Military Review

Rehabilitated posthumously. Interrupted flight of Pavel Grokhovsky (part 1)

47
During his, in principle, short life, Pavel Ignatievich created more than a hundred inventions. Of course, some of them were downright weird. Suffice it to recall at least a flying car based on the Ford 40. According to the inventor's idea, the air car was devoid of both the stabilizer and the fuselage. On "Ford", which played the role of a module, Pavel Ignatievich attached a wing and a pair aviation engines giving out under two hundred "horses". But it never went beyond one prototype. But he was not afraid to experiment, so there were creations that were clearly ahead of their time. And some of his inventions were later appropriated by his colleagues who managed to survive the time of repression.


Rehabilitated posthumously. Interrupted flight of Pavel Grokhovsky (part 1)


Man capable of doing

Pavel Ignatievich was born in 1899 in Vyazma, but his childhood was spent in Tver. Here he graduated from elementary school, and then enrolled in a real school. The violent temper and stubborn temper did not allow Pavel Ignatievich to stand aside when the October revolution broke out in October 1917. And during the Civil War, he fought on the side of the Reds. During the confrontation Grokhovsky took part in the battles against Kolchak, Wrangel, Denikin. While in the Kozhanov squad, he happened to reach the Persian border. And in 1919, Pavel Ignatievich became a member of the Bolshevik Party.

Then fate brought him to the Baltic. Here, the commander and mentor of young Grokhovsky was the chairman of the Central Committee of the Baltic fleet (Centrobalt), the commander of the revolutionary sailors Pavel Efimovich Dybenko.

Pavel Efimovich quickly discerned in the namesake, which was ten years younger than him, a man of intelligence, clever and far-sighted. Therefore, quite often turned to him for advice. And Dybenko could ask the views of the subordinate both in some domestic issue and in the organization of a military operation. In the latter case, Pavel Efimovich imprisoned Pavel Ignatievich in front of him and with joint efforts they, as they say, organized brainstorming. And once the commander, as a token of gratitude, presented his subordinate a Mauser with an inscription on the handle: “Pavel Grokhovsky from Pavel Dybenko”.

For Grokhovsky firmly entrenched a reputation as a person who "is capable of action." Moreover, this very "act" could be absolutely anyone. For example, one of the episodes of Grokhovsky’s life, about which Vladimir Kazakov wrote in his chronicle “The Right to Honor”, ​​published in the magazine “Volga” in 1985 year: “Once in the Volga flotilla detachment, where Grokhovsky served, flew with the report of the pilot on a seaplane. No matter how Grokhovsky asked him to give a ride, he disagreed, referring to the shortage of fuel. Then, persuading the pilot to remain in the detachment until dawn, Grokhovsky, with a group of fighters, entered the city occupied by whites and got a barrel of gasoline there, which they brought to the detachment at night on sanitary stretchers. In the morning the pilot let go of Grokhovsky, but did not see the delight on his face.

“I’ll overtake you by a good road,” Paul said absently, thinking about something. “You can knock you down with a slingshot.”

Here is another interesting episode: “Having once arrived at home for a visit, Grokhovsky unexpectedly found himself in the maelstrom of the Social Revolutionary revolt. A close childhood friend betrayed him to the Social Revolutionaries, and they sentenced Communist Grokhovsky to death. Only one escort accompanied him to prison. Passing by the tavern, Grokhovsky suggested eating scrambled eggs and drinking vodka at his expense. The guard agreed, and when he was already sitting with his mouth full, the arrested said:

“You, brother, have a bite, drink, and I'll look into the latrine for a moment,” and immediately disappeared through the back door of the tavern. ”

At the very end of 1920, Pavel Ignatievich was promoted. Not done, of course, without the patronage of a senior comrade Dybenko. And Grokhovsky was appointed Commissioner of the Black and Azov Seas. At that time, the commissioner was only twenty-one. New job required frequent business trips. And one of them almost became the last for Grokhovsky. So the case, which almost ended in tragedy, described Kazakov: “The train was attacked by a gang of priest-ataman Nikandr. The commissioner was taken asleep. During the interrogation, he was silent. Then the priest grabbed him across the collarbone with a rib of a heavy chest cross. Crunched bone. Opening his bloody lips, the commissar spat into a bulky priestly beard. Utrovshis, he said:

- In a bunch! Mandate stick him like a devilish sign.

The mandate of the Commissioner attached at heart level and shot from the three-line. Grokhovsky slowly fell on his back. To be faithful, the gangster fired at the point one more time. The commissar was stripped, his boots were removed. But at night Grokhovsky woke up. Both bullets centimeter two passed above the heart. Railway workers picked him up and sent him to the hospital. ”

A serious wound did not cool the ardor of Grokhovsky. Shortly after he was discharged from the hospital, the guy decided to fulfill his old dream - to become a pilot. Therefore, first of all, standing up from a hospital bed, he wrote a report in which he asked to be sent to study at the school of aviation mechanics. It is hard to imagine what Dybenko felt while letting go of his essentially better subordinate. But he did not obstruct. Apparently, he was struck by the courage of Grokhovsky’s deed. After all, Pavel Ignatievich left a high and prestigious post and began, in fact, from scratch. However, this act was not devoid of logic. The fact is that Grokhovsky had no secondary education, which means that only the way to the flight school through the aviation engine school was the shortest.

