Military Review

The first glavkovver

108
The first supreme commander-in-chief of the Russian army of the First World War, Grand Duke Nikolai Nikolayevich (junior) is a very colorful and extraordinary person. The grandson of Emperor Nicholas I and the son of Grand Duke Nikolai Nikolayevich (senior), Commander-in-Chief of the Russian army in the Russian-Turkish war 1877-78, he was a born warrior - as they say, to the bone. The knowledge gained at the General Staff Academy (graduated with the Silver Medal), large-scale experience of military service, and military distinctions became major milestones in the formation of the future commander and administrator.


We do not aim to review the whole life of the Grand Duke (this is the mass of works written in this article — it suffices to recall the fundamental work of quartermaster-general Stavka Yu. N. Danilov), his political and military career (including issues related to the subsequent appointment of the commander-in-chief of the Caucasian Front and the failed new High Command in March (1917). Let us dwell only on some aspects of the latter, primarily concerning the activities of Nikolai Nikolayevich as the first commander-in-chief of the army in the first, most crucial stage of the great war.


1. The great war in the images and paintings. Issue 1.

Nature endowed the Grand Duke with a clear mind, clarity of thought, a strong will and, what is most remarkable, an infinite faith in the Russian people. And he was constantly improving his knowledge - moving along the path of service to the Motherland.

Deserving military distinctions in the fire of the Russian-Turkish war, the Grand Duke successively passes through all the officers' officer posts in the Hussar Life Guards regiment, right up to the post of commander of the latter. And very soon, from the regiment headed by him, other parts begin to take the example: with regard to the methods and techniques of training, both combat and tactical.


2. Chronicles of War 1914 - 1917 No. 131.

The next stage of the Grand Duke’s career was the command (from December 1890) of the 2 Guards Cavalry Division. Soon the compound also became a role model - now for the entire Russian cavalry.

In 1895, the Grand Duke Nikolai Nikolayevich is appointed to the post of General-Inspector of the Cavalry. This position allows the Grand Duke to unleash the organizational talent in full force and apply his knowledge and experience throughout the empire.

The Inspector-General does not disregard a single issue relating to both the education and training of cavalry. He began his activity with reforming the horse repair system, and under his leadership a corresponding repair provision was issued. Then issues of armament and combat training are resolved - and not only the skills of possession of cold weapons, but also the ability to conduct accurate fire from rifles and machine guns. Yet the main attention of the Grand Duke is directed to the tactical training of cavalry - this issue has become a priority. Without exaggeration, it can be argued that the excellent condition of the Russian imperial cavalry, in which she left for world war, is the merit of the Grand Duke. How great is his contribution to the tactical training of the Russian cavalry - as demonstrated by its actions during the First World War. As one of the officers recalled, largely due to the pre-war preparation “In 1 World War I know examples of the attack of our cavalry on infantry: the Akhtyrka hussars in the battle of Dembio, with the active support of the fire of the Turkestan Mounted Battery; the sacrificial attack of the Mitau hussars of Neradov; The Turkmen cavalry regiment during the Brusilov offensive; The 3 Squadron of the Belarusian Regiment of Hussars, for the revenue of the 14 th mounted battery. The artistic pen of the late gene. Krasnova described Zaamurtsev attack. Before my eyes, Pavlograd Hussars and the 2-th Don Cossack Regiment were sent to attack in the battle of Goryungof, but the attack choked, as the German infantry took refuge in the forest, from which the Germans did not allow their Xnumx horse batteries to stick out their nose. If the Grand Duke had been present during these attacks, his heart would have rejoiced. In these brilliant actions of the cavalry, he would have seen the results of that education and combat training, on which, being a Gene, had worked hard. Insp. Cavalry "(Levitsky A. Ordinary Service at the Grand Duke Nikolai Nikolaevich (Personal Memories) // Military Story. 1956. No. 27. C. 14-15.).

Each step of the career of the Grand Duke made him more and more popular among the troops.

Exceptional merit in the position of Inspector-General of Cavalry and in the troubled months of 1905 put the Grand Duke to the post of Commander-in-Chief of the Guards and the St. Petersburg Military District.

It was in this post that the Grand Duke worked right up to the start of the world war. The education and training of troops, the renewal of the commanding staff of the Guard troops, the improvement of the living conditions of the units, the concern for the expansion of military knowledge among the officers of the Moscow district - the district commander tried to take care of all the issues.

The natural qualities, upbringing, education, regular work and thoughtful study of military affairs created the Grand Duke in the military environment a well-deserved image of the first military leader of the empire.

And when, by the will of the Sovereign Emperor, the Grand Duke was called to the post of Supreme Commander, this was received with deep satisfaction both in the palaces and in the peasant huts.


3. Chronicle of the war 1914. No. 9.

The mobilization plan left the post of Supreme Commander vacant until the declaration of war. This circumstance did not allow the Grand Duke Nikolai Nikolayevich to participate in drawing up a plan of war, and also to select in advance the officials of the headquarters of the future Headquarters - which could not but affect the strategic initiative and operational work of the Grand Duke in the first days of the war.


4. Chronicle of the war 1914. No. 13.

The will of the Grand Duke was manifested in the adoption of his first and very important strategic decision. Already in the evening of August 13, 1914, in the Headquarters, anxious information was received about the state of affairs in A. Samsonov's 2 Army. Three days later, on August 16, a catastrophe in the 2 Army became an indisputable fact for BHQ. The failure of the 2 Army - the death of its central corps and the rapid rollback of the flank - actually destroyed the front on the Narev River.

The German 8 Army opened up prospects for threatening the backs of the Russian 4 and 5 armies - the right-flank armies of the South-Western Front, who were already failing in battles with a stronger Austrian grouping. Thus, the 4 Army fighting the Lublin was threatened by the Austrian 1 Army, and the 5 Army broke up into groups of corps and retreated under the onslaught of the Austrian 4 Army.


