Noise Mountain: Mstislav Castle or the grave of Rurik?

93
My childhood can be said to have passed on the banks of the Luga River in the vicinity of the city of the same name - the regional center of the Leningrad Region. In those years, the villages were not yet deserted, and to assemble a company of ten boys of about the same age, even from one village street, was not working. In the absence of modern means of communication, we had to communicate in person, the three channels on the TV could not keep us within the four walls of our houses, and the surrounding lakes, forests, swamps and streams attracted us with their secrets, which we needed to uncover.

Sometimes, we ran away for a day or more, taking with us fishing rods, half a loaf of bread and a matchbox with salt, feeding on caught fish, berries, mushrooms and other pasture in the forest. The nights spent by the fire in a pine forest on the high bank of the Luga, even now when I write this text, make me sigh nostalgically ...



On one of these nights, I first heard from one of the boys, who was three or four years older than me, history about the grave of Rurik. Actually, I heard about Ryurik, probably for the first time. And he told us that somewhere here, on the banks of the Luga, the first Russian prince who died in the battle with the enemies was buried, that a huge barrow was piled on his grave, and huge treasures were buried in the grave itself, along with Rurik lying in a golden coffin : gold, precious stones and, most importantly, weapon and armor. And if we had found this grave, then ... Appear in the village in glittering mail and a helmet with rubies and emeralds, with a real shining steel sword in hand ... It would be the greatest triumph that we would never forget! We spent the rest of the night in our dreams about how we would manage the found treasures.

The first thing I did when I got home was that I was populated with questions about the adults and grandmothers and grandfathers who came across my arm in order to secretly find out from them where to look for Rurik's grave. To my great disappointment, as soon as the name Rurik sounded in the conversation, the mystery was revealed. It turns out that all the adults knew where his mound was located - about forty kilometers from our village, and this information was not a secret. Approximately the same information was received by my comrades from their grandfathers and dads. The treasure hunts were recognized as inexpedient and until the end of childhood we treated only with wooden swords, which did not prevent us from chopping them in forest glades and village streets. Rurik's grave was safely forgotten.

As time went on, I was seriously interested in the study of historical science. With only the emerging Internet, serious information could be obtained exclusively in the library, and I, during the preparation of essays, term papers and diplomas, did not forget to order one or two books on history, since the library to them. Mayakovsky in St. Petersburg allowed to take some of them home.

About ten years ago, with the company, returning from Novgorod to our native Luga, we decided not to drive along the Luga-Novgorod direct highway, but along the road along the Luga river, which in those places has the shape of a horseshoe, curved to the south. Driving past a small village located on the banks of the Luga, the name of which did not tell us anything, we suddenly saw a large hill to the left of the road in the middle of a clean field.

Noise Mountain: Mstislav Castle or the grave of Rurik?


By that time, I had already been to Staraya Ladoga and had an idea of ​​what the mounds looked like, and I didn’t cause any doubts about the fact that the mound looked like before me. Hit its height and volume. There are no such mounds even in Staraya Ladoga. We went out, looked around and at the foot of the mountain saw the following sign:



It was then that I remembered the grave of Rurik and expressed to his companions the hypothesis that this is exactly what she is. Arriving home, I immediately sat down at the computer and made sure that my guess was correct. It is to this hill that popular rumor attributes the honor of being the grave of the founder of the ancient Russian state.

Later, I remembered about Shum-gora more than once and periodically returned to searching for information about it in the hope that I would get the results of any scientific studies of this object, which, as I heard, were carried out already in our time. Not so long ago, during a regular controversy on the Military Review, I mentioned it, and after some deliberation it seemed to me that information about this object might be of interest to readers of “VO”.

So…

Sopka Shum-Gora is located on the southern bank of the Luga in its upstream between the villages of Zapolye and Podgorie of the Batetsky District of the Novgorod Region and is the central object of the Peredolsky Pogost, an ancient Slavic settlement. Sopka has an unprecedented height (about 14 meters) and a diameter at the base (about 75 meters), which is noticeably larger than even the “royal barrows” of Sweden and Norway.

For the first time, this hill and the objects adjacent to it were investigated and described in 1880 by the Russian archaeologist Mikhail Bystrov.



Further studies of Peredolsky Pogost were carried out in 1927, 1949 and 1959 years, during which the graveyard hills were described and classified.

In 1984, the archaeologist N.I. Platonov (Leading Researcher of the Department of Slavic-Finnish Archeology, IHMC RAS, Doctor of Historical Sciences), discovered a large settlement on the territory of the churchyard, and there is also an ancient settlement, which is difficult to study because it currently has a functioning cemetery.

Speaking about the researchers of the Peredolsky Pogost, it is impossible not to mention the brothers MS and ss The Aleksashins, local local history enthusiasts, thanks to whose activities the attention of the scientific community was attracted to Shum-gore.

Noise Mountain has not yet been studied in detail. More precisely, for her research in 2002-2005. only non-destructive methods were involved - georadar and seismographic, no excavations were carried out on the mountain. Refusal to conduct excavations for two reasons. The first is the need to preserve such a significant archaeological monument for posterity as it is, and the second lies in the area of ​​the irrational - local people consider the hill to be a sacred place and fear that the opening of the mound can be aroused by some “forces” that they will have to “deal with” after leaving scientists. Remember the story of the autopsy of the grave of Tamerlane. The position of local residents supported (or supported) and the administration of the Batetsky district.

So, what do we know today about Noise-grief?

At present, it is precisely established that this is an artificial bulk structure, and it is heterogeneous in its composition. Numerous boulders are laid at the base of the structure, along the perimeter of the embankment there was a ditch, fortified with boulders, and in the center there is a certain anomaly, the nature of which currently does not have an unambiguous interpretation. A hypothesis is being put forward that does not yet have sufficient confirmation that this anomaly is a crumbling burial chamber and a passage to it, closed by a large boulder, as is typical of Viking burials. If this is so, then Shum-gora automatically becomes the largest mound in Europe, a mound, the likes of which were poured in quite extraordinary cases, for the funeral of the most senior persons. With reference to the Novgorod land, only Rurik can be such a special person in pre-Christian Russia. However, it is unfortunately impossible to talk about the presence of the Noise-Mountain inside the burial chamber with confidence.



Researchers V.Ya. Konetsky and S.V. Troyanovsky, from the article “The Great Hill of Peredolsky Pogost in the Context of the Socio-Political History of Novgorod at the Turn of the 11th-12th Centuries,” I gathered the most information about the studies of Shum-gory, put forward a different version of origin and the purpose of this structure.

Based on the appearance of the hill, its size and shape (bunk with a flat top), researchers believe that in relation to it we are dealing with a bulk structure of the “mott” type, that is, an embankment for the subsequent construction on it of a fortified point, castle, fortification.

Similar mounds are often found in Britain, Normandy, Germany, they were very popular in the XI-XII centuries in Western Europe and Scandinavia. By the possible construction time of Shum-gory, researchers determine the period of reigning in Novgorod of Mstislav Vladimirovich the Great (1088-1117), the prince of a very active, gifted and, most importantly, committed to Scandinavian culture. Despite the fact that the nearest structures of this type and purpose can be found only in Volyn, in the west of Ukraine, the researchers believe that the presence of such a structure in the Upper Half-Sea is quite acceptable. The objection that it is “too unique” for Russia is easily countered by the fact that he, as a “Mott”, even has analogues in Western Europe, and as a funerary structure with its size and shape of analogues it does not exist anywhere.

Thus, the question of the nature and purpose of Noise Mountain is currently open.

There is a mass of legends about Noise-grief, which the local population will willingly share with you, if you expressed a desire to listen to them. All of them boil down to the fact that the mountain protects itself from any invasions, up to a fatal outcome for the hapless "Tomb Raiders." I don’t see much point in bringing them in this article. I will only note that the fact that such an outstanding archaeological object has not yet been plundered by marauders, indirectly indicates that these legends may have certain grounds ...

I also see no point in citing the results of independent research of the Aleksashins mentioned above, since the artifacts that they collect around Peredolsky pogost (boulders with inscriptions, stone figures and other objects) do not inspire confidence in me, and their (or attributed to them) hypotheses, according to which Rurik is almost a relative of the Egyptian pharaohs, they strongly give to those that in general can be called "folk-history."

At the end of the article, I would like to quote a part of the folklore text from oral folk art, recorded in the vicinity of Shum-gory in the 19th century.

There was a battle in late autumn, on the north bank of the Luga. Rurik was seriously injured and died. It was cold, the earth was frozen, his body was covered with stones. The 12 people stayed with him. In the spring, Rurik's body was transported across the river in the place of Kamenya with lights to the southern bank of the Luga, where they buried it in a large mound, in a golden coffin, and with it 40 barrels of silver coins. Buried with a horse and gilded saddle. Together with him they buried these 12 people in heads around the circle. At that time, Rurik was alone. Uncle sent to the funeral of Rurik coffin, sword, helmet and shield. From the mound to the river goes the golden chain. Rurik was buried in the fifth depth of the Luga, 60 versts from Novgorod and 60 fathoms from Luga.


It is unlikely that this text can be of any benefit from the point of view of historical science, except perhaps for stating the fact that the legend that Rurik was buried precisely in Shum-gor has not already the first century of its existence.

It is possible that it has a rational grain ...