Inventor talent

And here Pavel Ignatievich was in his place. It awakened the dormant talent of the inventor. Becoming a flight commander in Novocherkassk, he was able to turn around. The first thing he began to personally teach young pilots aerobatics, airborne shooting and bombing. But the results, in most cases, left much to be desired. Especially a lot of problems arose with bombs. It took a lot of effort to get them to conduct exercises. The fact is that in those days, cement bombs were used for training, which were expensive because of a shortage of cement in the country (it even had to be bought abroad). Therefore, Grokhovsky, who always thought first of all about saving, addressed his superiors with a rational proposal. Pavel Ignatievich said that expensive cement bombs should be replaced with cheaper clay ones filled with colored chalk and sand. At the same time colored chalk was important. At the exercises, each pilot would have his own color, which would later determine who “shot” and how.

And while he was pondering over his proposal, Grokhovsky brought the potter to the part and gave him a job here. The master “created”, and Pavel Ignatievich himself brought clay in his cart, which he mined near the location of the squadron. The first tests showed that Pavel Ignatievich was right. And soon clay bombs began to be called "silicate Grokhovsky."

About the young and talented pilot-inventor learned the head of the Air Force of the Red Army Peter Ionovich Baranov. Therefore, soon Grokhovsky moved to Moscow. He was given the post of test pilot at the RKKA Air Force Research Institute.

Here Pavel Ignatievich continued work on inventions. And his chief assistants were designers Vladimir Malynich and Ivan Titov. But Grokhovsky understood that the three of them could not achieve the results that they themselves would like. Therefore, he asked for help from Alexander Vasilievich Kosarev, General Secretary of the Komsomol Central Committee. Their meeting was successful, Alexander Vasilyevich promised to give inventors full support.

Having agreed with the "top", Grokhovsky began to implement his old plan - to try to save the life of a pilot in an emergency in the air. The fact is that in the Soviet Union then did not use parachutes, domestic production. Just the very parachute industry, as a class did not exist. Yes, and many high-ranking officials to "rags" were neutral-negative. Therefore, in the twenties, parachutes were completely banned. And this taboo lasted until the 1927 year. Then, there was an order to test parachutes, but this is only on paper. In fact, not a single jump was made, and the Soviet specialists who worked in this direction, worked, as they say, on the table. A striking example is the parachute of Gleb Kotelnikov, who was “listed as a reserve” after losing the competition for the products of the American company Irwin.

In general, the acquaintance of the Soviet pilots with the American parachutes occurred in the spring of 1929. Then the pilot Leonid Minov was sent to the United States so that he personally saw how the rescue service works in American aviation. And on the thirteenth of July, Minov made the first jump over Buffalo. Then followed a few more jumps. Since the result of the experiment was positive, the USSR purchased a batch of American parachutes for the money that was crazy for those times.

On July 26, 1930, during the exercises of the Moscow Military District air force, which took place at the Voronezh airfield, Leonid Minov became almost the main actor. He performed a demonstrative leap, then it was the turn of several more pilots. And on August 2, by order of Peter Baranov, the release of a group of armed paratroopers for sabotage actions on the territory of the “enemy” was demonstrated. Total jumps that day made twelve people. And the second of August was considered the birthday of the Red Army Airborne Forces.

He experienced the "American miracle" and Grokhovsky. Remarkable is the fact that the whole environment discouraged Pavel Ignatievich from a rash act. Friends and wife were categorically against the plan with the self-testing of the American parachute. But Grokhovsky only dismissed them, since for himself he had long since decided everything. He believed that a real designer should personally participate in experiments, no matter how dangerous they were.

The day that Pavel Ignatievich chose to jump was unsuccessful. Already in the morning, the weather was spoiled by a strong wind that blew at a speed of about fourteen meters per second on the ground. Accordingly, at the height of his speed was even higher. Once again, dismissing requests to “think again,” Grokhovsky took a parachute and headed for the Fokker C-4 aircraft. When the winged car climbed to the desired height, Pavel Ignatievich climbed onto the wing. Then he lay on it, gripping a vertical stand with one hand and the parachute exhaust ring with the other. After waiting for the pilot to go off, Grokhovsky opened his hand, holding him on the wing. And after a moment, he was already in free flight. Pavel Ignatievich pulled the ring and ... a powerful gust of wind played its role. Opened the dome "Irwin" demolished so "successfully" that he caught the fuselage support. And for several seconds the plane was dragging Grokhovsky behind him. According to the memoirs of Pavel Ignatievich, he did not immediately understand what had happened, and therefore he did not have time to get scared. After moments, the silk parachute burst, and Grokhovsky, freed, began to slowly descend. Because of the lost time, the parachutist passed the airfield and hovered over Moscow. Such the capital of the USSR has not yet seen. True, Grokhovsky flew even further, landing already on the outskirts of the city. The landing was successful, only a large gypsy camp appeared next to it. While I got help to Pavel Ignatievich, while he was receiving congratulations, the Roma did not waste a second. They quickly spotted that Irvine was made from Japanese silk. And after moments of the dome as it did not, but soon the gypsy women flaunted in new dresses from the American parachute ...