5. Chronicle of the war 1914-15. No. 41.

Thus, the strategic situation that had developed by the evening of 16 on August, for all the armies of the North-West and for the right-flank armies of the South-Western front was extremely unfavorable - moreover, threatening the collapse of the entire Russian front.

And the Grand Duke made a remarkable decision - which later led to the victory over the entire Austro-Hungarian army (after all, 4 / 5 had focused it on the Russian front).


6. Chronicle of the war 1914-15. No. 36.

What is the essence of this decision?

Before Glavkoverkhem two possibilities opened up.

The first is the withdrawal of armies to the Bug River. This led to the abandonment of the Advanced Theater - Russian Poland. Not a planned evacuation - but a quick abandonment with the loss of huge resources. One doesn’t have to prove - what harmful consequences would such a decision have for the country and the army.

The second opportunity required to continue the Battle of Galicia. It was necessary to collect all the free reserves in one mass - to deliver the main attack.

And the Grand Duke gathers all free forces on the right flank of the South-Western Front. The bid sends new corps to the 4 Army - including the best ones (the Guard and the 3 Caucasus Corps) and delivers a crushing blow to the Austrian 1 Army V. Dunkl. Also on the right flank, a fresh 9 army is being formed. This counter-maneuver by reserves has key consequences - and leads to a strategic breakthrough of the 3-s right-flank armies of the South-Western Front (4, 5, and 9).


7. Chronicle of the war 1914-15. No. 37.

The consequences of the Galician victory proved to be very favorable. The Austro-Hungarian army was never able to fully recover from this defeat during the whole war - it needed more and more German troops, which were increasingly mixed with the Austrian forces. Formed a kind of Galician "corset". The East German Front, respectively, is demanding more and more new corps - many of which were intended to stand up against Russia's allies in the Entente. Failures in East Prussia are erased before the result of the Galician victories.

The public rejoiced - and the name of the Grand Duke was on everyone’s lips.


8. Great struggle of nations. 1915. Issue 4.

Another result of the Galician victory was that in the process of the battle the army believed in its Glavkoverha, and the latter - in the troops.

The second most important strategic decision of the Grand Duke - to strategic castling - allowed in October (we wrote about this in detail - see Strategic castling) to win on the middle Vistula - during the Warsaw-Ivangorod operation. The decisions of the Stavka made it possible in November, during the Lodz operation, to thwart the operational plans of P. Hindenburg and his chief of staff E. Ludendorff. In the latter case, there was also a reshuffle of the Russian 5 army - and it did not allow the Russian 2 army to be surrounded. Moreover, they managed to achieve the encirclement of a large bypassing group of German troops.

All three counter-maneuvers of the Grand Duke (Galician, Warsaw-Ivangorod, Lodzin), our enemies recognize the best examples of Russian military art in general and military art in particular. The allies in the person of Marshal F. Foch also consider, for example, Lodz’s counter-maneuver to be “a wonderful manifestation of the art of war”.

With active offensive actions, the Grand Duke tied the initiative of the German command on his Western front, and the actions of the Russian troops invariably diverted more and more German corps to the Eastern Front.

It is believed that World War I gave military stories 2 named after talented commanders of the first magnitude: F. Foch and P. Hindenburg. We will take the liberty to replace P. Hindenburg (whose decisions were also largely determined by the activities of E. Ludendorff) with the Grand Duke Nikolai Nikolaevich. After all, during the Battle of Galicia, the Grand Duke crushed the strategy of F. Conrad Gettsendorf, while during the autumn operations of 1914 in Poland - the strategy of the tandem of P. Hindenburg - E. Ludendorff.

And it is obvious that in many respects the basis of the loss of World War I by the German world lies in the leadership decisions of the first Commander-in-Chief of the Russian army in the field - Grand Duke Nikolai Nikolayevich the Younger.


9. Great struggle of nations. 1915. Issue 5.
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  1. heavy division
    heavy division April 7 2018 06: 04
    +10
    Nikolai Nikolaevich - an outstanding military leader of Russia
    Completely deserved on March 9, 1915 he was awarded the Order of St. George of the 2nd degree (for the capture of Przemysl) and the St. George saber with diamonds “For the Liberation of Chervona Rus”.
    A wording to George 3rd art. (September 1914) reflects his general merits: "In retaliation of courage, determination and unshakable perseverance in carrying out military plans that covered the unfading glory of Russian weapons"
    Excellent article!
    1. 210ox
      210ox April 7 2018 11: 29
      +2
      Yes, this is a figure in the Russian generals. Even the growth of a meter under two ..
  2. Olgovich
    Olgovich April 7 2018 06: 23
    +9
    And it is obvious that in many respects the basis of the loss of World War I by the German world lies in the leadership decisions of the first Commander-in-Chief of the Russian army in the field - Grand Duke Nikolai Nikolayevich the Younger.

    Totally agree!
    Not without reason, when the ashes returned to Russia in 2014, in France he was given the highest state honors as the Commander-in-Chief of the Allied Russian Army.

    In the presence of senior officials of Russia, he was buried with his wife in a chapel at the Bratskoye cemetery of WWI heroes in Moscow.
  3. Cartalon
    Cartalon April 7 2018 06: 25
    +8
    It’s not even funny, a man completely failed his task and is ultimately removed from his post.
    1. Brutan
      Brutan April 7 2018 09: 07
      +6
      This is what kind of task he failed, let me curiosity?
      The Russian army successfully mobilized, carried out the most important strategic operations of the outbreak of the war - they influenced the course of the entire war.
      These subsequent operations, such as the Gorlitsky breakthrough, have already changed little.
      Well, many phenomena were caused by objective reasons - for example, a crisis in the supply of ammunition and weapons.
      1. Cartalon
        Cartalon April 7 2018 10: 58
        +8
        Successful mobilization is true, the Commander-in-chief has nothing to do with it, and then East Prussia is a failure, the Austrians left Galicia out of reach, well, the deep invasion of Germany beloved by Nikolai Nikolaevich was thwarted by the enemy in the bud, his further actions with attempts to attack both East Prussia and the Carpathians at the same time, without the necessary material support, they are simply insane in Gorlitsa, he is personally guilty.
        1. soldier
          soldier April 7 2018 12: 47
          +17
          In East Prussia and the Carpathians, at the same time, without the necessary material support, he is simply insane in Gorlitsa personally.

