami-do armor, first appeared in the era of war, Onin-Bummey (1467-1477), horse harness bug and horse armor mind-yoy. The restoration of the armor was carried out in 1854 year.


Horse Maskura Madzura.

The plates themselves were a true work of art. Firstly, they had a “lining” of leather, secondly, they were repeatedly covered with the famous Japanese varnish on all sides, and secondly, chopped straw, and grated ceramic dust, and ... dry ground and gold and silver powder. Sometimes the metal was wrapped with leather also from the “face”. That is, the plates were “plump” and, being fastened with cords, also had good shock-absorbing properties. By the way, their upper part was either rounded or skewed, because of which the stripes of armor from these plates in their upper part resembled a palisade.


Hon kozane ni-mai-do - two-piece armor. The helmet is signed by Echigo Munetsugo. Restoration around 1800 of the Edo era.

Now let's turn to the armor itself, and here we will tell about them in more detail and give all their specific Japanese names. The reason for the appearance of new armor, which will be discussed here, is simple.


Chased Breastplate Armor - utidasi-do.

The design of traditional o-ry was uncomfortable. Rather, she was comfortable for the rider, but not for the infantryman. That is why, as more and more infantry soldiers were attracted to the "army" of samurai, the armor also changed. Armor before-maru and haramaki-do appeared, the weight of which was distributed over the body more evenly and tired of their owners. They were distinguished by a more rare lacing and, already after 1543 of the year, the requirement to resist firearms.


Hon kozane ni-mai-do Okudaira Nobimasa, 1600 - 1700

Was invented and a way to facilitate their production. Now the plates were collected in stripes, and they in turn wrapped the skin, which was covered with varnish. Five of these bands were connected to each other with a rare lacing and they received a cuirass of five rows of bands covering the entire chest and abdomen. Such a cuirass also lay on her hips, which reduced her pressure on her shoulders. Such armor has received the general name tati-do, which has become equivalent to the name tosey-do, or “new armor”. These bands themselves were now assembled from wide plates, but ... since fashion is fashion, tradition is tradition, their upper edge was made toothed, so that it seemed as if these bands were assembled from many small, traditional plates!


Okagawa-do with protruding rivet heads - be-moji-yokohagi-okegawa-do, owned by Kojima Muneno.

Their other analogue was the maru-do armor, which consisted of two halves - the front and the back and fastened together either on the strings or on the hinge on one side and strings on the other. Such cuirass with a joint even got a special name: ryo-takahi-mo-do and they turned out to be very convenient for the soldiers of large armies. And they were convenient to store and transport!


Riders in tati-do armor.

It can be considered rather funny that the Japanese had many names for their armor, each emphasizing some of their characteristic features. So, all two-piece armor, regardless of what records they were made from, could be called ni-mai-do. But if you had a breastplate of two sections, but made from real plates, then you could call it another way - hon-kozane-ni-mai-do (that is, “no-mai-do” from “real plates "). But if the plates you had were “not real”, then such a breastplate was called - Kiritsuke-kozane-no-mai-do. If the cuirass consisted not of two parts, but of five — one front, one back, one side (left), and two, overlapping each other under the right hand, then, again, from whatever plates they were made, their common it was this: go-mai-do, but if the left plate was made of two parts connected by a hinge, then such a cuirass was called rock-mai-do. But if this six-breasted breastplate was fastened with ties on each side, then it should be called like this: ryo-tachimo-roku-mai-do!


Hon kozane ni-mai-do 1702 of the year.

All these armor were popular until the middle of the XVI century, and it is clear that when they were created, the priority was to demand the convenience of wearing them. But from the middle of the century the requirements for armor changed again. Bulletproof - this is the most important requirement, which is now imposed on them. Okegawa-do armor appeared and became massive, in which the cuirass was made up of smooth metal bands connected to each other without the use of lacing. And the fantasy of the masters who made them turned out to be truly limitless again. So, when the strips were placed on the cuirass horizontally, and the rivets connecting them were not visible, such a cuirass was called yokokhagi-okagawa-do.