Использованная литература:
1. Konetsky V. Ya., Troyanovsky S. V. Bolshaya Sopka Peredolsky Pogost in the context of the social and political history of Novgorod at the turn of the XI-XII centuries.
2. Aleksashin S.S. Noise is a mountain. New data in the study of the cultural heritage monument.
3. Platonov N. I. About the burial rite of the Verkhneluzhsky hills (according to the materials of the Peredolsky Pogost).
93 comments
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  1. +6
    7 August 2018 05: 42
    Sometimes, we ran away for a day or more, taking with us fishing rods, half a loaf of bread and a matchbox with salt, feeding on caught fish, berries, mushrooms and other pasture in the forest. The nights spent by the fire in a pine forest on the high bank of the Luga, even now when I write this text, make me sigh nostalgically ...
    I didn’t even have time to finish reading, the tear had already flown out ... I’ll start again, for the mental trauma, AUTHOR-THANKS ...
    1. +4
      7 August 2018 10: 38
      The chronicle stored in the Manuscript Department of the Russian National Library (St. Petersburg) provides even more detailed information. "Hodia the prince the great Rurik with his nephew, Olga fight the bore and the korel ... Summer (879) die Rurik in Korel in the warrior, tamo was laid swift in the city of Korel, reigning 17 years."
      The fact that Rurik died in the battle is confirmed by another chronicle.
      Vladimir chronicler confirms this fact, but with the addition: "Die Rurik on the field in the summer 6387 (879)."
      1. +4
        7 August 2018 12: 26
        It is unlikely that any text can be of any use

        I agree with the author. Full crap. laughing
        But such a scribble leads people to the idea that Russia was founded by anyone but not Russians.
        Ivan Vasilyevich, Heaven is his kingdom, they planted such on a barrel of gunpowder.
        What is characteristic was Rurikovich.
        But they started writing bogus with the Romanovs, but continued with the communists.
        1. +5
          7 August 2018 14: 08
          "But such a scribble leads people to the idea that Russia was founded by anyone but not Russians"

          Firstly, it was really founded not by Russians - simply because Russians as a nation did not exist then.

          Secondly, why does it bother you so much from the thought that our country is “obliged” to the same Normans by its statehood? For example, the British do not have any complex about the fact that their royal dynasty originates from the Norman William the Conqueror.
          1. Cat
            +3
            7 August 2018 22: 36
            Dear Cyril, the whole idea is true! Although, that the "English" royal dynasty originates from Norman Velgel the Conqueror - you turned it down !!!
            The business leaders ruling Britain in the person of Elizabeth II, why - they can’t brag about it - they are Germans !!!
            1. +1
              8 August 2018 01: 27
              yes, with the royal family - I turned it down

              however, William the Conqueror is considered the founder of a single English state - like our Norman Rurik
  2. +3
    7 August 2018 06: 55
    Maybe Rurik, maybe Yurik ... smile But the geographical names are interesting. I read. thank
    1. 0
      7 August 2018 07: 42
      Quote: Sadko88
      Maybe Rurik, maybe Yurik ...

      ... maybe a physicist ...
      Chetarzhu ... and this is in the morning ... Plus laughing
      1. Cat
        +6
        7 August 2018 21: 54
        Why not Zhorik? I want Zhorik! What do you feel sorry for? Well? You have something against Zhorik from the cheburechny opposite "Buy three shawarma collect sobaa .... a hedgehog"!
        Dear Roman, I’m not addressed to you, but to any lovers of lawyers .....
        And now seriously, to the Trilobite Host, our sincere gip-hyra Uraaaaaaa !!!!!!!!
        With a start, from the first lines in the soul, cats scraped and somewhere out there on the far periphery of consciousness, a little bench-press of envy - damn it in my childhood there were only two channels 1 and 2!
        I will have only one question: why is the opinion in the rubric not history?
        If not for Nicholas, the apple flew like plywood over Paris!
        Regards once again, many thanks !!!!
        1. +8
          7 August 2018 22: 11
          If not for Nicholas, the apple flew like plywood over Paris!

          Comrade Colonel, allow me to report - there haven’t been any accidents during my duty! Reported by former Mikado police captain! soldier
          damn in my childhood there were only two channels 1 and 2!

          I have .. three .. I repent! All in all, in Leningrad grew up, which was very lucky .. request
          According to the article: 1. the syllable is good, 2. the information is enough, 3. the topic is interesting (before, nobody knew about it, Mikhail himself chose it!), 4. in his own words, 5. plus .. nostalgia for childhood, yes, my friends, yes! drinks A definite plus, but a sincere bow to Mikhail! good hi
  3. +5
    7 August 2018 07: 16
    Noise-mountain has not yet been studied in detail.
    ... Yes ... there are many such places in Russia ...
    1. +3
      7 August 2018 16: 11
      Quote: parusnik
      Noise-mountain has not yet been studied in detail.
      ... Yes ... there are many such places in Russia ...

      rafting along the rivers of the Urals, you understand that all the "scientists" lie or invent, such a picture of the world is visible that it does not fit anywhere. our civilization is clearly not the first, although perhaps the last.
      1. Cat
        +3
        7 August 2018 22: 44
        I throw you a topic for thought!
        Hole stone, the river Serga, the Urals!
  4. +7
    7 August 2018 07: 25
    Here is a good and true story, without politics and quite real events described! hi To the author +++++++++++++++ !!!!!!!
  5. +3
    7 August 2018 07: 59
    In the photo on the horizon, another mound can be seen ...
  6. +5
    7 August 2018 08: 01
    Why destroy the mound? It is necessary to carry out serious archaeological excavations under the mound, and if something is found there, under the mound, make a museum. And the tourist will go look from all over Europe at the curiosity.
  7. +2
    7 August 2018 08: 37
    We must study the mound. Excavate and make a museum. It is necessary to do "here and now" and not to shift to descendants.
    1. Cat
      +4
      7 August 2018 21: 59
      No need to dig! You can do a lot with a fool, but modern archaeological technology is not a panacea.
      By the way, it is necessary to look for methods and ways to study the mound without opening.
      1. +3
        8 August 2018 09: 07
        Hello, hello! hi
        No need to dig graves
        It is sacred in Russia.
        Once you will be buried.
        Want to be torn up by you?

        Like that. I'm right?
        1. +1
          8 August 2018 11: 00
          .. when I die - I will not make any difference what will happen to the body .. I would like cremation .. Not all cities have it. There is no need to occupy the land with cemeteries .. Before the death, the Mongols went to the steppe, put a pole with a black rag (so that no one would bother), and died ... Evenks, after death, were wrapped in the hide and picked up this bundle on a tree, tied .. - time and the animals did their job ..
          With regards to Rurik: unearth, make analyzes .... and place it where the kings rest ..
          1. +1
            8 August 2018 12: 12
            It can’t be in the Peter and Paul Cathedral, faith does not allow it, if only in the Kremlin wall.
            1. 0
              8 August 2018 14: 12
              ..allows, for Rurik’s faith is the original, not spoiled by the Jews ...
  8. +3
    7 August 2018 08: 47
    There are many of them, the mounds of entih and the tombs of the great ones, and many actually have certain spells. Which act. Of the most famous - the tomb of Tamerlane, opened on the eve of the beginning of the Great Patriotic ...
  9. +2
    7 August 2018 10: 26
    Again, the desa about the Scandinavian pirates - the Vikings, who supposedly were only doing that, they poured mounds, and exclusively outside of Scandinavia laughing
    1. +12
      7 August 2018 11: 17
      Quote: Operator
      Again desa about the Scandinavian pirates - Vikings

      Have you read anything other than the word "Vikings" in the article? It seems that the remaining words of the article are unfamiliar to you, and therefore uninteresting.
      I begin to understand how such figures as Fomenko and Klesov conquer their audience. It is not their “genius” that matters, but the intellectual potential of their followers, who in the written text see only what they want to see.
      Honestly, sometimes it seems that some should be forbidden to write (like Klesova with Fomenko), and some should be read. This is me about you.
      1. +4
        7 August 2018 13: 11
        Hello, Michael. Did not try to compare with the Scythian or Slavic mounds? There are a lot of them in the Don, at the same time there are 40 to 80 in the complex, and in Voronezh too. In the Slavic mounds, the bodies were burned in a round log house, and the Scythian ones in a log-box. There are no stone structures under the barrows ... There are also complexes of Baltic mounds on the Oka, but these are long mounds. Yes, and in the photo on the right there is another mound.
        1. +2
          7 August 2018 14: 27
          Quote: Meshcheryak
          Did you try to compare with Scythian or Slavic kurgans?

          Good afternoon, namesake. smile
          Steppe barrows are something else. Among them, in my opinion, a lot of mounds, comparable in size, plus or minus.
          There are a lot of burial mounds in the Half, only near my village there are five of them, but their height does not exceed three meters. All looted under my grandfather, and even earlier. According to research, there are no burial chambers in them, in fact, they are not burial mounds, but small hills. The main type of rite is burnt burning.
          There were several hills around Shum-gora too - it can be seen on Bystrov’s scheme, partly they were smelled already in his time, they were partly excavated in 1980-s under the guidance of N.I. Platonova, the result is the same: fatal burning, absence of burial chambers. Some of the small hills dug out marauders, some of the hills remained intact.
          Noise-mountain is distinguished from their range by the fact that the nearest structure of this scale (and there is no doubt that this is a structure) is in 800 - 1000 km., Whether it is a barrow or motte. We in the north have nothing of the kind in Old Ladoga, or in Gnezdovo, or in other places. If Shum-gora is excavated, it will become clear, of course, what it is, but so far they don’t want to dig it out. request
          The photo shows a hill, which in the Bystrov diagram is depicted in the lower part of the diagram a little to the right of the main one (the letter “a” is Middle Volley), and in the upper left - to the left and below.
          1. +4
            7 August 2018 14: 50
            Thank you, Michael. But I think that these objects should be dug and studied nevertheless, otherwise they will be plundered. And for history, archaeological finds are very important. It is also interesting how the name Sound Mountain appeared. On the Don, usually their mar or bald mountain is called ...
            1. +5
              7 August 2018 15: 06
              Quote: Meshcheryak
              It is also interesting how the name Noise Mountain appeared.