This incident greatly upset the designer, because for one "Irwin" one had to pay a thousand rubles in gold. Grokhovsky understood that Japanese silk was no good for the cost, it needed a cheap fabric. Soviet aviation was developing rapidly, as was the need for parachutes. It was necessary to urgently make a decision.



Then Pavel Ignatievich made three more jumps. True, the latter almost ended in tragedy. But again, fate saved his life. Because of problems with the parachute and hard landing, Grokhovsky received serious injuries that caused partial paralysis. And while he was being treated, he continued to work on the parachute. And his main assistant was, of course, his wife. Like a kind of spell, Pavel Ignatievich asserted that the domestic parachute should not only be more stable than the American, but much cheaper. The latter was particularly worried about the inventor. After all, he understood that if the parachute is expensive, he can not even dream of full-fledged landing troops. Only cheap will allow to make jumps to thousands of soldiers. And it will also be possible to parachute and technology. And when Pavel Ignatiev recovered and was able to walk normally, he and his wife made a shopping march. The inventor decided that the cheapest fabric would be quite suitable for sewing the dome. He himself tried to touch nansuk, percated, cambric and other matters. And then, when the sample was enough, began to conduct experiments. Lydia Alekseevna made small parachutes from specimens, while Grokhovsky climbed onto the roof and experimented, trying to figure out how they caught the wind.
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  1. Vard
    Vard April 5 2018 05: 28
    +2
    Now there are none ... Where is it before him to modern seekers of andrinaline ...
    1. verner1967
      verner1967 April 5 2018 07: 46
      +2
      Quote: Vard
      Where are the modern seekers of andrinaline before him ...

      yes, it’s hard for these seekers, especially since this substance is not in nature, andrinaline laughing
  2. moskowit
    moskowit April 5 2018 06: 23
    +3
    Interesting ... Judging by the flying "Ford", apparently Grokhovsky subsequently invented a flying tank .... Wings were mounted on the T-26 and he even made a flight .... I didn’t know the author’s fate .... We are waiting for the continuation .. .
    1. Amurets
      Amurets April 5 2018 07: 17
      +3
      Quote: moskowit
      I didn’t know the fate of the Author .... We look forward to continuing ...

      It seems that the author of the continuation did not promise, but I can tell you where you can still read about Grokhovsky.
      Mikhail Kaminsky "In the sky of Chukotka. Notes of the polar pilot." It may not surprise you, but this book was written by a man who, before Polar Aviation, worked as a test pilot at the Grokhovsky Design Bureau and the first part of the book is called "At the Grokhovsky Circus."
      1. thinker
        thinker April 5 2018 08: 01
        +3
        Is there some more
        For about ten years, Vladimir Kazakov was collecting material - and a book appeared about the world's first designer of airborne equipment and his closest assistants.

      2. moskowit
        moskowit April 5 2018 17: 42
        +2
        Dear Nicholas. In the title of the article, a continuation is promised ...
        Rehabilitated posthumously. Interrupted flight of Pavel Grokhovsky (part 1)
        1. Amurets
          Amurets April 6 2018 01: 10
          +2
          Quote: moskowit
          In the title of the article, a continuation is promised ...

          Thank you, I didn’t pay attention. It’s just that what is becoming known about Grokhovsky needs to be collected and collected from various sources. Here is an opinion from the book of I.I. Shelest. I fly with a dream: "However, we are fair, Pavel Grokhovsky was engaged in all kinds of landing equipment most of all and unsuccessfully. What devices were not practiced at Grokhovsky's" company "for dropping parachutes and without military equipment, provisions, ammunition, paratroopers themselves from them. the inventors were always the testers of all such innovations. "
    2. Aviator_
      Aviator_ April 5 2018 08: 03
      +3
      “Flying Tank” is O.K. Antonov, Grokhovsky has nothing to do with it. By the way, its design is a "flying car" which
      [/ quote] According to the inventor, the aircraft was devoid of both the stabilizer and the fuselage. [quote]
      , then this is complete nonsense. Not surprisingly, the attempt ended in nothing.
  3. Olgovich
    Olgovich April 5 2018 06: 29
    +6
    And in 1919 Pavel Ignatievich became a member of the Bolshevik party. Then fate brought him to the Baltic. Here the commander and mentor of young Grokhovsky was the chairman of the Central Committee of the Baltic Fleet (Central Balta), the commander of revolutionary sailors Pavel Efinovich Dybenko.