          Yes, diverging directions in the winter of 1915 is a mistake
          But 3 counter-maneuvers in the fall of 1914 - a serious success
          Affected the outcome of the war
  4. andrewkor
    andrewkor April 7 2018 07: 23
    +8
    July 20, 1914 - August 23, 1915 Commander-in-Chief: After the successful Pranysh operation and the capture of Przemysl, the devastating Gorlitsky breakthrough of the German army followed. The Russian army "heroically" retreated 600 km from the borders of the Empire. Even the Austrians gave heat. The front stopped along the line - Riga, Dvinsk, Smorgon, Baranovichi, Pinsk, Dubno (see map). For these "achievements, the former Commander-in-Chief was" exiled "to the Caucasus, as during the time of Grandfather Nikolai Pavlovich, until March 1917, then again spent a week at the head of the Army and went back to emigrate to France, where he died quietly on January 5, 1929 (72 years old).
    And nothing, a prominent man, not like Nikolashka!
    1. XII Legion
      XII Legion April 7 2018 09: 36
      +16
      Even the Austrians gave heat.

      Great heat, acting only mixed with the Germans. Which did not benefit the Germans either.
      May 1915 - Lublin - captured 20 thousand Austrians (10AK), September 1915 - Lutsk - captured 70 thousand Austrians (4A).
      The front stopped along the line - Riga, Dvinsk, Smorgon, Baranovichi, Pinsk, Dubno

      This is the difficult miscalculation of the enemy, including the same Ludendorff with Hindenburg operating in the Baltic. The expansion and deepening of the front not only gobbled up all reserves and led to massive transfers to the Russian front.
      The Anglo-French received almost a year of respite - to their great joy. They used it for its intended purpose.
      1. andrewkor
        andrewkor April 7 2018 12: 32
        +1
        Yes, the spaces of Russia were more than once the cause of the failure of the aggressors' plans to conquer it, only the collapse from the inside undermined its power, which is what it is now. And the sworn "allies" were rescued by the blood of their soldiers more than once, and by PMV and later.
        1. soldier
          soldier April 7 2018 12: 47
          +15
          Inside and undermined
          The army fought well
      2. andrewkor
        andrewkor April 7 2018 12: 52
        +2
        I want to add about another future miscalculation of the Germans: after the "obscene world" in 1918. there was a vacuum in the East, there was simply no one to fight. But "fraer’s greed destroyed" instead of striking the West and seeking a more honorable peace, and even victories rushed to rake in, which was poorly guarded.
        1. soldier
          soldier April 7 2018 13: 00
          +15
          Not only spaces were the cause of the breakdown
          But also the valor of the army and command
      3. Serg65
        Serg65 April 7 2018 13: 03
        +5
        Quote: XII Legion
        This is the enemy’s difficult miscalculation.

        good laughing Classes !!!!
        A forced expulsion of all Jews from the front line. deprived the German general staff of intelligence, and the fact that these evicted Jews paralyzed the imperial railway is a trifle! It was Nikolai Nikolayevich, in order to hide his mediocrity and cowardice that turned into a “Great Retreat” for the Russian army, that he spread rumors about the German queen and German spies in the Russian headquarters! It was the Grand Duke, who would wash his hands, initiated the "espionage affairs" of Myasoedov and Sukhomlinov! It was the Emperor’s uncle who led the conspiracy against his nephew, but, as usual, got scared and went into the shadow of Alekseev!
        The myth of the Grand Duke Nikolai Nikolaevich continues to live !!! lol
        1. soldier
          soldier April 7 2018 13: 06
          +15
          The myth of the Grand Duke Nikolai Nikolaevich continues to live !!!

          Myths are not.
          Yes, we are not talking about myths or espionage fuss.
          And about the strategic decisions my friend. At the most crucial stage of the war. They are given their due in both Western and Russian historiography.
          good
          1. soldier
            soldier April 7 2018 13: 12
            +15
            This is the enemy’s difficult miscalculation.

            Exactly
            A huge and expanding front will absorb the mass of troops of the German bloc. For a year of respite, the allies of Russia caught up with Germany in terms of the material and technical supply of their troops, and accumulated large resources.
            Serg65
            Namely Nikolai Nikolayevich, to hide his mediocrity and cowardice

            As people like to grind with our tongue, they are completely unaware of their words. What is mediocrity, what is cowardice?
            Probably the gifted commentator heroes under the red flags are more visible lol
            1. Serg65
              Serg65 April 7 2018 14: 03
              +4
              Quote: soldier
              How people like to grind with our tongue, completely unaware of their words

              Not at all, Mr. Soldier!
              Quote: soldier
              What is the mediocrity

              Your superhero stupidly missed the opportunity to utterly defeat Austria-Hungary in 14, in the maniacal desire for a deep blow deep into Germany, completely ignored the concentration of Mackensin’s troops, 2’s Austrian armies and the Wojrsch group, for which Russian on 2 on May 15 of the year the soldier paid with his life, the Russian army tarnished his honor by starting the Great Run! In the summer company of the 15 year, the army lost 1 million 410 thousand soldiers and officers, the personnel army was completely knocked out, the Pre-war Guard ceased to exist!
              Quote: soldier
              what is cowardice?

              Apart from the fact that the Grand Duke you beloved has never gone to the front, and in the summer of 15, he ran at the head of his General Headquarters without stopping for days and made sure that he had issued an order to begin the construction of fortifications not only near Kiev, but also at Tula and Kursk!
              "Poor N., cried in my office and even asked if I would like to replace him with a more capable person. I was not at all excited, I felt that he was saying exactly what he was thinking. He all began to thank me for what my presence reassured him personally "wrote Nicholas II to Empress Alexandra Fedorovna in a letter of May 11 1915 year.
              Quote: soldier
              Probably the gifted commentator heroes under the red flags are more visible

              lol Did you normally look at the flag? Woe-monarchist completely unaware of Russian history tongue
              1. soldier
                soldier April 7 2018 14: 16
                +15
                This is not my hero
                This time
                And in any process there are positive and negative sides. These are two.
                starting the Great Run!