              Noise is a mountain because at a certain direction and force of the wind the mountain begins to buzz or whistle. I did not hear this sound myself, I immediately speak, and I personally did not communicate with the eyewitnesses, but I believe in the fact that the mountain makes some sounds. Many write about it.
              According to some sources, Shum-gora is also called Velia Gora, that is, “big”. In scientific circles, the Peredolskaya Sopka is more often used.
              Quote: Meshcheryak
              And for the history of archaeological finds are very important

              Here I fully agree. Considering how much of our history has burned down or simply lost the chronicles, chronicles, simply archival documents (that I didn’t believe in their deliberate destruction), archeology for our historians is just a salvation.
              I would vote for the excavation.
              1. +4
                7 August 2018 15: 16
                You have to dig, of course. There are a lot of gaps in the history of the Slavs, it is very important to study such objects. My uncle Iskorosten is digging now, he will come in September to show him your article, a very interesting topic.
      2. +7
        7 August 2018 13: 19
        Michael, I bow to you for the article! hi Incidentally, I did not reach Shum-Gora - it did not grow together. request Now I don’t especially take part in the forum, but in the evening I’ll come and join. drinks Thank you! good
        1. +8
          7 August 2018 14: 30
          Thank you, Nikolay. hi
          I don’t understand why the article was published in Opinions, and not in the History. What, in history, does not pull? request
          1. +7
            7 August 2018 16: 14
            I immediately had the same question: “Why in the“ opinions ”?” what
            I have no doubt that the entire historical part of the article will be “torn apart” wink , which is no less exciting to always read. She is interesting and informative. Yes
            I'm about a friend. smile A wonderful article, but a cup of aromatic coffee, I read in the morning with great pleasure. ))) good The mood for the whole day is provided. You, Mikhail, managed to write with such a positive, give so many pleasant emotions and memories, it is such a rarity lately. We live in a hurry and do not notice it at all, but it is so important for everyone. It seems nothing unusual, but it is said that the soul becomes warm. Thank you for the presented mood! You succeeded! love
            1. +4
              7 August 2018 16: 38
              we have two good local history experts from St. Petersburg and its environs - Mikhail and Alexander-paranoid50. He knows everything about my area much better than me, although he moved relatively recently. recourse My friends .. sometimes the story itself “crunches under our feet” ... and we don’t even think about it! hi
              1. +5
                7 August 2018 18: 12
                Quote: Mikado
                the story itself "crunches under your feet" ... and we do not even think about it!

                Many think, I know. smile
                Is there anything curious we meet in life and immediately forget? "Oh, what is it? Oh, okay, there is no time ..." And he passed by, and then did not remember. And how many interesting things you can find out, if you don’t be lazy to satisfy your curiosity ... After all, by and large, behind every little rubbish that stands out from the general background of the detail, there can be a most interesting story, in any case, its beginning. smile
                1. +5
                  7 August 2018 20: 26
                  as said by a man whom I can, in a short period of acquaintance, call one of my Masters, Professor G.A. Stanchinsky: "Guys, all our problems are because we all are Ivana, not remembering kinship!". Often we don’t remember not only what our family tree is, but we are not interested in what is around us. Moreover, history. Moreover, over the 20th century there was often a disregard for history, many creations of architecture were destroyed, but not only by the Bolsheviks (they, in fact, took many objects under guard back in 1918!). The Germans tried hard .... Or ... themselves! In my uncle's village near Luga there was a manor house, still wooden. In Soviet time - the club was there. For a hundred years the house stood, all the revolutions, all the wars suffered! soldier And some local drunks "under democracy" already burned it! angry Unfortunately, some of us have a better attitude towards nature sometimes ... recourse Well, you’ll see everything, Mikhail, I am setting out slowly! wink drinks Yes, and thanks for the help, Dear Man! drinks
                  1. +3
                    7 August 2018 22: 41
                    Perhaps these are the words of people of that generation.
                    I have clearly associated with them academician forester I. S. Melekhov.
                    1. +4
                      7 August 2018 22: 53
                      Sergei, I repent, I have not heard about Melekhov ... recourse but the words of Gelly Antonovich stand before my eyes! Where, in what historical place do not go - everywhere there is dirt and empty bottles .... And nobody knows anything!request everyone has their own life (cannot be blamed for this!), "Dom-2" and "Channel One" are more interesting, as well as VKontakte, etc. hi Well, what is it, people? No. We are People, not monkeys! Know the place where you live, learn to give way to a girl in transport, just do good by chance - here it is, human! Then think about "geopolitics, the next drunken pearl of Don Pedro, how to destroy America with one blow, and how to take and share everything"! Unfortunately, there are a lot of such comments on VO ... request To each his own. I will not judge .. what You just need to ..... remain human! soldier
                      1. +3
                        7 August 2018 22: 59
                        On each person there is something similar to the "seal of generation."

                        Sometimes you look at old photos. And people like the home of The Forsyte Saga, with dignity.
            2. +5
              7 August 2018 17: 39
              Thank you, Elena, for the kind words. smile I am glad that I managed to convey a little bit of my Sunday mood ...
          2. +5
            7 August 2018 16: 24
            Good article! Really...
  10. +1
    7 August 2018 14: 44
    If the current state is not interested in conducting excavations, then, as they say, "it means that someone needs it." Artifacts from such a barrow could finally clarify who the "Vikings - Russia" are. It seems that the Pandora’s box is afraid to open both Normanists and Pan-Slavists. It's a pity..
  11. +5
    7 August 2018 16: 24
    Quote: For example
    Ivan Vasilyevich, Heaven is his kingdom, they planted such on a barrel of gunpowder.

    Do not! He boasted to the British that he was NOT of RUSSIAN origin. "Russians, de, all thieves!"
  12. +1
    7 August 2018 18: 46
    Quote: Kirill Dou
    it was founded not really by Russians

    The Russian Land state was founded by Rus (suddenly).
  13. +1
    7 August 2018 19: 02
    Quote: Wend
    Summer (879) will die Rurik in Korel in a warrior, tamo laid speed in the city of Korel, reigning years 17

    This is a record in the annals compiled in the 17th century - then Patriarch Nikon organized the collection of information from old annals and the compilation of consolidated documents.
    It is possible that this information is correct and Rurik is buried in the area of ​​the city of Korela (present Priozersk, Leningrad Region).
  14. +5
    7 August 2018 20: 29
    Great article! And why do you rarely write, Mikhail? A wonderful syllable, an excellent language, a lot of original themes! ... Write about Luga, because it is a symbolic place!
    1. +4
      7 August 2018 20: 59
      no, you look at him, everything, everyone look at him! wink only I was going to throw a link to him demanding to come, but he himself came! drinks
      Write about Luga, because a landmark place!

      Michael will definitely write, Anton, I think. what He is "in his own subject," but we wish good luck to the Dear Man! soldier
      1. Cat
        +4
        7 August 2018 22: 13
        Nikolay, thank you very much for remembering me, otherwise I would have overslept again !!!
        Regards, Vlad!
        On the mound - I repeat. I am opposed to his archaeological discovery, or rather, I do not mind finding out what is there. I don’t want this to happen in an open way. Really for a unique and perhaps iconic find, you can not find a way to dig into the side or bottom?
        1. +2
          7 August 2018 22: 32
          Nikolay, thank you very much for remembering me, otherwise I would have overslept again !!!

          Vladislav, there are wonderful lines:
          What is ahead? But who knows?
          Fate will take, turn the tangle.
          Break the thread. And again, the wind will start ...
          Who knows what then awaits us? ...

          who knows where administrators will throw the article? It should seem to be on "stories"but goes to"opinions"- they say, the personal opinion of the author! request we accept, for site rules hi
          I also thought that https://topwar.ru/142763-sohranite-lico-celtes-v-
          serdce.html will be published on the "story". But also on the "opinions"! drinks You, like, are satisfied, you, dear people, liked drinks
          Therefore, my friends, this is an extra reason to follow each other’s materials, the presence of one of us on the site, not to lose sight of, and this is expensive! soldier "IN" united us, and thank God! hi
          I don’t want this to happen in an open way. Really for a unique and perhaps iconic find, you can not find a way to dig into the side or bottom?

          By the way, the prophetic Oleg’s barrow in Staraya Ladoga is several times smaller. request
          1. +2
            8 August 2018 08: 56
            Kolya, thank you for noticing these lines. The verse itself is not very, but you have chosen the very essence.
            1. +1
              8 August 2018 12: 42
              it was these lines that sunk into the soul, Evgeny Nikolaevich. Thank you!
    2. +4
      7 August 2018 21: 20
      Quote: 3x3zsave
      Write about Luga, because a landmark place!

      Thank you, Anton. hi
      It's hard for me to write about Luga. Meadows was founded only in 1777, before this there was an obscure village. In addition to the defense of Leningrad in 1941, no significant events happened there, and I love the Middle Ages ... smile
      All Luga local lore historians are practically limited in their studies to two periods. The first - the second half of the XIX century., So-called. “country boom”, when from St. Petersburg wealthy people began to break into distant suburbs, numerous estates were built, parks were broken, “Schubert waltzes”, “crunch of French bread”, etc. I'm not very interested. From that period, even in spite of all the perturbations of the 20th century, there is a rich heritage. The second period, interesting local historians - 1941-1944, it is clear why. Luga frontier, partisan movement, liberation. This is interesting, but it was written and rewritten about this a lot and qualitatively.
      So personally, it is difficult. smile
      1. +3
        7 August 2018 21: 40
        The first is the second half of the XNUMXth century, the so-called “country boom”, when wealthy people began to break into St. Petersburg from distant suburbs, numerous estates were built, parks, “Schubert waltzes”, “French bun crunch”, etc. were crushed. I'm not very interested.