    Did not have Dybenko in the Baltic Fleet after 1919, as there was no longer the Central Balta.
    What, by the way, a mentor could become "american spy", shot in 1938, not knowing, moreover, the American language? belay request
    1. verner1967
      verner1967 April 5 2018 07: 41
      +6
      recourse
      Quote: Olgovich
      What, by the way, a mentor could become
      and with the escape the problem, at whose expense the banquet in the tavern, haven’t they searched the condemned man and taken away all the contents of the pockets?
      A close childhood friend gave him to the Socialist-Revolutionaries, and they sentenced the communist Grokhovsky to be shot. Only one escort accompanied him to the prison. Passing by the tavern, Grokhovsky offered to try scrambled eggs and drink vodka at his expense.
      1. Aviator_
        Aviator_ April 5 2018 08: 04
        +8
        I agree, the article has a lot of false tales.
    2. captain
      captain April 5 2018 09: 23
      +4
      Comrade Dybenko had an amazing ability to get out of any situation. "In November 1917 was elected as a deputy of the Constituent Assembly from the Baltic Fleet. 6 (19) on January 1918, having at its disposal more than 5 thousand revolutionary sailors concentrated in Petrograd" to protect public order "in connection with the convocation of the Constituent Assembly, Pavel Dybenko took a direct part in the dispersal of the Constituent Assembly. In February 1918, during the period of the general offensive of the German troops on the Russian-German front, he commanded a detachment of sailors near Narv Oh, Soon the Dybenko detachment left Narva.
      “... the abandonment of Narva occurred mainly because there was no general leadership and communication in the actions, because weakly or even completely unprepared units were led ineptly into the battle and they suffered unnecessary losses (sailors suffered more than others); finally, the mood of the troops was apparently influenced by the well-known influence and the then created position, as it were, between war and peace, which worried people and helped to reduce their stamina. ”[3]
      “Dybenko’s detachment, which had retreated to Gatchina on 6 of March 1918 of the year 4, was disarmed. Dybenko was expelled from the RCP (b) [16], and on March 4th at the IVth Congress of Soviets, he was deprived of all posts. He was soon arrested. 25 on March bail with the condition of being in Moscow before the trial, but fled to Samara, from where he was returned to Moscow. In May of 1918, he was put on trial, was acquitted. "
      1. Olgovich
        Olgovich April 5 2018 09: 35
        +3
        Quote: captain
        Dybenko took a direct part in the dispersal of the Establishment. In February 1918, during the general offensive of the German forces on the Russian-German front, he commanded a squad of sailors near Narva. Soon the detachment of Dybenko left Narva.

        "Reflecting" the German offensive, the valiant people's commissar Dybenko escaped right ... to SAMARA, having fun on the road with a woman who was almost twice his age (Kollontai)
        Good mentor ....
        1. Alexander Greene
          Alexander Greene April 5 2018 23: 21
          +2
          Quote: Olgovich
          "Reflecting" the German offensive, the valiant People's Commissar Dybenko escaped right ... to SAMARA,

          Quote: captain
          but fled to Samara, from where he was returned to Moscow.

          How much can you tell these stories? Dybenko had twists in his head by the end of the 30s. he was morally reborn, but he didn’t run anywhere in the civil war, and was not hiding from anyone, some borosopiser threw this duck into the media, which is now replicated.
          The sailors, having entered the battle, suffered heavy losses, Parsky, setting an unrealistic task, did not support their offensive by anything, he was only developing his own plan of military operations. After a long difficult battle, the general called Dybenko to a meeting in Yamburg and announced a general offensive in the Narva area. Dybenko, referring to the heavy losses in his troops and to the fatigue of the sailors, refused to participate in the offensive, reproaching the general for deliberately leaving the Baltic people in difficult conditions - he did not cover the flanks and did not provide artillery.
          Parsky was furious that some sailor dared to teach him, there was a conflict between them, about which Parsky immediately reported to Petrograd, after which Dybenko was urgently recalled by telegram.
          There, a case was brought against him and given to the tribunal. Nobody arrested him, he did not run away anywhere, and while the investigation was ongoing, he worked as before: he led the meetings of the Maritime College; traveled to Kronstadt. Then, together with the government, he evacuated to Moscow, was in charge of guarding the government train.
          Before the trial, he was allowed to go to Novozybkov for a week to visit his parents. The Central Committee of the party itself gave permission, but Dybenko did not take advantage of this. The trial of his case was drawing to a close. By this time he had already been punished: dismissed from the post of People's Commissar, received a strict party penalty (expelled from the party), but he expected an even more severe punishment from the Revolutionary Tribunal: up to imprisonment and even execution.
          But the Revolutionary Tribunal, having figured out the case, did not find corpus delicti in Dybenko’s actions and passed a acquittal. During the trial, it turned out that the communication between the units during the fighting was poorly organized, reconnaissance was poor, and the actions of the units were not coordinated. Military experts and witnesses proved that the high command had set Dybenko with such difficult tasks that he, not being a military specialist, was not ready to solve, and in the absence of sufficient forces, he could not perform them at all.
          1. Olgovich
            Olgovich April 6 2018 08: 18
            +3
            Quote: Alexander Green
            How much can you tell these stories? Dybenko had twists in his head by the end of the 30s. he was morally reborn, but he didn’t run anywhere in the civil war

            Enough to spread this chatter: the time of your LIE has ended several decades ago. yes
            Quote: Alexander Green
            by the end of the 30s he morally reborn

            By the 30s of such moral degenerates (in your expression), the party leadership already had ... 75% (it is precisely so many members of the Central Committee who were shot and dug in the unknown where). Another part just planted ..
            Not one party in the world had such a thing. What gathered so many geeks under one roof, Comrade Green, huh? recourse request yes
            1. Alexander Greene
              Alexander Greene April 6 2018 17: 57
              +4
              Quote: Olgovich
              Not one party in the world had such a thing. What gathered so many geeks under one roof, Comrade Green, huh?