Typical Sendai-do armor, approximately 1600 g.

The most common “new type” armor is presented in the bottom illustration.


Types of cuirass before: 1 - Nuinobe-up, 2 - Yokokhagi-Okeneawa, 3 - Yukinosita-up, 4 - Hotoke-up, 5 - Nio-Do, 6 - Katanugi-Do, 7 - Namban-up, 8 - tatami-do, 9 - dangae-do.

Please note that the cuirass of many armor depicted monks, the coats of arms of their owners. Moreover, this concerned not only the ashigar, for whom it was an identification mark, but also the nobility, who did not need to be recognized, but who, nevertheless, were proud of it. On the plate armor, the image of the coat of arms was reproduced using weaving, and on the flat surfaces of one-piece forged armor, it was either minted or made overlaid.

To be continued ...
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  1. heavy division
    heavy division 31 October 2018 07: 20
    +3
    So armor or cuirass?
    The ratio is very important. Why do they write so little about what's below the belt?
    That's where the dog rummaged)
    Thanks for the long-awaited story
    1. kalibr
      31 October 2018 07: 33
      +4
      Naturally, the cuirass was of paramount importance and armor was called by it. In this case, these are synonyms. Although it’s clear that there are more details in the armor. About what was written below the belt more than once, and this is only the first part.
      1. heavy division
        heavy division 31 October 2018 07: 47
        +3
        Thanks for the clarifications. I look forward to continuing!
  2. XII Legion
    XII Legion 31 October 2018 07: 33
    +4
    Very beautiful and richly illustrated cycle.
    I look forward to
    I read with pleasure
    Thank you!
  3. Free wind
    Free wind 31 October 2018 08: 44
    +2
    Thanks for the article. Armor is of course fierce. Where they took iron, they didn’t have iron in the pots, they all ate raw. A handful of rice was somehow boiled, a couple of fish and the whole Japanese village was full. There were very few horses in Japan, and they were 1.10-1.20m tall and no more. Rings on the nipples are cool, in the style of BDSM. The headsets are cool with them. And even the ears were reserved for the horse, judging by the mustache and horns, it’s more like a dragon or a dragon. wink
    1. Mikhail Matyugin
      Mikhail Matyugin 31 October 2018 17: 57
      +1
      Quote: Free Wind
      There were very few horses in Japan, and they were 1.10-1.20
      Good war horses were specially raised, including on the basis of imported from the mainland. The prices for a war horse were very high in Japan.

      Quote: Free Wind
      And even the ears were reserved for the horse, judging by the mustache and horns, it’s more like a dragon or a dragon

      The author is modestly silent that at that time in Japan there were several types of cavalry - from light to very heavily armed.
  4. tlauicol
    tlauicol 31 October 2018 09: 00
    +2
    But really, what did they hang on the rings on the chest - not grenades, then? lol cloak, quiver?
    armor with lacing and suddenly - bang! - the hinge!
    super illustrations! good
    1. kalibr
      31 October 2018 10: 34
      +2
      In those photos that are at my disposal in the rings cords are tied with a beautiful bow. What could be attached to them ... it will be necessary to find out.
      1. Mikhail Matyugin
        Mikhail Matyugin 31 October 2018 17: 58
        +1
        Quote: kalibr
        In those photos that are at my disposal in the rings cords are tied with a beautiful bow. What could be attached to them ... it will be necessary to find out.