        You are not interested.... someone writes .... wink to each - his own, Michael! request I heartily recommend Koporye, Kingisepp, Ivangorod and Ladoga. I will share, Dear Man, my swag! (photo - a lot! drinks ) True, the respected Wend wrote about Ladoga, but about Kingisepp .... a certain Mikado... what Well, so what! Topics - there are always. For it is not important official words that are important, but those details that no one saw except the Author of the article! good
  15. +4
    7 August 2018 22: 24
    "And the hero is a glorious name
    It hasn’t reached our times.
    Who was he? Crowns what
    He adorned his brow? "(C).

    I read it with great pleasure.

    And various mounds of Krivichy, Vyatichi, and Chashin mound in Bryansk are recalled.
  16. +5
    7 August 2018 22: 59
    Thank you, colleagues, for the flattering reviews.
    After such a "press" I want to "create" and on. smile
    We always have time to argue and argue, and today I am pleased, like an elephant after a three-bumper enema. smile To your health! drinks
    1. +4
      8 August 2018 00: 24
      Thank you, colleagues, for the flattering reviews.

      uh, let me joke! wink Michael, learn to operate on Old Russian! soldier
      No flattering. No way! stop "Alluring" Yes "entangled"! Yes I will ask! Learn materiel laughing drinks
  17. +6
    7 August 2018 23: 31
    It is interesting, very, surprisingly, that there are still such valuable objects. Unfortunately, as far as I understand from the experience of communication with archaeologists, with existing methods, only an autopsy. But what rich material it can be. Or maybe not. Those who are afraid to open are right, even the most experienced archaeologists cannot be 100% sure of the location of the main burial chamber, and they can be damaged. In addition, often back in historical times, mounds were buried in mounds, or even in the times of Ona, they plundered burials (from the outside it is not noticeable), which only confuses everything. The main tools of archaeological excavations, except for the head: a tractor and a shovel, and not modern technology. And also a time factor, excavations of a small mound can take a week, and a large one can take more than one season. And rumors creep faster. During the excavations, local residents often approached us and were seriously interested in whether we found gold, or already found before us? Often they rummaged in burials, and destroyed much. And to the question of the curses imposed, the archaeologists themselves told stories how many of them, after several excavations, were baptized if they were not baptized.
    I will ask archaeologists who are familiar with how the issue is being resolved: whether to leave the memorial barrow as is, or to investigate to the last pebble. And are there any new safe ways. Interesting.
  18. +2
    7 August 2018 23: 56
    "Similar mounds are often found in Britain, Normandy, Germany, they were very popular in the XI-XII centuries in Western Europe and ° ° RЎRєR RЅRґRёRЅR RІRёRё. The possible time of the construction of the Sound Mountain, the researchers determine the period of reign in Novgorod, Mstislav Vladimirovich the Great (1088-1117), a prince of a very active, gifted and, most importantly, committed to the Scandinavian culture, "- an insane lie.

    In the 11-12 centuries in England, Scotland, Ireland, France and Germany it was fashionable to build small forts to strengthen the central authority on the ground. Forts made of wood and / or stone in the form of a tower, surrounded by a wall, were built on the mound hills and were called motte in France or mayte in England.

    It is a lie that similar forts on bulk hills were not built in ° ° RЎRєR RЅRґRёRЅR RІRёRё from the word in general.

    From 1088 to 1117 the years in Novgorod were reigned by Mstislav, the son of Vladimir Monomakh and the English Gita. The mother had a great influence on her son and continued to maintain direct contacts with Western countries: she made huge contributions to the monastery of St. Panteleimon in the city of Cologne, lobbied for the construction of a large St. Nicholas Cathedral in Novgorod, which was especially popular at the English court of Father Gita, and also gained support from her son in the construction of a Catholic monastery on the territory of Novgorod with the Roman rector Anthony.

    Her son had the double name Mstislav - Harald and clearly tried to use Western European approaches (including the construction of forts) to strengthen princely power.

    After Mstislav left Novgorod, his forts, including on Shum-gora, were destroyed by Novgorodians in order to weaken princely power.
    1. +1
      8 August 2018 11: 32
      Here you can, if you want. smile
      I agree, in the Scandinavia itself, the Kurgan-palisade castles were not built, thank you for noting. The Scandinavians and their descendants Normans built similar structures, mainly in the occupied territories, to ensure their control.
      And why the "golimya lie" - just a mistake, and a minor one. Why so much pathos?
      I appreciate that you have carefully studied my opus, even if only to find something to complain about, and I am grateful for your point of view on the origin of Noise Mountain.
      It would be interesting to know your opinion on why on the territory of the Novgorod principality Mstislav limited himself to only one building of this type, and built it on a long-developed territory between two pogosts (then administrative centers) - Gorodnya and Sable (20 km north to the first and so many same north-east to the second), as well as 30 kilometers east and 50 kilometers south of two fortified settlements - Gorodets, respectively (now on the highway Luga - Pskov) and Tesovo (now Yam-Tesovo, on the highway Luga - Lyuban).
      Regarding the death of Rurik in the vicinity of modern Priozersk-Korela. Traces of the first settlement, according to modern archaeological research on the site of the current Priozersk date back to the XII century. There was no talk of any city of Korela during the time of Rurik - it simply was not there. In the protograph of the cited chronicle, it was probably said about the march on Korela - the Finno-Ugric tribe. Considering that all the Poluzhie, Priladozhie and Gulf of Finland were then settled by the Finno-Ugric tribes (except for river valleys suitable for agriculture, where the Slavs settled), it is quite possible that the originator defined these tribes as "Korela". So Priozersk as a resting place of Rurik does not fit in any way, and the Noise-mountain - may be quite acceptable. smile
      1. 0
        8 August 2018 16: 42
        ... Rurik in 1200 is 32 years old ...
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  19. +4
    8 August 2018 00: 15
    Korsar4,
    On each person there is something similar to the "seal of generation."
    Sometimes you look at old photos. And people like the home of The Forsyte Saga, with dignity.

    Sergei, I repent, did not read the "Saga" .. recourse Mother has a favorite book! And about the generation - absolutely right. hi But what G.A. Stanchinsky said is really true. We do not remember our story, except for the course textbook! that's scary! belay we live nearby, but we are not interested in the fact that "crunches under your feet"! request
  20. VLR
    +5
    8 August 2018 07: 23
    To be honest, it’s scary for this object: after all, “black archeologists” will soon destroy it. It is better to MSU or St. Petersburg people somehow carefully tried to “undermine”.
  21. VLR
    +5
    8 August 2018 07: 50
    Quote: Trilobite Master
    Thank you, Nikolay. hi
    I don’t understand why the article was published in Opinions, and not in the History. What, in history, does not pull? request

    Section selects moderator. I also recently published an article on the Great Walls of Australia here in Opinions, although it seemed to me that this is purely historical material.
    1. The comment was deleted.
      1. +4
        8 August 2018 11: 43
        Quote: Operator
        The article is placed in the "Opinions" section, because the author copied 90% of the text from original sources such as Wikipedia, spiced up with the hodgepodge Russophobic IMHO.

        That's just praised you, and here it begins again ...
        The list of references that I used is placed at the end of the article, however, in small print, so, probably, you did not notice. smile
        As for Russophobia ... Here I was even confused. This is what kind of sore imagination you need to have in order to discern Russophobia in this article ... It's time for you, my friend, on vacation. You have hallucinations. sad
        1. VLR
          +2
          8 August 2018 12: 17
          Article requirement: "uniqueness is not less than 70%"
    2. +1
      8 August 2018 10: 07
      although it seemed to me that this was purely historical material.

      yes, read, good article. It also seemed to me that a place in the "history" section would be more suitable for her. hi
      1. VLR
        +1
        8 August 2018 12: 23
        It seems to me that it is precisely in the Opinion section that the article on Paris is waiting in line. But in this case, everything is correct. There is a story with geography through personal perception.
        1. +2
          8 August 2018 12: 41
          inform if hi come, appreciate!
  22. 0
    8 August 2018 11: 02
    Quote: Warrior2015
    There are many of them, the mounds of entih and the tombs of the great ones, and many actually have certain spells. Which act. Of the most famous - the tomb of Tamerlane, opened on the eve of the beginning of the Great Patriotic ...

    ... so big, but believe in fairy tales ...
  23. +1
    8 August 2018 14: 40
    Thanks to the author. Once again I am convinced how little our state spends on the restoration of the true history of Russia-Russia .... after all, this aspect is very interesting to many educated people of our country. What can we say for major archaeological research, even if our ministers are not able to create a normal state textbook on the History of Russia. To the children, complete and limited nonsense from the school bench vparitsya about what patriotism and pride for our Fatherland we can talk about if we have not known the reliable history of our state since childhood .....
  24. 0
    8 August 2018 19: 37
    Quote: Trilobite Master
    It would be interesting to know your opinion.

    The fortification structure in the form of the mole / mayle bulk hill with the installation of a tower and a palisade was invented by the shavers on both sides of the English Channel in the 10 century. It was used if necessary to control the conquered population on the plain territory without natural hills. Almost the entire Scandinavian peninsula is covered with mountains and foothills, which led to the lack of need for such artificial structures with great complexity of construction.

    Specifically, the fortification, erected by Mstislav near Luga on the model and likeness of English structures, was intended primarily for another purpose - the Novgorod rules forbade invited princes to take root in Novgorod territory in the form of land purchase, construction of real estate, etc. Therefore, under the guise of a defensive structure, Mstislav wanted to chop off a decent piece of Novgorod territory on the border with the Pskov Principality into personal property. The locals cut through this and not only prevented the replication of such fortifications on their territory, but also destroyed the only instance built right after the departure of Mstislav from Novgorod.