              And today's does not count?
              Quote: Olgovich
              Enough to spread this chatter: the time of your LIE has ended several decades ago.

              You are spreading chatter, and it’s very fruitful, it’s not clear only: you invent your own libels, denigrating the Soviet past and people who lived then, or are you looking for somewhere?
              I believe that after you saw the “dead with braids,” and then the “green men” began to dream of “bald tourists,” you don’t need to call the spirit of Pavel Dybenko and get to know everything first hand with the help of a spiritism session.
              1. Olgovich
                Olgovich April 7 2018 04: 06
                +1
                Quote: Alexander Green
                And today's doesn’t count?

                No, of course, not at the expense of those who were shot and dug, no idea where 75% of the leadership of the Central Committee of the All-Union Communist Party of Bolsheviks are. belay
                It Your answer to a direct question?
                I repeat: Not in any party in the world has this happened. What collected so many geeks (in your expression) under one roof, Comrade Green, huh? yes lol
                Quote: Alexander Green
                You spread the chatter

                The TRUTH and only FACTS. -Unlike your EMPTY, unsupported by anything dull, boring, lies.
                Quote: Alexander Green
                Я I supposethat after you dreamed of “the dead with braids,” and then the “green men” began to dream of “bald tourists,” you no longer need to invoke the spirit of Pavel Dybenko with a spiritualism session and get to know everything first hand.

                You cannot, alas, "believe, for you DO NOT know how to do it. hi lol
                1. Alexander Greene
                  Alexander Greene April 7 2018 12: 24
                  +3
                  Quote: Olgovich
                  No, of course, not at the expense of those who were shot and dug, no idea where 75% of the leadership of the Central Committee of the All-Union Communist Party of Bolsheviks are.

                  Who would say that. In all the republics of the former USSR after 1991, such degenerates crawled out who go for any crime for their profit.
                  In those days, they asked very strictly for negligence, for embezzlement, for fraud, for wrecking, but today they have ruined the industry, destroyed the industry of the region, cut down millions and billions and nothing, for example, the former leadership of the Russian Ministry of Defense, I’m not talking about Ukraine.
                  Quote: Olgovich
                  You cannot, alas, "believe, for you DO NOT know how to do it.

                  Here you, as always and in everything, are absolutely biased, have you really not appreciated: what a logical chain is built up!
                  1. Olgovich
                    Olgovich April 7 2018 14: 15
                    0
                    Quote: Alexander Green
                    In all the republics of the former USSR, after 1991 such geeks

                    These geeks are EVERYTHING hailed from the Communist Party: EBN, Gaidar, etc. Shevanadzis with Kravchuk. AGAIN - don't you remember? lol
                    In this regard Third time I ask: What gathered so many geeks (in your expression) under one party roof, T. Green, but (speech and the 30s)? Not one party in the world had such a thing.
                    And here, as many as 75% of the Central Committee, they! hi lol
                    1. Alexander Greene
                      Alexander Greene April 7 2018 21: 09
                      +3
                      Quote: Olgovich
                      These geeks are EVERYTHING hailed from the Communist Party: EBN, Gaidar, etc. Shevanadzis with Kravchuk. AGAIN - don't you remember?
                      In this regard, the THIRD TIME I ask: What gathered so many geeks (in your expression) under one party roof, Comrade Green, and (speech and the 30s)? Not one party in the world had such a thing.
                      And here, as many as 75% of the Central Committee, they!

                      First, do not exaggerate or exaggerate.
                      Secondly, it is well known that many different geeks are always clinging to the revolution and the ruling party, they were exposed and cleaned out at one time, then they stopped under Khrushchev, therefore it is not necessary to say that Yeltsin, Gorbachev, Gaidar and others come from the Communist Party, roots they all are not proletarian.
                      Here you, for example, hate everything that is conscientious and angry, already in what generation, and those. Only they crawled into power and hid for the time being, but you didn’t see it, and if you were in power too, how much harm you would add.
                      1. Reptiloid
                        Reptiloid April 8 2018 05: 00
                        +2
                        Quote: Alexander Green
                        ...... Only they crawled into power and hid for the time being, but you didn’t see it, but if you were in power too, how much more harm you would add.
                        But haven't many people still had similar emotions: "" Here, the hunchback climbed, but I didn’t have time, they didn’t give, and I could also ..... "" There are those who envy thieves and traitors
                      2. Olgovich
                        Olgovich April 8 2018 06: 26
                        0
                        Quote: Alexander Green
                        First, do not exaggerate or exaggerate.

                        You again chatter-data disprove? 75% of the members of the Central Committee congress of the winners, shot and dug.
                        Quote: Alexander Green
                        Secondly, it is well known that the revolution and the ruling party always cling to many different geeks at one time they were exposed and cleaned,.