                Great run, based on your concepts - more characteristic of the Red Army in the summer of 1941.
                And in the summer of 1915 there was a strategic pullback. Huge losses, no words. But not only based on the properties of someone's personality. Pre-war armies were knocked out by all opponents with a difference of plus or minus six months.
                By the way, the article is not about the campaign of 1915, but about specific counter-maneuvers of summer - autumn of 1914. It was they who influenced the fate of the whole war.
                As usual - juggling phenomena in the spirit of a "military specialist" in.
                Hindenburg over - ignored the orders of the Stavka, engaged in amateur performances in the Baltic states, failed the offensive of 1918 - and nothing, yep.
                Woe-monarchist completely unaware of Russian history

                I am a monarchist - like you are a Kyrgyz tongue
                1. Serg65
                  Serg65 April 7 2018 15: 09
                  +5
                  Quote: soldier
                  Great run based on your concepts

                  From my concepts, it is not necessary to appropriate to a person qualities not inherent to him!
                  Quote: soldier
                  in the summer of Xnumx there was a strategic pullback

                  what Not such a frail rollback, I'll tell you!
                  Quote: soldier
                  By the way, the article is not about the campaign of 1915, but about specific counter-maneuvers of summer - fall of 1914.

                  The article is called "First Commander-in-Chief" or the 14 company of the year ?????
                  1. soldier
                    soldier April 7 2018 15: 19
                    +15
                    Kickbacks are different
                    Is the article called First Commander-in-Chief or a 14th year company?

                    The article says:
                    We do not set ourselves the goal of examining the entire life path of the Grand Duke (a lot of work has been written about this - it’s enough to recall the fundamental work of Quartermaster General Stavka Yu. N. Danilov), his political and military career (including the issues related to the subsequent appointment of the High Command of the Caucasus Front and the failed new High Command in March 1917 g.). Let us dwell only on some aspects of the latter. - First of all, concerning the activities of Nikolai Nikolaevich as the first commander-in-chief of the army at the first, most crucial stage of the great war.

                    open your eyes again
                    or at least read what you are trying to talk about
                    1. Serg65
                      Serg65 April 7 2018 17: 15
                      +3
                      Quote: soldier
                      open your eyes again

                      what Rude please?
                      Lieutenant General Vlasov in 41 was a Hero of the Soviet Union, a favorite of Stalin, let's talk about him without looking into the near future .... will it work ???
                      1. soldier
                        soldier April 7 2018 17: 17
                        +15
                        Lieutenant General Vlasov in 41 was a Hero of the Soviet Union, a favorite of Stalin, let's talk about him without looking into the near future .... will it work ???

                        Is your roof going?
                        Why this passage?
                        I wrote to you above - why in the article about 14 years. The author made a reservation about this at the beginning.
                        And what does the favorite of Stalin?
              2. ccsr
                ccsr April 7 2018 16: 41
                +1
                Quote: Serg65
                The pre-war guard ceased to exist!

                No one disputes this fact, as well as the fact that Napoleon, who was great for the French, generally lost almost everything in Russia, except for the remnants of the guard, and surrendered Paris to our troops. I think that with an objective approach to history, we should not engage in sadomasochism regarding the heroes of those times, about whom we often have opinions from unscrupulous historians or former military experts. We have one story and it is worthless to use it for settling political accounts.
                1. Serg65
                  Serg65 April 7 2018 17: 09
                  +2
                  Quote: ccsr
                  We have one story and it is worthless to use it for settling political accounts.

                  We really have one story and it must be true!
                  You probably noticed that I have no words about politics?
                  Quote: ccsr
                  we should not engage in sadomasochism in relation to the heroes of those times

                  The speech in this article is not about the heroes of the past, but about the Commander-in-Chief of an extraordinary and contradictory personality! hi
                  1. ccsr
                    ccsr April 7 2018 18: 00
                    +1
                    Quote: Serg65
                    You probably noticed that I have no words about politics?

                    The point is not in politics itself, which is not in the article, but in the political biases of those who discuss it, and transfers its views to its class antipodes. For example, I am interested in any military leader from ancient times to Shoigu in terms of their military professionalism, and in this case, Nikolai Nikolaevich, in my opinion, is a worthy commander, especially when you consider that even Kutuzov was condemned by many for surrendering Moscow.
                    Quote: Serg65
                    but about the Commander-in-Chief of an extraordinary and contradictory personality!

                    Indeed, he is an extraordinary personality, but I cannot see what is contradictory - he is a typical representative of the elite of that time, and against the background of modern “commanders” like Serdyukov, for example, he simply looks like a standard of decency, military professionalism and humanity. What did you see the contradictory nature of his actions?
          2. Serg65
            Serg65 April 7 2018 13: 29
            +1
            Quote: soldier
            Yes, we are not talking about myths or espionage fuss.
            And about the strategic decisions my friend

            what Hmm And what were the strategic decisions, my dear?
            1. soldier
              soldier April 7 2018 13: 36
              +15
              Read about the counter-maneuver during the Battle of Galicia
              About Warsaw-Ivangorod and Lodz operations
              Learn
              1. Serg65
                Serg65 April 7 2018 14: 43
                +4
                Quote: soldier
                Read about the counter-maneuver during the Battle of Galicia

                Mr. soldier, what ended the battle of Galicia? The destruction of the Austrian army? The withdrawal of Austria-Hungary from the war? Than?
                Quote: soldier
                About Warsaw-Ivangorod and Lodz operations

                The result of the Warsaw-Ivangorod battle was the preservation of the Austrian army, the prevention of the Russian army’s advance in Silesia and the gain of time to create reserve troops in Germany, why did this happen when the Russian battlefield was captured?
                The Lodz operation is generally the height of the incompetence of the Russian command !!! The commanders act on their own, the Headquarters only advises and if not for the courage of the Russian soldier and the professionalism of the Russian officer from the battalion to the division level, this operation would have very tragic consequences for Russia!
                1. soldier
                  soldier April 7 2018 15: 00
                  +15
                  Chewing one and the same is worn out.
                  Mr. soldier, what ended the battle of Galicia? The destruction of the Austrian army? The withdrawal of Austria-Hungary from the war? Than?