    PS You have a mess in your head with the concept of "Scandinavians" - the overwhelming majority of the inhabitants of the Duchy of Normandy were ethnic Bretons (Britons - Celts), conquered by the Franks and speak French. The Scandinavians formed only the top of the feudal society of the duchy (less than 1 percent). Moreover, this elite for two or three generations was completely assimilated in the linguistic and cultural sense and became essentially French-speaking Bretons, and not Scandinavians. The concept of "Scandinavians" retained only an ideological burden, legitimizing the top in the eyes of the rest of the population of Normandy.
    Ethnic Scandinavians were only direct descendants of the peninsula for one - a maximum of two generations - getts, Angles, Saxons, Norgs, sveta, jutes, dans, etc. Starting from the second or third generation, after assimilation by the Celtic population, they became Germans - Goths, Anglo-Saxons, Normans, Saxons, Franks, Burgundians, Lombards, etc.
    1. 0
      8 August 2018 23: 11
      So I wrote -
      Quote: Trilobite Master
      Scandinavians and their descendants Normans

      What's wrong? The descendants of Rolf Pedestrian's comrades-in-arms, despite their relative scarcity, represented the Norman nobility, and it was they who mostly fought and built, so everything is correct.
      Quote: Operator
      Specifically, the fortification erected by Mstislav near Luga on the model and likeness of the British structures, was intended primarily for another purpose.

      Your guesses, no more. Mstislav was for Novgorod a light in the window and they repeatedly suggested that he break with the rest of Rurik and establish his dynasty in Novgorod, i.e. get, in fact, royal rights. Mstislav refused, and it was after his departure that Novgorod finally finalized its right to elect a prince. Laziness is now to climb into the sources, I would say more precisely, and according to the dates and names of the princes, who in Novgorod were the first to put on skis.
      Quote: Operator
      Virtually the entire Scandinavian Peninsula is covered with mountains and foothills, which led to the absence of the need for such artificial structures with great laboriousness of construction there.

      Rather, the lack of need to defend against someone. At that time, the Scandinavians, at home, absolutely no one was afraid. Who would have thought to rob a poor poor Bonder, or put his squad in the storming of a wooden guard or borg in a forgotten wilderness by all gods for the sake of a bear skin and a keg with a sour ale?
      In Sweden, by the way, there are a lot of plains, as in Denmark, so it’s not a matter of the terrain.
      The hypothesis that Shum-gora - a fortification seems to me not very believable. Just because it does not fit into the normal logic. There is nothing to defend there and there was no one from whom in the era of Mstislav. At the same time, in the times of Rurik, and even earlier, there were dug hills in the style of the culture of long barrows, i.e. the place was already sacred. And next to it, by the way, there was a small settlement with a suburb. It is unlikely that anyone would put a mott in the middle of the cemetery.
      Personally, I’m more impressed with the version that this is a barrow, but who can be buried in it is a mystery that we can hardly guess, even dragging it through the grains of sand.
      Of course, if there is a man in a golden coffin with forty barrels of silver and twelve headless corpses in a circle, the local legend is brilliantly confirmed and we can say that Rurik was found. But something I do not believe in it. smile
  25. +1
    9 August 2018 00: 37
    Quote: Trilobite Master
    The descendants of Rolf Pedestrian's comrades, despite their relative scarcity, represented the Norman nobility and it was they who mainly fought and built

    You are a writer, not a reader - the descendants of Rolf Pedestrian accounted for 1% of the population of the Duchy of Normandy and of its armed forces. Therefore, for the interests of the duchy at 99%, the native Bretons, the descendants of the Celts, and not the Scandinavians, fought.
    In any case, at the time of the conquest of England, they were all at 100% French-speaking Germans, and not Scandinavian-speaking Norgs, Suevs or Danes, as I already wrote.

    There are no two-level burial mounds (Aryan, Scythian, Slavic, Scandinavian) from the word in general, but two-level motts (embankment + fortification) are all. And yet - the burial chamber of the mound is located at its base (suddenly), and not at the top.
    That is why all domestic archaeologists (Russian, Soviet and Russian) did not hurry and did not rush to the excavation of Noise-mountains.
    1. 0
      9 August 2018 10: 36
      Quote: Operator
      the descendants of Rolf the Pedestrian comprised 1% of the strength of both the population of the Duchy of Normandy and its armed forces.

      Is that so? Well, one can, at the very least, agree about the “from the population”, although it is customary to confirm such statements with research data, references, etc. How did you calculate this?
      But “from its armed forces” is more than debatable. Do you really think that the army of the duchy of Normandy reflected the national composition of its population? That is, in your opinion, the descendants of the conquerors announced recruitment kits among the tax-paying population? Or how could this happen?
      The conquerors, having conquered the northern part of the former Neustria, occupied all administrative and military positions (which often coincided at that time), forming the entire vertical of power and participating, if necessary, in full force in the feudal militia. The “feudal militia”, by the way, is a militia of feudal lords, in which only the feudal lords themselves and their troops participate, and not the peasants with pitchforks and scythes. To get into the army of the Duchy of Normandy a representative of non-Norman nobility, which consisted entirely of descendants of the Scandinavians, could only be as an exception. Surely such cases were (I do not know about them), but they could only be of a random nature.
      The national composition of the tax-paying population for the recruitment of the army had absolutely no meaning for the century until the XIV with respect to Europe and until the XVI with respect to Russia, and, in any case, did not have it for Normandy of the X-XI centuries.
      About the Noise of the mountain. Double-decker mott is a rarity, not "all that is." The burial chambers were located differently, including above ground level, you should also know this. Where it is precisely located in the Noise-grief is impossible to say, as it is impossible to say that this is a burial chamber in principle, and not something else. Stones at the base of the embankment can serve as an image of the rook, if the burial proceeded according to the Scandinavian rite, which, of course, is not a fact.
    2. 0
      9 August 2018 10: 52
      Quote: Operator
      That is why all domestic archaeologists (Russian, Soviet and Russian) did not hurry and did not rush to the excavation of Noise-mountains.

      Do not believe it, but do not rush to dig in the first place because it is a very expensive event. You cannot dig up a mountain in one season, you will have to build a pavilion above it, heating, lighting and much more. Now testing non-destructive research methods. By the way, if it is a motte, then the cultural layer should remain not only at the top, but also around the hill.
      However, to build a castle in the middle of the cemetery, as I already wrote, no one would.
  26. 0
    9 August 2018 17: 36
    What does it mean you cannot find out what's inside. Geoscanner is such a device, it will find any cavity and not only.
  27. 0
    9 August 2018 18: 24
    Quote: Trilobite Master
    did the army of the duchy of Norman reflect the national composition of its population?

    The army (squad) - no, the militia - yes.
    1. 0
      10 August 2018 14: 44
      Just now, by chance I noticed your answer.
      I repeat once again: the feudal militia included only the feudal lords with their detachments. The taxable population did not participate in wars from the word "absolutely", at least until the XIV century. City communes began to deploy their small contingents a little earlier. So the "militia" is the "squads" and nothing else.
  28. 0
    26 October 2022 01: 36
    About the castle - this is Troyanovsky's nonsense, which no one supported.
  29. 0
    26 October 2022 01: 36
    In a project dedicated to the study of the pedigree and genetic data of the Ruriks, the historian, genealogist, specialist in the field of genetic genealogy Volkov Vladimir Gennadievich cited the results of the research: 1) the closest genetic relatives of the Ruriks live mainly in Sweden; 2) the closest to them live in the east of Sweden, where the ancient capital of Sweden, Uppsala, was located, in which the ancient kings sat; 3) perhaps Rurik came from the Rus tribe, which existed there; 4) the distant ancestors of Rurik most likely lived in the territory of the North-Western part of (future) Rus', and their ancestors came there from the Urals.[20]
  30. 0
    26 October 2022 01: 37
    Previously, 15 spruce trees grew on one of the sides, which are considered protected, and once there was a ban on logging from it.[7] At its top until the 1917th century there was a stone cross (and even earlier three crosses), surrounded by boulders, on which mysterious letters were applied. Also for some time there was a chapel on it. On Orthodox holidays on the “Trinity”, on the week of “All Saints”, local residents with priests came to her every year with a procession from the church of the Holy Great Martyr George for a prayer service, on Parental Saturdays they commemorated the dead. After 8 the Cross and the chapel were demolished.[XNUMX] Local residents, among whom the Old Believers lived, have long associated Viliya Gora with the burial of Prince Rurik, calling it "Rurik's Grave", preserving a detailed ancient legend about his death and burial in the barrow.

    As a result of georadar research, it was found that inside the artificial hill there is a chamber 9x3x3 meters clearly oriented from east to west in its center at a depth of 14-15 m from the top and a wide passage leading to it, which starts from the heel stone of the mound, along which something could be brought in on a stretcher, and boulders along the perimeter of the base.

    In 2003, in the presence of scientists, two stone slabs decorated with a monogram (galdrastaf) were discovered at the top of the hill, reminiscent, on the one hand, of the signs on the obols of Charlemagne and on the Verdun denarii of Charles II the Bald (840-877), on the other side, - the monogram of the Byzantine Palaiologos, and on the third, - the image of a "bident" or "trident" (signs of the Rurikids).
  31. 0
    26 October 2022 01: 38
    For a long time, local residents have kept traditions and legends about the unusual Peredolskaya Sopka (“Ryurik's Grave”, “Viliya Gora”) as the grave of Rurik[9][2]. This mound is part of the complex of the so-called Oredezhsky hills, stretching for kilometers between the Luga and Oredezh rivers - an area where Old Believer peasants also lived. The neighborhood (if not identity) of the Old Believers and the keepers of the Rurik legend is indicative.

    The name "Shum-mountain" appeared only at the end of the XNUMXth century, it has a folklore origin. The modern name "Shum-mountain" is associated with the folk custom of local residents to lower coins and ribbons into a pit at the top of the barrow and listen in a "special way" to how the depths of the hill are noisy. However, similar stories about the "noisy mountains" A.N. Afanasiev elevates to the legends about the "furious army of Odin".