                        75% geeks ?! WHERE else in the world SUCH it was? Answer the 4th question asked: What collected so many geeks (in your expression) under one party roof?
                        Quote: Alexander Green
                        then they stopped under Khrushchev, so it’s not necessary to say that Yeltsin, Gorbachev, Gaidar and others come from the CPSU, all of them have non-proletarian roots.

                        EBN, Gorbachev, Gaidar is not just a native of the Communist Party, it is her ELITE, this is the purest product of the Communist Party system, NOBODY brought up the other: there was no king, no liberals, no opposition. No one to blame for you their sins.
                        Quote: Alexander Green
                        Here you, for example, hate everything that is conscientious and angry, already in what generation, and those.

                        They hate and are angry at a serious adversary, and you, if you notice, have long been gone lol
                        Quote: Alexander Green
                        Only they crawled into power and hid for the time being,

                        Have you climbed yourself? belay fool They were noticed, put forward, as worthy and best.
                        Quote: Alexander Green
                        , and if you were also in power, then how much more harm you would add.

                        No, your system put forward just such as EBNy, Gaidars and other Kravchuk, decent people were not allowed into the government.
                        Quote: Alexander Green
                        at one time they were exposed and cleaned, then under Khrushchev they stopped

                        WHO should clean out? A cleaner, no need to clean? And who are they? And those who?
                        A. Bortnicoa:
                        three times an update the staff of the Main Directorate of State Security (GUGB) of the NKVD.
                        Who cleaned correctly: first, second or third? lol
                      3. Alexander Greene
                        Alexander Greene April 8 2018 12: 33
                        +3
                        One feels that Olgovich has started a tantrum.
                        Quote: Olgovich
                        75% geeks ?! WHERE else in the world SUCH it was? Answer the 4th question asked: What collected so many geeks (in your expression) under one party roof?

                        In the current bourgeois parties in all the former republics of the USSR - 100%.
                        Quote: Olgovich
                        EBN, Gorbachev, Gaidar is not just a native of the Communist Party, it is her ELITE, this is the purest product of the Communist Party system, NOBODY brought up the other: there was no king, no liberals, no opposition. There is no one to blame your sins on.

                        Dear vis-a-vis, you forget that parents bring up in the family from childhood stories about themselves, their behavior, their attitude to power. I remember in my time some parents forbade their children to even join pioneers. I can imagine what dispossessed parents told Yeltsin Gorbachev, what grandmother Gaidar, deprived of all the privileges of the nobility, told. By the way, Timur is the adopted son of Arkady Gaidar. Only their relatives, unlike their mother, who did not let her son into pioneers, were advised to get into power, and their offspring mimicked.
                        Quote: Olgovich
                        They hate and are angry at a serious adversary, and you, if you notice, have long been gone

                        Why then can you not calm down if we are not?

                        Well, answer the remaining questions yourself.
  4. parusnik
    parusnik April 5 2018 08: 01
    +4
    Pavel Ignatievich Grokhovsky had over 100 inventions on his account. Many of his ideas were too far ahead of time. He proposed mastering dive bombing, refueling the aircraft in the air, advocated the use of a swept wing on aircraft, and advocated the creation of ekranoplanes. Many of these ideas were implemented later, but without it.
    1. Reptiloid
      Reptiloid April 5 2018 08: 20
      +1
      Unfortunately, I did not know anything about Grokhovsky before. I look forward to continuing and I hope that after the first part there will be several more.
      1. parusnik
        parusnik April 5 2018 08: 28
        +3
        The good book "The Bridge Through Time" was authored by Igor Emmanuilovich Chutko, there is not only about Grokhovsky, but the information is more complete and clear ...
    2. verner1967
      verner1967 April 5 2018 09: 23
      +2
      Quote: parusnik
      Many of his ideas were too far ahead of time.

      Submitting an idea does not mean inventing it. Now these creators are a dime a dozen. Incarnation is what matters.
      1. parusnik
        parusnik April 5 2018 11: 56
        +2
        Why, many ideas have been embodied, abroad
        1. Mavrikiy
          Mavrikiy April 5 2018 18: 32
          0
          As for the ideas of Grokhovsky.
          Of course, he did a lot of business.
          1. Invisible aircraft. Literally, in flight, the plane disappeared completely. Only motor noise remained. The plane was glued with plexiglass and everything was gone. After the flight, the glass turned yellow, darkened and the effect disappeared.
          2. Shooting from the destroyer of the 12 "gun, yes, yes. The gun was really recoilless. But all the same, an excess.
          3. Together with Tukhachevsky, they promoted the idea of ​​replacing barrel artillery systems with recoilless guns.
          And during WWII they searched for the extremes to write off the failures. And then there are colleagues, Tukhachevsky and Dybenko.
          1. Bersaglieri
            Bersaglieri April 5 2018 22: 30
            +3
            Why were Grokhovsky mixed with Kurchevsky? :)
            1. Mavrikiy
              Mavrikiy April 5 2018 23: 34
              +1
              Quote: Bersaglieri
              Why were Grokhovsky mixed with Kurchevsky? :)

              To blame.
          2. parusnik
            parusnik April 6 2018 07: 39
            +5
            Mavrikiy
            As for the ideas of Grokhovsky.