                  The Austrians carried the deployment 100 km west, the boiler did not work.
                  But the battle of Galicia ended in the rout of the Austro-Hungarian army. Of course, not by destruction but by defeat - but after which the Austrians can no longer act without German support.
                  And it could end in the defeat of the northern flank of the SWF - over which almost double the forces of the Austrians hung. How did you read all the articles that were previously on VO? In the Lublin-Kholm operation of the 4th and 5th armies of the SWF, they were defeated - and it was the counter-maneuver of the Headquarters that saved the situation. The 4th Army was strengthened, and the 9th was also created.
                  And on the northern flank of the operation, a strategic breakthrough occurred.
                  The result of the Warsaw-Ivangorod battle - the preservation of the Austrian army

                  In essence, the Warsaw-Ivangorod operation is the transfer (counter-maneuver) of the German 9th Army, trying to inflict a flank attack on the South-Western Front. The Austrians were just retreating. And their 1st Army in this operation solved the auxiliary task.
                  So this victory is over the German 9th Army. The first blow of the Germans to Warsaw was disrupted, the Polish balcony was preserved. Is this not enough?
                  The Lodz operation is generally the height of the incompetence of the Russian command !!! Commanders act on their own

                  It’s even difficult to comment. Set of old slogans.
                  The fact is that the reinforced German 9th army tried to surround the Russian 2nd at Lodz. A counter-maneuver was carried out - the Russian 5th army was transferred to the joint from the 2nd, and the offensive of the 1st army began in the north. And the German shock group bypassing Schaeffer-Boyadel herself was in the boiler.
                  A group of the 2nd and 5th armies was led by P.A. Pleve. Nobody acted on their own.
                  Two fronts took part in the operation at once - and without the coordinating and guiding role of the Headquarters there was no way.
                  No, but maybe you are smarter and more competent than Marshal Foch, who believed
                  Lodz's counter-maneuver "a remarkable manifestation of military art"
                  .
                  What I really doubt very much
                  1. Serg65
                    Serg65 April 7 2018 17: 04
                    +2
                    Quote: soldier
                    Nobody acted on their own.

                    The actions of the commanders of the Ruzsky and Rennenkampf as you wish to describe?
                    1. soldier
                      soldier April 7 2018 17: 08
                      +15
                      But what does Ruzsky and Rennenkampf have to do with it?
                      The article is not about them.
                      Why such questions ... It is not clear ....
                      Then I'll ask too.
                      How would you like to characterize the actions of the commanders Pleve and Scheidemann?
                      1. soldier
                        soldier April 7 2018 17: 14
                        +16
                        Serg65
                        Actions commanders Ruzsky and Rennenkampf as you wish to characterize?

                        ))
                        Now once again I’m convinced that you don’t own a topic, it jumps to the top. Normally.
                        Ruzsky was not the commander. Starting September 3, 1914, he commanded the Northwest Front. That is, in the Lodz operation - I repeat, it may come, WAS NOT A TEAM.
                        Who does not want to know such details, he writes in his articles that in the era of the principle, triumphs were ONLY for emperors. And from ignorance of the details, negligence is born - and as a result ignorance.
  5. Brutan
    Brutan April 7 2018 09: 13
    +7
    Not everything is measured by a map pattern.
    Under the command of Nikolai Nikolayevich, the RIA carried out the SIGNAL operations of the most critical period of the war.
    The blitzkrieg of the German bloc was foiled - and the strategy of crushing fell before the strategy of starvation.
    But the front line is not important for the strategy of starvation - at least near Moscow or Paris. Entering into the matter of resourceful things put an end to Germany's desire for world domination.
    The front passed in France, along the western provinces of Russia, almost all of Belgium was under the heel of the German - and the Entente still won the war. And last but not least thanks to the efforts of Nikolai Nikolayevich - who failed the most thoughtful and most dangerous attack of the enemy.
    1. rkkasa xnumx
      rkkasa xnumx April 7 2018 11: 15
      +2
      Quote: Brutan
      the front line is not important for the strategy of starvation - at least near Moscow or Paris

      Absolutely wrong, because the loss of territories = the loss of human and material resources.
      During the war, Russia lost all front-line industrial areas, which had a very important role in the economic life of the country. In territory captured by the enemy about 1/3 of industrial enterprises remained, which accounted for almost 1/5 of the value of gross output the entire factory industry.
      The wool industry suffered the most losses. Of the 1101 enterprises that existed in Russia before the war, 795 enterprises with 135 thousand workerswhich gave 42,2% products. The cotton industry suffered significant losses. Of the total number of 837 cotton mills that existed before the war in Russia, 246 enterprises with 16,4% of workersgiving 20,3% gross output value.
      Was lost about the fourth part large woodworking industry
      The leather industry suffered significant losses. Of the total number of 550 enterprises in the west, 195 remained, having 23,4% of workers and 37% gross output value.
      The most sensitive was the loss of the Dombrowski coal basin, which supplied fuel not only for the industry of the former tsarist Poland, but also partially for the industry of the North-Western industrial region.
      The loss of the Olkush region, which gave about 3/4 of all zinc produced in the country: Russia was forced to increase its import from abroad, which during the war was fraught with great difficulties.
      The metal industry suffered significant losses. Of the total number of 1833 enterprises in the territory occupied by the enemy, 520 remained, having 19,3% of workers and 18,5% gross output value.
      Of the 549 enterprises, the chemical industry lost 121, which had 22,2% of workers and giving 22,5% products.
      1. soldier
        soldier April 7 2018 12: 49
        +15
        The comrade answered you not from socio-economic, but from a strategic point of view.
        In terms of STRATEGY
        The blitzkrieg of the German bloc was foiled - and the strategy of crushing fell before the strategy of starvation. But the front line is not important for the strategy of starvation - at least near Moscow or Paris. Entering the matter of resources put an end to Germany’s desire for world domination.