    The first detailed description of the remains of the old Peredolsky churchyard (1880), including the Big Hill, belongs to M. Bystrov. According to various studies, it was previously called “Krestovaya Sopka” for a long time, as well as “Rurik's Grave”, on top of which there was a stone cross surrounded by boulders, and there was a chapel. Local residents came to the “Trinity” in the procession, on the week of “All Saints”, “prayed to the cross” or served a prayer service on it (<<On the day of All Saints, they made a procession to the top of the hill "[7])[10]. Before the appearance of the stone cross, three Crosses had previously stood on the top (perhaps in honor of Rurik, Sineus and Truvor).

    The name "Rurik's grave" is associated with the legend:

    “There was a battle in late autumn, on the northern bank of the Luga. Rurik was seriously wounded and died. It was cold, the ground froze, his body was covered with stones. In the spring, Rurik's body was transferred across the river in the place "Kamenya" with lights, to the southern bank of the river. Meadows, where they buried in a large mound, in a golden coffin and with it 40 barrels of silver coins, a horse with a gilded saddle, as well as these 12 people with their heads in a circle. (Place of recording: Podgorye, Volochek, Brod. Time - the middle of the 90s of the XIX century; which was reflected in the folklore and legends of local residents, collected and recorded by researchers in the XX century and later).

    In a similar way, Orthodox residents in the Velikolutsky district of the Pskov province, where, according to legend, under one mound "lies a brave knight, a glorious hero who fell in an honest battle for the Christian faith," memorial services were served in the memory of the knight in the old days.

    However, it was on the Trinity that the Holy Spirit descended on the apostles - and such a day is very suitable for declaring the God-chosen monarch to the people, and is a kind of symbol of blessing from above the royal (princely) power. The folk rituals that were held on the Krestovaya Sopka on the Trinity holiday probably retained the trace of a certain state ritual, indicating the important place of the Rurik Kurgan in the fate of Russia. The population of the Peredolsky churchyard could revere the first Christian Tsar of Rus' in Rurik. Similarly, in Izborsk, on the famous Truvor's grave, there was an ancient stone cross, revered by the locals, who back in the 11th century called Rurik's brother "Tsar Truvor". Moreover, at the same time, the Izborsky townspeople, according to the ethnographer P.I. Yakushkin, everyone strove to confuse Truvor with Rurik. And on White Lake in the XNUMXth century they showed the grave of the third brother, “King Sineus.”[XNUMX]

    The construction of a cross and a chapel on Rurik’s grave is an example of this: in the Danish Herning, under an ancient church, a hill was explored, which turned out to be a mound-grave (with a respectable lady buried in a burial chamber), a little more ancient than the temple. In ancient times, the first Christians celebrated the Liturgy on the tombs of the holy martyrs. In Rus', the tradition of burial under the floor of the temple originated along with the spread of Christianity. In addition to the saints and martyrs, the highest church hierarchs and princes were buried inside the churches.

    In 1927, the complex was first examined by GAIMK employees P. N. Shults and V. P. Grozdilov. A group of hills in the amount of 6 mounds was certified in 1949, surveyed by S.N. Orlov in 1959, and by the Novgorod detachment of the USSR Academy of Sciences IA in 1975. In 1984, N.I. Platonova discovered a settlement with an area of ​​​​approx. 9 hectares, the excavations of which began in 1985 and continued intermittently until the mid-2000s. During this time, 212 m² were excavated in different areas, and two mounds were excavated, which provided interesting material on the funeral rites of the bearers of the hill culture.

    The renewed interest in the Peredolsky churchyard in modern times was spurred on by the collected material on the graveyard by local historians M. C. and S. C. Aleksashins, which, together with the shape and size of Krestovaya Sopka itself, referred to similar “royal mounds” in Swedish and Danish burials. Some scientists, including Academician B. A. Rybakov[12], already several decades ago agreed with what was expressed in the 1920s by I. Belyaev’s assumption that Prince Rurik of the Russian chronicle is Rorik of Jutland[13][14][15][16] (according to his place of birth) or Friesland (according to the place of his possessions), one of the sons of the Jutland king Holvdan (from the Skjeldung family, originating according to legend from Odin Skjold), expelled from Denmark in about 782, and received from Charlemagne the land of the Frisians (where the Rustringia region was, on the coast of the North Sea with access to the Varangian Sea) in possession (flax) on the terms of protecting the coast of Frisia from the Vikings and paying taxes to the imperial treasury. Moreover, it was Frisian jugs dated to the 862th century, Frisian combs and Scandinavian beads that were discovered by archaeologists in burial mounds near the Scandinavian (Varangian) settlements near Ladoga, the place of Rurik's reign from 864 to 17.[XNUMX] And the hydronym "Luga" refers to the union of tribes described by Tacitus, called Lugii, which modern researchers define by their country of origin - the north and west of the Jutland Peninsula (that is, the alleged homeland of Rurik). It is known that after the expulsion from Denmark of Harald Klak, under whose patronage St. Equal-to-the-Apostles Ansgar preached in Denmark[18], he, together with his brother Rorik (of Jutland), relatives and nobility, were baptized in Ingelheim on the Rhine by Louis the Pious in 826, finding refuge there from rivals (pagans) and support for the struggle for supreme power over Denmark. This fact is consistent with the hypothesis of A. A. Gorsky, who first drew attention to the fact that in two Byzantine sources "Rus" is derived "from the family of the Franks." In the environment of the Christian Rorik (the baptismal name could have been different), as follows from the life of the holy Equal-to-the-Apostles Ansgar, there were Christians - “many besh Varyazi Christians.” It is also known that during the raid in 845, when his retinue was threatened by the “pestilence”, Rorik ordered the release of all Christian captives, and ordered his comrades-in-arms to fast for two weeks. After many years of fighting for supreme power over the Danes, Rorik of Jutland, having not achieved success in the end, having suffered from the false accusation of the Franks of treason, no longer saw the point in submitting to the emperors of the Franks. In addition to this, the pearl of Rorik's possessions, the Dorestad shopping center began to lose its importance due to silting of the Rhine bed. (Obviously, in the struggle for power with rivals, relatives, pagans, Rorik was given the nickname "bile (ulcer) of Christianity", which spread along the entire coast of the Varangian Sea.) Probably from that time Rorik turned his attention to the East, trade relations with which were established by friezes as early as the 860th century, where subsequently, according to the PVL, around the XNUMXs. in the lands of the Slavs and Finns, Prince Rurik, called to rule over them and judge "by right", appears, bringing with him "all of Rus'" (familiar with the social structure and organization of power in the Frankish empire), , whom the union of Slavic and Finno-Ugric tribes drove out earlier. The relatively few Normans who remained in Frisia were killed in 885. in Betuva after the treacherous murder of their leader Gottfried in negotiations with the Frankish nobility. After 885

    Attempts by a number of historians to connect Rurik with the Baltic Slavs-Obodrites do not have sufficient grounds.[16]
  32. 0
    12 May 2024 18: 00
    The article "The genetic history of Scandinavia from the Roman Iron Age to the present" has been published.

    It examines 249 previously published genomes of the ancient Scandinavians, as well as 48 new ones. All these samples are compared with 16 genomes of modern Swedes, Norwegians and Danes.

    The authors of the article focused on two main tasks. The first is to clarify the scale and direction of external influences on the Scandinavian gene pool in these periods, that is, from the Roman Iron Age to modern times. The second task is to assess the “Ural influence”. The fact is that the Scandinavians, like any large group, have regional characteristics. One of them is associated with the different specific gravity of the ancient component, most pronounced among modern Finno-Ugric peoples.

    The samples from the article were divided into five time periods: Pre-Viking Age (1–749 AD), Viking Age (750–949 AD), Late Viking Age (950–1099), Middle Ages (1100– 1349), and the post-medieval period (1350–1850).

    The results of the study showed two main flows into Viking Age Scandinavia. First there is a flow from the British Isles, then there are influences from the Eastern Baltic. Geneticists have tried to clarify the contribution of non-Scandinavian groups and have chosen three proxy populations - Irish for the west, Lithuanians for the east and Sardinians for the south. Proxy means reference points, model populations in which certain components are maximally expressed.

    ...

    Sample ful001 is very interesting. Firstly, this is an exceptionally rich burial.

    "The Fullerø burial is a richly furnished male chamber burial radiocarbon dated to Late Roman Iron Age, 242–385 AD with a probability of 95,4% (1732 ± 29 BP, Ua-53935). Although the grave was opened and robbed, it was still surprisingly richly decorated and unique. The chamber burial was placed in a mound belonging to the first generation of mounds that began to be built in the early Roman Iron Age in the area north of Lake Mälaren. The burial chamber is the largest. ca. 10 m2 (north-northeast - south-southwest) of all known in the area of ​​Lake Mälar and northern Sweden from 200 to 700 AD The preserved parts of the human skeleton were a clavicle and a rib bone with a healed injury, belonging to a large, muscular, middle-aged man, emphasizing the impression that the grave was built for a trained male warrior. The gold rings, one of the largest gold rings ever found in Sweden, were probably military honors; the chain mail, belt, boar-like tusks, and tusks from pigs, probably for fitting a horse, may indicate that this man was in the service of the Romans. The grave contained a worn gold coin, used as a pendant, minted for the Roman Emperor Maximian Hercules in 291 AD. The bones of a dog and a goshawk, as well as phalanxes of a bear, were found in the chamber, suggesting that a bear skin had been placed with the deceased. The goshawk represents the earliest evidence of hunting with birds of prey in the region, a tradition that otherwise dates back to the 6th century. Numerous (more than 20) domestic species in the mound mound are interpreted as animals used for the funeral feast."