        I think that an analogue of the German armor of the 14-15 centuries is likely. - there, rings with chains were used to hang swords and daggers, such as safety belts, if knocked out of their hands.
        1. kalibr
          31 October 2018 18: 31
          +1
          Definitely not !!! There are no rings on the hilt of swords!
          1. Curious
            Curious 1 November 2018 01: 56
            +2
            If you look at literature, then these rings appeared in the XVI, and even the XVII century. Then, some older armor was also redone for them. Some experts, in particular Bryant, believe that one served to hold the cloth that was wiped on the face, and the other to secure the wand or signal fan.
            In any case, such rings are found on armor not earlier than the XNUMXth century, when the commander's wands acquired particular importance.
  5. Brutan
    Brutan 31 October 2018 10: 37
    +3
    Probably the lamellar-lamellar carapace held the katana better, what was the samurai armor like?
    Probably one of the best in history. Anyway, plate armor is a station wagon, so to speak
    1. kalibr
      31 October 2018 10: 45
      +3
      Well, let's start with the fact that the sword of the samurai rider was tachi for a very long time (wearing with the blade down and it is longer). katana sword everyday (blade up and shorter). It was also worn by foot samurai and ashigaru. And in battle, these swords were used last. At first, the bow was the main thing. Then, starting with the war, Onin is a spear. The sword became the "main weapon" during the peaceful Edo era. It was necessary to play with something ...
  6. Trilobite Master
    Trilobite Master 31 October 2018 11: 30
    +4
    I look at the Japanese weapons, armor, I read something about their battles ... Oh, them, it seems that the war for them is fun. There is really nothing for people to do - they start to invent something, invent something, but they do it not because without it in any way, but because it is boring.
    If we take the Middle Ages, then in Europe the Vikings already in the IX century. in battle they stood shoulder to shoulder, making up a wall of shields, William Wallace in the thirteenth century. I built infantry in shiltrons for attack, I'm not talking about the Swiss battles and the 15th century ordonance companies.
    I am trying to imagine the attack of Charles VII's gendarmes on a comparable number of horse-drawn samurai in full armor of the 16th - 17th centuries. The picture seems to be completely bleak for samurai for some reason - the chances of resisting the blow of heavy horse-drawn spearmen were, in my opinion, regrettably low, and I have serious doubts about the effectiveness of their notorious swords against knightly armor.
    In general, as a non-expert in matters of the military art of Japan, someone can explain to me - have the Japanese, in principle, ever used any kind of combat construction, except for a loose build? I have the impression that before the appearance of commodities in firearms, all their military art was to bring the maximum number of warriors on the battlefield at the right time, and then how it goes will be samurai plast each other with chunks and (or) stick them with arrows until one side of the warriors begins to come to an end, those who end up with more of them will win. And all this happens exclusively in the loose order, so as not to interfere with each other's swing.
    Tell me, colleagues, is there some good book in Russian, something like "Ten (twenty, thirty) major battles of medieval Japan in the XNUMXth - XNUMXth centuries"? It would be interesting to check your "impressions". smile
    1. burigaz2010
      burigaz2010 31 October 2018 12: 20
      0
      I already wrote about this, Japanese armor and guano swords! This is Mr. Shpakovsky a fan of japas. So let him try to explain why the Japanese began to copy European weapons after they met him?
      1. Tutejszy
        Tutejszy 31 October 2018 14: 12
        +2
        Quote: burigaz2010
        Japanese armor and guano swords!

        approximately 95% of Japanese, European, and Central Asian swords and armor are sheer guano. The so-called "eisenpantser" ("aizen" = iron) was referred to by the fighters as "Scheisenpantser" ("shaise" = guano). The Milanese carapace "held" a musket bullet from 100 steps, but it cost 30-35 times more expensive than the Eisenpantzer - few knew how to make high-quality steel, the technology up to 1854 (Bessemer's converter) was complicated and expensive. But to fans of Indian damask steel and Japanese katanas, I like to report this information: during the period of the so-called. In the Pyrenean Union (1580-1640), the Spaniards actively traded with India and Japan - in India they bought damask steel in bars and transported them to sell ... to Japan, where it became popular under the name "namban-tetsu" (iron of the southern barbarians). In India, Toledo and Genoese swords were in great demand (like Milanese cuirasses in Japan), but for some reason the Spaniards did not bring Indian talwar and Japanese katanas to Spain ...
        1. Mikhail Matyugin
          Mikhail Matyugin 31 October 2018 18: 01
          +3
          Quote: Tutejszy
          In India they bought damask steel in ingots and transported them to sell ... to Japan, where it became popular under the name "namban-tetsu" (iron of the southern barbarians).