        Absolutely sure
        1. rkkasa xnumx
          rkkasa xnumx April 7 2018 14: 29
          +3
          Quote: soldier
          Absolutely sure

          Absolute nonsense.
          To starve - bring the enemy to complete exhaustion of forces. More territory left - less resources for warfare, less strength.
          If the idea of ​​the unimportance of the front line is true, then why did stupid allies rest on their Western Front for every kilometer?
          1. soldier
            soldier April 7 2018 14: 36
            +15
            No, absolutely.
            Read about strategy on depletion.
            It was she who brought victory in the war
            If the idea of ​​the unimportance of the front line is true, then why did stupid allies rest on their Western Front for every kilometer

            then war
            tried to speed up the victory
            1. rkkasa xnumx
              rkkasa xnumx April 7 2018 15: 47
              +2
              Quote: soldier
              Read about strategy on depletion

              Oh, these excuses laughing
              Quote: soldier
              tried to speed up the victory

              Why don't the Allies move somewhere? Why, for example, the Nantes-Marseille line is bad for trying to accelerate the victory? After all, in your opinion, there is no difference where the front line goes, so you can move hundreds of kilometers away. But no, for some reason they rested in front of their verduns.
              1. soldier
                soldier April 7 2018 16: 03
                +15
                Oh, these excuses

                This is not an excuse. You are simply traditionally an Internet-eating creature, and find and read the works on 2 strategies.
                Or articles - they are full of Soviet magazines 20-30 years.
                There were 2 strategies in the WWII - crushing (Germany with allies - had less resources, but a better military machine) and starvation (Entente, lack of coordination in actions, but control over the resources of most of the world, huge colonies, allies, spheres of influence).
                The first implied a quick victory, the second - a victory in the confrontation of resources. As soon as the chances for a quick victory of the German bloc were thwarted (not least because of the efforts of the Russian army) - the Entente's resource dominance made its victory only a matter of time.
                Well, Verdun is an illustration of what I said. The Germans climbed just trying to re-apply the strategy of crushing. Allies naturally rested. Why surrender such powerful positions in which you can sit until the end of the war. Not to go into the open field?
                The fact that the Allies did not soar about the timing (order with resources) is indicated by the fact that they counted on victory only in 1919. The operation project was approved by Marshal Foch.
                1. rkkasa xnumx
                  rkkasa xnumx April 7 2018 18: 27
                  +1
                  A creature is what you see in the mirror. Unconventional and stupid. Which is not able to understand that resources, they are not taken from the air, but are extracted in the territories occupied by one or another side. And loss of territories = loss of resources.
                  You seem to have never touched upon the production of these same resources, therefore, you think that it’s enough to draw an arrow on the map, and paint it with more color, and everything will form by itself. But alas, everything is much more serious, and it’s not with your dullness that you can climb into these high matters.
                  1. soldier
                    soldier April 7 2018 18: 55
                    +15
                    A creature is what you see in the mirror. Unconventional and stupid.

                    I understand that - you describe your self-portrait)
                    why you think

                    he wrote above himself - no need to ascribe what you think and what not))
                    It’s as if to understand - not able to
                    Especially since
                    not with your dullness to climb into these high matters.
                    1. rkkasa xnumx
                      rkkasa xnumx April 7 2018 19: 29
                      0
                      Quote: soldier
                      he wrote above himself - no need to ascribe what you think and what not))
                      It’s as if to understand - not able to

                      Who wrote? What to attribute? What else would you understand? You seem to rave there stop
                      1. soldier
                        soldier April 7 2018 19: 36
                        +15
                        I wrote above myself
                        I quote
                        no need to appropriate a person’s abnormal qualities

                        So I don’t have to ascribe to me
                        that's why you think

                        what I think is unknown to you uncle)
                    2. rkkasa xnumx
                      rkkasa xnumx April 7 2018 20: 31
                      0
                      Quote: soldier
                      I wrote above myself
                      I quote
                      no need to appropriate a person’s abnormal qualities

                      Aunt, you are frankly ringing.
                      1. soldier
                        soldier April 7 2018 21: 10
                        +15
                        so are you aunt
                        Okay so.
                        Here is your comment above
                        Serg65 (Sergey) Today, 15:09 ↑
                        Quote: soldier
                        Great run based on your concepts
                        From my concepts, it is not necessary to appropriate to a person qualities not inherent to him!

                        That is, you wrote:
                        no need to appropriate a person’s abnormal qualities

                        and then you yourself assign your conjectures to me, ringing:
                        rkkasa xnumx
                        You seem to have never touched the production of these same resources, so you think

                        So I say - what I think you don’t know. Therefore, do not speak.
                    3. rkkasa xnumx
                      rkkasa xnumx April 7 2018 21: 18
                      +1
                      Quote: soldier
                      Above your comment
                      Serg65 (Sergey) Today, 15:09 ↑
                      Quote: soldier
                      Great run based on your concepts
                      From my concepts, it is not necessary to appropriate to a person qualities not inherent to him!