    Fullerø is located five kilometers north of old Uppsala (Sweden), directly north of the famous Valsgarde burial ground. Considering the uniqueness of the burial and its exceptional size, there is a high probability that not just a noble warrior, but one of the ancient kings is buried here.

    It is also interesting that this person belongs to the N-Y4339 subclade. This means that he was probably a relative of the ancestors of the Rurikovichs, who belonged to the same branch.

    Here is a graphic reconstruction of his burial....
  33. 0
    12 May 2024 18: 06
    There is a similar hill 15 m high in Norway, 30 km north of Oslo, and it is called Raknehangen. The hill was nicknamed the “Tsar’s Grave”. During excavations, internal wooden structures were discovered, but research was stopped...
  34. 0
    12 May 2024 18: 09
    A descendant of the Christian Rurik, Ivan III, responds to the proposal to ask the emperor for a royal crown: “By the grace of God we are sovereigns on our land from the beginning, from our first ancestors, and we have been appointed by God, like our ancestors»[21].

    In 2002, on the initiative of the Aleksashins and with the participation of St. Petersburg archaeologist G. S. Lebedev, georadar studies of the hill were organized, during which the dimensions (height - 14 m, diameter - 70 m) and the structure of the hill were clarified (the surface of the hill is lined with pieces of limestone , which in ancient times could have been a “perfect white two-tiered structure”), and at a depth of 14-15 m from the top it was discovered a cavity measuring 9x3x3 meters, “elongated outlines”, clearly oriented from east to west. The presence of this object, its size and orientation were confirmed by repeated profiling. A total of 53 profile scans were carried out at the top of the hill with two different antennas. Researchers (including G.S. Lebedev, who spoke on the television program “Seekers”) have an assumption, consistent with local legend, that the cavity is a burial chamber or sarcophagus.
  35. 0
    12 May 2024 18: 10
    The history of the Rurik Settlement in Novgorod, one of the oldest settlements in North-West Russia, turned out to be at least half a century older and began even before the calling of the Varangians in 862. This was established by the Novgorod regional archaeological expedition of the Institute of the History of Material Culture of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IHMC RAS).
    “During the 2015 excavations, for the first time it was possible to discover a cultural layer under the ancient fortification of the Rurik Settlement - a rampart reinforced with log frames,” deputy head of the expedition Ivan Eremeev told TASS. — This cultural layer with traces of a fire dates back approximately to the XNUMXth - first half of the XNUMXth century. Thus, the history of the Settlement goes back at least half a century, which proves the fact of the existence of a settlement here before Rurik.”
    The archaeological expedition of the IHMC RAS ​​has been working on the Rurik Settlement for more than 40 years. The settlement itself on the banks of the Volkhov River, which historians date back to the XNUMXth-XNUMXth centuries, is considered the first pre-urban settlement of the area. Scientists have established that it was here that the oldest residence of the Novgorod princes was located; the inhabitants of the settlement were both Slavs and Scandinavians - during excavations, objects of Slavic, Scandinavian and Finnish life were found here. The materials from his excavations are considered as valuable as artifacts from Novgorod and Staraya Ladoga, and in terms of the number of finds of Scandinavian origin, Rurik Settlement is considered one of the richest in Eastern Europe.
  36. 0
    12 May 2024 18: 11
    Archaeologists have confirmed the age of Veliky Novgorod.
    Velikiy Novgorod. January 7, 2022. INTERFAX NORTHWEST - Archaeological research has confirmed that Veliky Novgorod was founded in the middle of the 858th century, reported the Novgorod State Museum-Reserve (GMZ). “Laboratory studies of artifacts found last year during excavations at the Rurik settlement established that the fortress at the settlement was built in 861-2021. And this is an absolute sensation that we can be proud of,” said the agency’s interlocutor. As reported, the remains of a wooden Varangian fortress were found at the Rurik settlement in the summer of 859 by an expedition of the St. Petersburg Institute of Material Culture of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Scientists have tentatively dated the buildings to the XNUMXth century. The settlement, located at the source of the Volkhov River from Lake Ilmen, is a unique historical monument. It was named after the legendary Prince Rurik who founded it. Chronicle sources claimed that Rurik founded the Novgorod fortress in XNUMX.

    This very conventional date was considered the year of the founding of Veliky Novgorod. In ancient times, the Settlement was the residence of the Novgorod princes.
  37. 0
    12 May 2024 18: 12
    In the Friesland trading city of Dorestad, the scion of the younger branch of the Danish kings, Rorik of Jutland, served the Carolingians, owned a fief and printed silver coins for the descendants of Charlemagne. He was an exemplary finance minister, which the Carolingians will remember even after Rörik's death.

    But in the early 860s, the branch of the Rhine on which Dorestad stands became shallow, and the city, cut off from the waterway, began to decline. At the same time, the king’s hopes of taking the Danish throne collapsed.

    For Rurik, the Slovenes, Krivichi, Finnish tribes and Rus (local Ladoga Scandinavians) send “to Rus'”, which the chronicler localizes between the “Goths and Aglans”, that is, on the territory of Frisia. (See Ipatiev Chronicle. PSRL. T. 2. M., 2001. P. 4).

    On three hundred ships, Rorik sets out from Friesland to the other end of the Baltic, to the mouth of the Volkhov, the Slavic city of Ladoga, and brings from Rustringia (East Friesland) to the future Rus' “all Rus',” that is, his Danes. Why the king comes here is clear: Ladoga was the silver neck of the Baltic, through it all eastern Kufic silver came to Europe.
  38. 0
    12 May 2024 18: 13
    Young Rörik claimed control of Dorestad and Hedeby. But these cities are the most important trading centers in the Baltic. The third such center was the Swedish Birka. The fourth, most important, is distant eastern Ladoga. The main flow of Arab silver went through it to Europe. And it is here that King Rurik appears at the end of his life.

    Thus, the biography of the king itself speaks in favor of identifying Rorik with the chronicle Rurik, connecting him with the most important trade routes, which N. T. Belyaev astutely guessed (see: Belyaev 1929).

    The experience of minting silver coins in Dorestad should have taught Rörik a lot.

    It is known that “Arab silver arrived in the Western Baltic only from the second half of the 1970th century.” (Potin 64: 80–1982; Potin 127: 134–XNUMX), this is precisely the result of more than thirty years of activity by Rorik of Jutland.

    In the second half of the 1994th century. the number of oriental coins that ended up in the hoards of Sweden and Gotland increased sharply (Noonan 225: 226–2005; Sedykh 46). If 800 treasures that fell into the ground from 859 to 11 contain a little more than 23 thousand coins, then over the next two decades alone more than 13 thousand coins were discovered in 3 treasures. And over the last twenty years of the century (after Rurik!) there were only 54 treasures (a total of less than three hundred coins). That is, 860% of coins in the twentieth anniversary of 880–1. and 880% between 900 and XNUMX.

    All treasures of this time were found in the Novgorod lands, along the Western Dvina, along the Oka and on the Upper Volga. The “path from the Varangians to the Greeks” along the Dnieper had not yet been completed.

    “Recently, rich treasures of Kufic silver have been found in the territory of Rörik’s possessions in Frisia.”

    If we consider that the Danes in Friesland, unlike Denmark, constituted a small part of the population and did not stay for the entire 830th century, but only for less than half a century (from the end of the 850s, and constantly from 880 to the mid-1978s, see: Blok, 890), as well as the fact that most of the dirhams older than the XNUMXs discovered in Denmark are finds from excavations of large Scandinavian trade and craft settlements that have no analogues in Friesland, the inevitable conclusion is that territory of the Norman presence in the Netherlands, oriental coins of the XNUMXth century. are relatively more common than in Denmark, although based on the geographical location one would expect the exact opposite situation.

    At the same time, the place of their special concentration (80% of finds) is the island of Wieringen, which is regarded by Dutch researchers as the probable main base of Rorik (see: Besteman, 2002, p. 447–451; Besteman, 2004a, p. 103–105)
  39. 0
    12 May 2024 18: 14
    The hypothesis about the identity of Rurik of Jutland (Friesland) and Rurik of the Russian chronicle has been finding more and more archaeological confirmation in recent years. In Staraya Ladoga, on the opposite right bank of the Volkhov from the fortress, in the Plakun tract, there was a Scandinavian burial ground, which was used for burials in the last third of the 18th - first half of the 15th century. (1968 mounds, 890 of which were excavated by archaeologists). In one of the women’s burials, Frisian jugs from the 895th century were found, decorated with silver foil with the image of a cross. In 1996, archaeologists excavated here the burial of a noble Viking, about sixty or seventy years old; According to dendrochronology, the burial is dated 113–119. (Chernykh 1996: 52–XNUMX). Archaeologists note the Danish character of the burial rite, unknown at Birka. A similar type of burial (a plank coffin in a wooden chamber) is known in Jutland; an analogue of the Ladoga burial of one of the highest warriors of Rurik was found near Hedeby (Mikhailov XNUMX: XNUMX).

    In 2008, at the Zemlyanoy settlement of Staraya Ladoga, the expedition of A. N. Kirpichnikov in the layer of the mid-939th century. discovered a fragment of a clay casting mold (about one third of the product was lost) with part of a relief image of a falcon in a heraldic pose, and in Pskov an image of a falcon’s head crowned with a cross on a silver pendant of a princely governor of the 941th century was found. (the reverse side is crowned with the Rurikovich bident). At the same time, Yaropolk minted exactly the same falcons under the same cross on his pseudo-dirhams. The design on the mold is similar to the design on the coin of the Danish king from the region of Dunloe in North-East England, Olaf Gutfridsson (Anlaf Guthfridsson; the coin dates back to 2010–79). See: Kirpichnikov, Sarabyanov 2008: 2011; Chernov 423–426; for more details see p. 1969–16 present ed. In addition, it should be noted that in Ladoga, using Frisian technology, the production of composite bone combs was established, and they were made by Frisian craftsmen (Korzukhina, Davidan 17: 1971–123; Korzukhina 130: 1985–156; Nazarenko 162: 168, XNUMX, XNUMX). The assumption of the identity of Rurik of Jutland (Friesland) and the chronicle Rurik today can be considered a convincing, multi-faceted hypothesis.