          those. faked Indian bullshit under the brand "real Toledo steel" !? fellow
          1. Curious
            Curious 31 October 2018 20: 59
            +2
            Information is also bullshit.
          2. Tutejszy
            Tutejszy 1 November 2018 10: 02
            0
            Quote: Mikhail Matyugin
            those. faked Indian bullshit under the brand "real Toledo steel"!

            No. The real Toledo was transported in the form of finished products, and the wutz - in the form of ingots. Katana, like Toledo steel, is made of steel of several grades - damask was used only for the blade (by the way, steel in Japanese "hagane" = "metal for the blade"). Similarly, in Russia in the so-called. haraluzh swords from the Indian haralug (kharaloha - one of the 6 grades of blade steel) made only the blade, and the base was made of packet Damascus.
            The Indians simply trudged on from the Toledo swords (fortunately, in their tradition they used straight and curved blades) - but yapps had direct swords by then already 850-900 years old, so they brought not swords, but cuirasses and bullion bullion lol
    2. Curious
      Curious 31 October 2018 14: 14
      +6
      The army of Japan, like many armies in the world, has a long and eventful history. The manning of the army on the basis of universal military service in Japan was already in the middle of the VII century.
      At the same time, the weapons and military art of Japan developed in a mono-ethnic, small and isolated country. It was no accident that Toyotomi Hideyoshi's last samurai conquest in Korea in the XNUMXth century failed.
      Therefore, medieval weapons and military tactics in Japan are a unique phenomenon. The samurai did not have to fight the gendarmes of Charles VII. Accordingly, when European countries "cut through" the window with guns to Japan, Japan could only deploy medieval military squads.
      However, this does not at all make military history less interesting; it simply requires taking into account the specifics of its unique development when studying it. The approach of "uncomplicated specialists" such as burigaz is not acceptable here.
      1. kalibr
        31 October 2018 16: 15
        +4
        Someone put you, Viktor Nikolaevich, for this a minus. I thought for a long time why, I reread it again ... I did not understand. Well, apparently "I just didn't like it." Although everything is correct. Still, strange people are creatures ...
        1. Curious
          Curious 31 October 2018 21: 02
          +3
          There is no mystery here. These are "specialists" such as burigaz or tutaisi. There are many such "specialists" on the site in many areas.
      2. Mikhail Matyugin
        Mikhail Matyugin 31 October 2018 18: 02
        +2
        Quote: Curious
        Accordingly, when European countries "cut through" the window with guns to Japan, Japan could only deploy medieval military squads.

        They also exhibited wooden models of modern (in the middle of the 19th century) cannons, a model "for fear" so to speak. But for some reason the Europeans and the Americans were not scared ...
      3. Tutejszy
        Tutejszy 1 November 2018 10: 08
        0
        Quote: Curious
        It was no accident that Toyotomi Hideyoshi's last samurai conquest in Korea in the XNUMXth century failed.