                      Aunt Oksta, you’re already completely mad ... this is not my kament.
                      1. soldier
                        soldier April 7 2018 22: 06
                        +15
                        You confuse yourself by gender, I do not need)
                        But is Serg65 and rkkasa 81 not the same thing? More precisely the same?
                        Or do you want to convince me that a bunch of people correspond on this site and they have nothing more to do? Yes, even from different countries, and in Russian?
                        What on other sites where this comrade is not there - no one is texting (although it is possible), and here is such a hectic life? lol
                        Funny and ridiculous. Only do not hold the fool. You know who you are, and I know who you are too. And there’s nobody else here - netuti ...
                        It doesn't matter - rkkassa or serg
                2. rkkasa xnumx
                  rkkasa xnumx April 11 2018 06: 31
                  0
                  Quote: soldier
                  But is Serg65 and rkkasa 81 not the same thing? More precisely the same?
                  Or do you want to convince me that a bunch of people correspond on this site and they have nothing more to do? Yes, even from different countries, and in Russian?
                  What on other sites where this comrade is not there - no one is texting (although it is possible), and here is such a hectic life?
                  Funny and ridiculous. Only do not hold the fool. You know who you are, and I know who you are too. And there’s nobody else here - netuti ...

                  And how long have you let your aunt out of fools?
    2. andrewkor
      andrewkor April 7 2018 12: 24
      0
      The “Blitzkrieg of the German Bloc” was physically impossible in the WWI due to the lack of motorization and aviation to the proper extent. This was also shown by the Western Front. Running to the Sea of ​​both opponents ended in nothing. The “Nightmare of Germany” fully proved itself - a war on two fronts for joy World backstage "!
    3. andrewkor
      andrewkor April 7 2018 12: 36
      +2
      And on the map, everything is clear who achieved what without beautiful things about the “beloved Glavkoverkh soldiers”. Of course, the fate of the armies and individual feats is not visible behind the blue and red arrows, but how can you do without them in an objective analysis of the situation.
    4. andrewkor
      andrewkor April 7 2018 12: 44
      0
      The “Blitzkrieg of the German Bloc” was not physically possible in the WWI in the absence of motorization and aviation properly. On the Western Front, the same deep coverage did not take place — Running to the sea of ​​both opponents. And of course Germany’s nightmare proved itself to be a two-front war to the joy of the World Backstage!
      1. soldier
        soldier April 7 2018 12: 50
        +15
        Blitzkrieg is a conditional name. Naturally.
        And true in essence.
        It's not about technology, but in the process.
        What else is there to call Schlieffen’s plan for a fleeting war - when everything is calculated in hours and minutes?
        1. andrewkor
          andrewkor April 7 2018 14: 18
          +2
          “Die erste kolonnen marshiren, die zweite kolonnen marshiren ...” And Bonaparte also painted plans, he did it!
    5. Serg65
      Serg65 April 7 2018 13: 17
      +4
      Quote: Brutan
      The Entente still won the war. And last but not least thanks to the efforts of Nikolai Nikolaevich

      "The commander in chief was Grand Duke Nikolai Nikolaevich, who, as I believe, was more French than Russian, because he could sacrifice Russian troops quite freely only to help the French and British." E.N. Hyacinths.
      And the fact that only the entry into the US war saved the Entente from defeat, we won’t even remember it ... why?
      Quote: Brutan
      thanks to the efforts of Nikolai Nikolaevich, who failed the most thoughtful and most dangerous attack of the enemy.

      laughing How did he fail this cunning plan? The fact that in the Carpathians and V. Prussia he laid the last shells or with his marathon run?
      1. soldier
        soldier April 7 2018 13: 25
        +15
        And the fact that only the entry into the US war saved the Entente from defeat

        You are raving.
        The United States has entered into a cap analysis. The presence of the Russian Front in 1914-17. saved the Entente from defeat. Otherwise - 1940 early.
        How did he fail this cunning plan? The fact that in the Carpathians and V. Prussia he laid the last shells or with his marathon run?

        And for this you need to read the article and not stupid (or pretend). The first counter-maneuver led to the victory of the Battle of Galicia. The Germans are forced to increasingly strengthen the Austrians - at the expense of other fronts.
        2nd counter-maneuver - victory in the Warsaw-Ivangorod operation.
        3rd counter-maneuver - Ludendorff’s plan in the одód операции operation was foiled. The Germans are transferring 3 corps to the east. This led to the victory of the allies at Ypres. The western front has stabilized. Finally.
        The German bloc finally faces the realities of the war of attrition.
        That and failed.
        1. Serg65
          Serg65 April 7 2018 15: 01
          +4
          Quote: soldier
          The German bloc finally faces the realities of the war of attrition.

          laughing Blessed is he who believes!
          The First World War ended in November of the 18, and not in the 17, Germany fought on one front for a whole year, "exhausted" Germany fought in France for a whole year !!! Only thanks to the financial and military support of the United States, the Entente remained alive! So to speak, a small confirmation of this is the Dardanelles operation, with the huge advantage of the airborne assaults, zero result!
          Quote: soldier
          And for this you need to read the article and not stupid

          To do this, you should not read the article, but read materials and books on this topic hi
          1. soldier
            soldier April 7 2018 15: 06
            +15
            World War I ended in November 18th, and not in the 17th

            Oh you what discoveries laughing
            That's just it, that 3/4 of the war existed on the Eastern Front. Which so many times rescued the allies. and more than 40 divisions remained there even after the Brest Peace. You, as Samsonov, wrote about this wink
            Germany is fighting in France !!! Only thanks to the financial and military support of the United States, the Entente remained alive! So to speak, a small confirmation of this is the Dardanelles operation, with the huge advantage of the airborne assaults, zero result!

            Everything on the heap.
            To do this, you should not read the article, but read materials and books on this topic

            That's right, read it. And then a little do not cut hi
        2. Cartalon
          Cartalon April 7 2018 18: 50
          +1
          In the Battle of Galicia, Russian reserves led to victory, a victory in the Warsaw operation, and if this is such an achievement, it might be better to cover the Vistula with a barrier and calmly occupy the Carpathians, in which they put the color of the army in winter, the Lodz operation is the disruption of Ludendorf's decisive Russian offensive, and not vice versa .
          1. soldier
            soldier April 7 2018 19: 07
            +15
            In the battle of Galicia, Russian reserves led to victory

            We must also be able to use these reserves. You can patch holes. And you can enter at the right time in the right place - by creating a new operational association - the 9th Army. And turn the tide of battle on the northern flank.
            This is also an art.
            victory in the Warsaw operation, and is this an achievement, it might be better to cover the Vistula with a barrier and calmly occupy the Carpathians, in which they put the color of the army in winter

            Maybe yes, maybe not.
            In any case, the Warsaw-Ivangorod operation is a strategic victory.
            The Lodz operation is the disruption by Ludendorff of a decisive Russian offensive, and not vice versa.