    The Resurrection Chronicle (16th century) reports: “At that time in Novgorod, a certain elder named Gostomysl was preparing for death and convened those who ruled Novgorod with him. And he said: “I give you advice. Yes, send wise men to the Russian (sic!) land and call a prince from the descendants of the Roman king Augustus living there.” They went to the Prussian (sic!) land and found Rurik, who was descended from the family of the Roman king Augustus, and the ambassadors begged him from all the Novgorodians to come to reign with them.”

    (Here Prussia is the work of a late chronicler, a tribute to consonance with Rustringia, and the mention of the Russian land is an echo of the PVL information that the Ladoga residents, including local Rus', sent for Rurik to overseas Rus'. In a more detailed form we find the same plot in Joachim., about the authenticity of which scholars have no consensus.)

    The first leader of the Slovenes, Elder Gostomysl, appears in the Commission list of the NPL of the younger edition, in the First selection of the Novgorod Karamzin Chronicle (XV century). The local chronicle also calls him “the first Novgorod mayor” (for more information about Gostomysl, see p. 464 of our edition of The Tale of Bygone Years. St. Petersburg, 2012).

    The name of Gostomysl will remind you of the nickname of Yaroslav Galitsky named in “The Tale of Igor’s Campaign” - Osmomysl (Eight-Missed). It was under the leadership of Elder Gostomysl that Ladoga trade with the Arab East and Scandinavian countries flourished. There is the village of Gostelyuble (Mikhailovsky churchyard of the Bezhitskaya Pyatina, mid-492th century), and there were Gostimerichi (in birch bark document No. 2005, mid-65th century) (Vasiliev 242: XNUMX, XNUMX).
  40. 0
    12 May 2024 18: 15
    At the beginning of the second decade of the 826th century. King Gudfred of Denmark dies. The Danes capture Norway (it remained part of Denmark until the XNUMXth century) and Harald (Haralda/Heriold), who was co-ruler of the sons of Gudfred (the Danes), are forced to leave Norway. As a result of civil strife, two of Rorik's four brothers die, two - Harald and Hemming - in XNUMX flee to the Frankish emperor Louis the Pious and, with four hundred companions, are baptized. The brothers receive land in that part of Friesland called Rüstringia. In addition, Harald gets Dorestad, a Frisian port on the Rhine, a major trade and craft center of Northern Europe in the area between the Rhine and Lek rivers near the modern city of Wijk bei Duerstede (in the Netherlands, south of Utrecht).

    In 844, Rorik and Harald fell out of favor with Lothair and were imprisoned. Harald died in custody, and Rorik, having fled, showed up with Louis the German, Lothar’s brother, and eventually found shelter among the pagans.

    To the east of Rüstringia lay the lands of the Slavs. In general, the Franks called the northwestern Slavs winithi, winidi; later the Germans called them Vendians. There were many tribes, let's talk about a few: on the Elbe lived the Lutichi, which included, in particular, the Velets (Wilts), the Polabians (who retained their language until the 844th century), the Ruyans (inhabitants of the island of Ruyan/Rügen), and the Obodrites sat along the Oder. Those whom the Fulda Annals in XNUMX call “Abodrites” (and their murdered king Gotzomuesli), the Xantenians call “Vinites,” that is, Wends (their king is Hestimus). Next year, under the pen of the chronicler, the Vinites will become Vinods. At the same time, it is indicated that Rorik is their king (rex).

    The Viking Rorik’s alliance with the Obodrits and, moreover, the fact of his being in the role of “king” is a mysterious plot. A stranger cannot become a king (in any case, this situation is not trivial).

    In 845 the Vinods were in trouble. The chronicler says that some kind of catastrophe broke out in their land (not a pestilence, but, apparently, a terrible flood), and the wise men unsuccessfully cast lots in front of the idols. The lot fell unsuccessfully every time. Then one of the prisoners, a Christian, offered to cast lots in front of the image of the Christian God. The lot fell as it should. Rorik and all the pagan people fasted for 14 days and did not drink honey. In addition, he released the prisoners. And soon the disaster ended. After this, Rorik reconciles the “vinods” with Louis the Pious.

    In 850, Rorik and Godfred Haraldson recaptured Dorestad and Utrecht from Lothair. Lothair agreed to make peace with him on the condition that Rorik would protect his northern borders from Danish raids.

    The Bertine annals report: “Rorik, Harald’s nephew, who had recently fled from Lothair, recruited a whole army of Normans and many ships, after which he devastated Frisia and the island of Betuwe and other places in the surrounding area, sailing up the Rhine and Waal. Lothair, being unable to defeat him, accepted him as his vassal and gave him Dorestad and other counties."

    Meanwhile, turmoil began in Denmark, Rorik again entered the fight for the crown, but it went to Horik, the son of Gudfred of Denmark. Rorik fights with him and receives the port of Hedeby as compensation.

    ...
    ...

    It is assumed that Rorik first appeared in Ladoga in the mid-860s. Appearing after the expulsion of the finders and a period of unrest, which is indicated by the fire that destroyed Ladoga around 865, he first of all rebuilt the fortress. And two years later he goes to Ilmen. These, apparently, were the terms of his agreement with the Ladoga residents - ensuring the safety of the city and the trade route.

    In 870–873 Rorik is back in Western Europe. Simon Copeland writes: “In February 872, Charles held further negotiations with Roerik, who was this time joined by his nephew Rudolf. The meeting took place at the Monasterium, possibly at Moustiers-sur-Sambre in the province of Namur, near the border of Lothair's original possessions.
    The last time about Rörik is reported in the following year, 873, when he visited Louis the German in Aachen.

    According to G.S. Lebedev, while Rorik is settling property relations with the king of France, Charles the Bald, and King Louis the German of Germany, “in Ladoga and Novgorod, apparently, an anti-princely opposition is being formed, led by Vadim the Brave. Having returned, Rurik managed to deal with the rebellious and, probably, at that time entered into a dynastic marriage with one of the representatives of the local nobility (Efanda according to V.N. Tatishchev, Sfanidr according to S.L. Nikolaev; see p. 398 of this ed. ). The second period of his stay in Rus' (875–879) was marked by the stabilization of economic ties in the Baltic” (Lebedev 2005: 492–493).

    According to the PVL, Rurik died in 879, and in 882 Emperor Charles the Fat transferred Frisia to Godfried, Rurik's nephew. According to researchers, this means that Rorik is no longer alive.
  41. 0
    12 May 2024 18: 16
    The two-and-a-half-century polemic between “patriots” and “Normanists” is not worth a penny. The baptized Viking Rorik of Jutland and Friesland, a scion of the younger branch of the Danish kings, ruled in Dorestad. He printed silver coins for the Carolingians, went to prison, escaped and after two years was king of the Obodrites, the Western Slavs. (And this suggests that his mother was indeed a Slav, as the Novgorod legend claims.) In the mid-860s, the Rhine changes its course and the port of Dorestad begins to wither away, and Rorik goes to Ladoga, through which Arab silver came to Europe . And becomes Rurik.

    Some researchers believe that the chronicle story about Rurik is either completely fictional, or brought from other times and circumstances (see: Anti-Normanism 2003; Fomin 2005; Expulsion of the Normans 2010).

    However, contrary to the opinion of these researchers, the name Rurik (Rorik) was quite widespread: Old Norse Hrǿrkír/Hrýríkr from hróðr - 'glory' and ríkr - 'powerful'. It is attested by numerous monuments, including runic inscriptions (Rørik, Rurik, Hroerekr, RurikaR); it was worn by the son of a Danish king (2005th century) from the famous Old Scandinavian monument “Beowulf”, as well as by a Danish king of the 25th century, the grandfather of Prince Amleth, about whom Saxo Grammaticus spoke and whose work Shakespeare used in his famous tragedy, etc. This name still worn by residents of Sweden, Norway, Finland, Denmark and Iceland (for a detailed bibliography of works on Rurik, see: Voitovich 35: 2006–196; Voitovich 203b: XNUMX–XNUMX).

    Moreover, in the 9th century we know only one Rorik - Rorik of Jutland and Friesland!

    The Frisians traded throughout the Baltic; they even had a colony in Birka. Rörik's supposed grandfather Halfdan the Old - father of Harald Klak and Hemming - could have received the region of Hriusti (Old Frisian: Rustri, Frisian lands at the mouth of the Weser) from Charlemagne back in the 780s.
  42. 0
    12 May 2024 18: 19
    "WHO WAS RORIK'S FATHER"?

    Rorik is the son of the Danish king Röginfrid (Ragnfrid). This name has been widespread in the Christian heart since the end. VII – beginning VIII century Reginfridus was the name of a pilgrim and holy martyr from Southern Alsace killed by robbers.

    Ragnfrid (died 814) – King of Denmark since 812, after the death of Hemming. In 813, he and his brothers were exiled by the sons of the previous king, Gudfred. Röginfrid was probably the son of Halfdan, a Danish leader who became a vassal of Charlemagne in 807 and the brother of Anulo (died 812), Hemming (died 837) and Harald Klak (died c. 852). After Hemming's death, only Röginfrid, Harald and their brother Brother Hemming were in Denmark. In 813, Gudfred's sons expelled three co-rulers. Only Reginfried attempted to reclaim the kingdom, but was killed in an invasion attempt in 814, as recorded in the Annales regni Francorum.

    That is, Rorik is not just a Viking, but a Danish prince.