        IMHO, there the situevina was one-on-one with the campaign of the "Great Armada", only to some extent the opposite (from the standpoint of the island / mainland confrontation): the brazen islanders on land had no chance against the invincible Spanish thirds - but they simply did not allowed to land ashore! And then the first landing of the Japanese islanders on land ripped the Koreans to smithereens, but the Korean fleet drowned all subsequent landings, preventing them from landing!
    3. Dersturm
      Dersturm 31 October 2018 14: 23
      +2
      It seems like a child read about the attack of about 1000 samurai (often moonlighting as piracy) on the Spanish Manila, which was protected by about 250 old people and teenagers (the garrison was away for business). Duck, the Toledo armor and the Spanish fencing school didn’t leave any chance for the attackers ... and since the samurai didn’t retreat, they all lay down in Manila, despite all their bows, katanas and painted armor ..
      1. kalibr
        31 October 2018 16: 11
        +2
        It will be in detail about this ...
        1. tlauicol
          tlauicol 31 October 2018 16: 40
          +1
          and about the battle in Nagasaki, fifty Portuguese on a Karakk with the natives good
      2. Mikhail Matyugin
        Mikhail Matyugin 31 October 2018 18: 03
        +2
        Quote: DerSturm
        It seems like a child read about the attack near 1000 of samurai (often moonlighting as piracy) against the Spanish Manila, which was defended by 250 of old people and adolescents (the garrison was absent for business).

        I wrote about this episode about 10-12 years ago a lot on the net. Indeed, there was a place to be. The attack failed. And the matter was decided precisely in hand-to-hand combat.
      3. Tutejszy
        Tutejszy 1 November 2018 10: 12
        0
        Quote: DerSturm
        Toledo armor and the Spanish fencing school left no chance for the attackers

        classic: an injection against the cabin, a Roman gladius against the Gallic spate, a sword against a katana ... By the way, Pan Volodyevsky Senkevich portrayed an invincible saber fighter - only in real life during the defense of Kamenetz-Podolsky he alone successfully defended a wall breach from a crowd of Janissaries with a sword in the hand!
    4. kalibr
      31 October 2018 17: 32
      +5
      But, dear Michael,
      I have just published book 40 - "The Crusaders" in the publishing house AST.
      1. Trilobite Master
        Trilobite Master 31 October 2018 18: 07
        0
        Quote: kalibr
        40 book is out

        My sincere congratulations! smile hi
        Why is the age limit of 16+ on "Eksmo" worth it? Is there something so harsh there?
        1. kalibr
          31 October 2018 18: 25
          +2
          I really don't know! I haven't held it in my hands yet or read it. Just reported ... Well, maybe the violence in the poems of the crusader poets? And while I was happy ... I received a message that the cover and text of the textbook "Technologies of Public Opinion Management" (My / our collective textbook for masters in PR) was ready, so I equaled the number of monographs with David Nicolem-ha-ha!
    5. Mikhail Matyugin
      Mikhail Matyugin 31 October 2018 17: 59
      +3
      Quote: Trilobite Master
      In general, as a layman in Japanese military art, can anyone explain to me - have the Japanese, in principle, ever used any military formations other than a loose system?

      I know at least about analogues of phalanx from spearmen - asigaru. Again, I know about the attacks of the samurai cavalry in the wedge system.
  7. kalibr
    31 October 2018 11: 51
    +2
    Quote: Trilobite Master
    have the Japanese, in principle, ever used any military formations other than the loose system?

    It will be about that.
  8. kalibr
    31 October 2018 11: 52
    +3
    Quote: Trilobite Master
    "Ten (twenty, thirty) largest battles of medieval Japan in the XNUMXth - XNUMXth centuries"? It would be interesting to check your "impressions".

    No, there is no such book!
  9. kalibr
    31 October 2018 12: 25
    +2
    Quote: burigaz2010
    So let him try to explain why the Japanese began to copy European weapons after they met him?

    Because they themselves did not have this.
  10. NF68
    NF68 31 October 2018 16: 46
    +3
    Interesting article.
  11. Black joe
    Black joe 31 October 2018 17: 36
    +3
    Thanks for the great article! We look forward to continuing
    1. kalibr
      31 October 2018 18: 27
      +1
      The second part is already under moderation, now we are preparing materials on the "shooting" and graphics from Armor Modeling magazine.
  12. seregatara1969
    seregatara1969 4 November 2018 10: 08
    +1
    a work of art of the blacksmiths of that time!