            Grokhovsky did not engage in recoilless guns ... With regards to the invisible aircraft. The authors of this unusual project were: the famous aircraft designer Robert Bartini in the USSR and professor at the Academy named after NOT. Zhukovsky Sergey Kozlov, not Grokhovsky. The fact is that in the 1930s, in many countries of Europe, on the eve of the next world war, there was a real arms race. In this situation, the appearance of an invisible aircraft was very useful for the Soviet Air Force. Moreover, the technology of its creation was extremely simple. The surface of the aircraft was covered with a special sun-reflecting plexiglass - a rhodoid. During the flight, the skin of the aircraft created the optical effect of its complete disappearance in the air. To obtain an additional effect, Bartini equipped the aircraft with a blue gas spray device, which also contributes to the optical disappearance of the aircraft in the air. Success was there. A natural question arises, why neither before the Second World War, nor after it, stealth aircraft were not put into mass production. And the answer is simple. The fact is that these aircraft were invisible only to observers from the ground, while enemy radars continued to fix them. This fact almost completely eliminated all the optical advantages of miracle machines.
        2. Reptiloid
          Reptiloid April 6 2018 04: 44
          +1
          Quote: parusnik
          Why, many ideas have been embodied, abroad

          Because there were people who realized that ideas were brilliant and would be of benefit. Well, and next? Apparently there weren’t anyone who would understand this at all. What is it about.
      2. Reptiloid
        Reptiloid April 6 2018 04: 39
        +1
        Quote: verner1967
        Quote: parusnik
        Many of his ideas were too far ahead of time.

        Submitting an idea does not mean inventing it. Now these creators are a dime a dozen. Incarnation is what matters.

        Thus equated the advanced inventor of the past is unclear to whom. Super! PR technology studied!
        Real creators always had unrealized ideas that descendants embodied.
        What about Jules Verne’s ideas? No one expected that he himself would realize them.
        1. Alexander Greene
          Alexander Greene April 6 2018 18: 09
          +3
          Quote: Reptiloid
          What about Jules Verne’s ideas? No one expected that he himself would realize them.

          Dear Dmitry, I wouldn’t be so enthusiastic about Grokhovsky and his inventions, far from all his ideas were scientifically and technically justified. Grokhovsky did not study theories, he was a self-taught inventor, so almost none of his inventions was completed and put into series ..
          For example, he assembled an aircraft, the design of which was similar to a cockroach, the aircraft was advertised, an extra-class pilot was invited to test Valeria Chkalova. But the plane never took off. The test report saved the words of the pilot: “A real cockroach! And cockroaches don’t fly ... ”, after which the non-flying structure was given the nickname "cucaracha».
          Another example. At that time, the aircraft were not adapted for airborne landing, and Grokhovsky offered a drop capsule, where the paratroopers lay as in a coffin and they were dropped like corpses. Reception committee capsule, of course zadrobil, because after the jump, the psychological state of parachuting was depressed.
          Of course, you cannot refuse Grokhovsky’s courage, he himself tested his technique on himself, as a result of which he constantly fought, breaking his arms and legs. Therefore, the pilots with whom he tested parachutes, called him nothing more than "Grobovsky", And the jokers from his institute for the unusual inventions that they made, and for dangerous experiments called their institute"Grokhovsky Circus»
          His institute was closed in 1937 after the arrest of Marshal Tukhachevsky, who patronized Grokhovsky and supported his extravagant ideas. Tukhachevsky and him came up with fantastic projects, where most of the material assets were lowered.
          There was no real return to equip the army with the necessary types of weapons, so they were called adventurers. At that time, there were many such adventurers in the country's defense complex who spent state resources on all kinds of extravagant projects, not to mention numerous pests.
          But after 1937, the leadership of the People’s Commissariat of Defense took a course towards solving real problems and eliminating real problems. Grokhovsky with his fantasies did not have a place there, the institute was liquidated, and Grokhovsky was appointed to the post of head of the economic department of the Central Council of Osoaviahim.
          But it turned out to be a good science fiction, his ideas and projects were so daring and fantastic that Grokhovsky’s articles willingly took for publication many magazines, including the journal of the Central Committee of the Komsomol “Technique for Youth” where in the years 1938-1941 he led the rubric Window to the Future, in the framework of which two dozen of his science fiction essays were published.
          In these works, the inventor suggested that readers fly by car or by air trolleybus, go down to the bottom of the ocean on a batistat, or master a jet stratoplane, etc.
          In a word "Jules Verne", but not a constructor "
          1. Reptiloid
            Reptiloid April 6 2018 19: 24
            +1
            Thank you very much, Alexander, for such a wonderful informative comment. At Grokhovsky -----...... 4 classes of the parish church. !!!!! And the subsequent training ---- after a long break !!!!. So far ---- I have respect for the inventor. Soon I will have a weekend, then I’ll read on this topic.
            Your comment about Dybenko was also very interesting to me. Maybe someday you will write something about Dybenko. And maybe also about Podvoisky, Antonov-Ovseenko. Excuse me, Author, that I am leaving the topic. The fact is that, as I did not want to learn more about these people, I still have not succeeded. And I do not want to listen to the lecture of the Vlasov historian. It is interesting that in Leningrad in the 70s streets appeared with the names of these Bolsheviks. In this century, I often went to those places for work and, surprisingly, the impression is that it is not known that they were shot ...... By the way, no one ever said that why didn’t I hear the whole area with such streets that residents would like to rename. Regards.
            1. Alexander Greene
              Alexander Greene April 7 2018 12: 38
              +1
              Quote: Monarchist
              ... but for the sake of justice I’ll say: Kulik didn’t shine with his mind either: 76 mm, he rejected (Grabin had a lot of “graters” with him), the Red Army assault rifles were not needed and he “cut down” anti-tank rifles. It’s been a long time since I read that he encouraged the denunciations of careerists and contributed to repressions, gave a huge list of rejected weapons, and in the war they turned out to be excellent

              Dear Monarchist, I'm sorry that the answer for you was higher than your comment.
              Your opinion about Kulik is based on not entirely reliable information. He also had a lot of Zabubons, but basically everything superficial about him, he was very powerfully slandered. Someone had to expose him as a durolom. In fact, it was a very competent artilleryman, a former tsarist officer. Read about it in the book of Yu.I. Mukhina "Parabellum" in the chapter "The Cursed Marshal".
          2. Monarchist
            Monarchist April 7 2018 10: 08
            +2
            Green, forgive me for such an appeal when I read in my childhood: “Scarlet Sails” (he has the best book) and wanted a surname like that.
            Thanks for koment- additional. I agree with you that the “lieutenant Tuki” (when Tukhachevsky was in the fortress of Ingolstad so called him de C. Gaulle and the other French) had a lot of adventure, but for the sake of justice I’ll say: Kulik also did not shine with his mind: 76 mm, he rejected ( Grabin had a lot of “graters” with him), Red Army assault rifles are not needed and he “hacked” anti-tank rifles. It’s been a long time since I read that he encouraged the denunciations of careerists and contributed to repressions, gave a huge list of rejected weapons, and in the war they turned out to be excellent
  5. K.A.S.
    K.A.S. April 5 2018 09: 00
    +3
    I think that in the article about the inventor you need less art and lyricism, but more about what he invented! (Maybe in the following parts it will be)
    It is necessary to list his inventions, their further fate!
    Supporters of Comrade Stalin and his methods, how do you approve of the fact that Grokhovsky and others like him were destroyed? What articles were he charged with? tell me why he was killed? Or was it an excess in the field?
    1. Mavrikiy
      Mavrikiy April 5 2018 18: 48
      +1
      It can be assumed.
      Grokhovsky and his ilk destroyed
      to the cause.
      Tukhachevsky and Dybenko are friends. Arrest at the end of 1942, what does it mean? Nah ... nobody needed him. But as an arrogant comrade, apparently he had his opinion and expressed it. At the right time, they took out a daddy (See my post above) and found: the people's money was flowing out to the Grokhovsky Circus, but it was necessary to strengthen the defense. There were mistakes, but I think the main thing was recalled by Tukhachevsky.
      "Yes, Detochkin is to blame! But he is not to blame, comrades." Without the Grokhovskys, Koshkins, and Grabins there would have been no Red Army.
  6. Andrey591
    Andrey591 April 5 2018 09: 07
    +1
    The patronage of Alksnis played a fatal role in his fate.
  7. BAI
    BAI April 5 2018 11: 02
    0
    Many inventions are not presented in the article.




    Mb will there really be a sequel?

    And here the plane looks more successful.
    1. parusnik
      parusnik April 5 2018 11: 58
      +3
      You know, there is a journal Technika-Molodezhi, Grokhovsky worked closely with him at one time, in a issue somewhere for the period 80-84 there is a number where his inventions are presented, which are presented on the last pages of the journal
      1. Reptiloid
        Reptiloid April 6 2018 04: 53
        0
        On one of the sites I saw the article "" 100 inventions by Grokhovsky. "" On the weekend read.
    2. Mavrikiy
      Mavrikiy April 5 2018 18: 51
      0
      In IRE it was that they landed in a container, without a parachute, at minimum speed and from a minimum height. This is he too.
  8. Weyland
    Weyland April 5 2018 16: 21
    +1
    The mandate of the commissioner was attached at the level of the heart and shot from a three-ruler. Grokhovsky slowly fell to his back. For fidelity, the bandit shot at point blank range again. The commissar was stripped, his boots were removed from him. But at night Grokhovsky woke up. Both centimeter bullets two passed above the heart
    Yes, the anatomy rules ... And to this day, the bulk of the population is convinced that the heart is where the ripple is most felt. But in fact, it is much more to the right and lower, and pulsates in this place of the aorta. Grokhovsky was lucky that he didn’t get into the aorta lol
  9. Bersaglieri
    Bersaglieri April 5 2018 22: 28
    +4
    The enthusiast was. But, due to the lack of basic education, there were big problems with the feasibility of "projects". Like many "innovators" of that time (Kurchevsky, Dyrenkov ...) and the current "generation of crowdfunding and social networks"