            On the one hand, the Germans disrupted the planned Russian invasion of Silesia.
            On the other hand, the failure of E. Ludendorff to encircle the Russian 2nd Army. The Germans deformed its flank, began encirclement - but the counter-maneuver of the 5th army and the Lovici detachment of the 1st army did not allow surrounding the 2nd army and the Germans themselves were locked in a cauldron.
            Once again, Marshal Foch, who believed
            Lodz's counter-maneuver is “a remarkable manifestation of military art.”
            it’s clearly more competent than all of us put together hi
            1. Cartalon
              Cartalon April 7 2018 23: 07
              0
              Lawrence of Arabia, you know, had a very low opinion of Marshal Faucher, and he certainly understood something in military affairs. The French approved any action by the Russians against the Germans.
              1. soldier
                soldier April 8 2018 08: 26
                +15
                They found someone to compare with the Marshal and Commander-in-Chief of the Entente - the Bedouin semi-partisan) Lawrence
                Can we recall some other lieutenant?
                No, the authority of F. Foch is undeniable. And strategic merit is unconditional
                1. Cartalon
                  Cartalon April 8 2018 18: 46
                  0
                  Lawrence, he did not do the impossible, and Foch under Marne he was essentially defeated, but held on, did not panic in 18 and realized overwhelming superiority, that’s all his merits.
                  1. soldier
                    soldier April 8 2018 18: 52
                    +15
                    Oh my God!
                    And then they have different scales))
                    During the March German offensive, Foch acted perfectly, and in July-August it was even better.
                    They found someone to compare - some Lawrence and Entente Commander-in-Chief.
                    However, you understand the ingratitude of the task - to belittle the merits of Marshal Foch, and even on the Internet site?)
                    If we ourselves were not unknown by anyone, but even by marshals and generals, that would not mean anything. Foch is a quantity, irrespective of idle chatter.
  6. XII Legion
    XII Legion April 7 2018 09: 37
    +15
    Wise organizational and operational decisions, the love of soldiers (they even composed legends) ...
    In general, to everything else - and the vivid contribution of the bright representative of the Romanov dynasty to the common Victory.
    The First World War gave military history 2 names of talented commanders of the first magnitude: F. Foch and P. Hindenburg. We will take the liberty of replacing P. Hindenburg (whose decisions were also largely determined by the activities of E. Ludendorff) by Grand Duke Nikolai Nikolaevich.

    We support!
    Thank you
  7. Cartalon
    Cartalon April 7 2018 11: 06
    +4
    Judging by the comments, the monarchists differ from the communists only in the color of the rag they pray for, there is no chance to critically look at the object of adoration. Nikolai Nikolaevich understood horses, but as the Commander-in-Chief, his strategy was absurd, he could not establish interaction between the fronts, his position itself was superfluous, the General Staff, subordinate only to the emperor, could perfectly manage the two fronts.
    1. soldier
      soldier April 7 2018 12: 55
      +15
      two fronts could perfectly manage the General Staff subordinate only to the emperor.

      No one argues with this Cartalon. In accordance with the Regulation on Field Management, really subordinate issues were removed only when the post of Glavkoverkh was occupied by the Emperor.
      But Nikolai Nikolaevich needs to be given credit, he did a lot.
      Even a lot.
      Why is the failed Hindenburg operation (including the onset of the year 18) put on a pedestal, and our Commander-in-Chief is blasphemed?
      There were mistakes, he answered for them and owes nothing to anyone
      1. Monarchist
        Monarchist April 7 2018 17: 17
        0
        "Why is the Hindenburg mission that failed a lot (including the offensive of 1918) put on a pedestal, and our Commander-in-Chief is blasphemed?" You ask beautifully, "Why?" I didn’t think about it somehow, but now it’s our fault: a) the political system has changed in Russia and naturally such a figure as Nikolai Nikolaevich did not like the new government, and the allies hastened to “forget” it or would have to acknowledge Russia's merits. B) then WWII and he somehow "forgot"
    2. Serg65
      Serg65 April 7 2018 13: 26
      +2
      Quote: Cartalon
      Judging by the comments, monarchists differ from the communists only in the color of the rag they pray for.

      Well, given that Nikolai Nikolayevich was at the forefront of the February Revolution, and the monarchists in the VO are more inclined to the Constituent Assembly, and the Cadets, Octobrists, Socialists, Mensheviks and Communists ate from one pocket, then I completely agree with you ... no difference between the monarchists and the Communists do not have in terms of not even a critical, but a true look at this person!
      1. soldier
        soldier April 7 2018 13: 32
        +15
        Yes?
        Nikolai Nikolaevich stood at the origins of the February revolution

        He stood right there. Hold by the hand?
        Cadets, Octobrists, Socialists, Mensheviks and Communists ate from one pocket

        that's right
        It is interesting, but in Kyrgyzstan there is a "critical, truthful look at this person" ?.
        1. Serg65
          Serg65 April 7 2018 17: 25
          +2
          Quote: soldier
          Hold by the hand?

          You type in the search engine the Grand Duke and the conspiracy of generals ..... and you can hold on to the handle as much as you like!
          Quote: soldier
          It is interesting, but in Kyrgyzstan there is a "critical, truthful look at this person" ?.

          What would you like to hear from Kyrgyzstan about this person? It is this personality that we owe to most fakes about Nicholas II!
          1. soldier
            soldier April 7 2018 17: 32
            +15
            Well yes, without a search engine, nowhere laughing
            Cool source. You type and understand lol
            And what, where, was it? It does not matter.
            You don’t even seem to understand that it’s ugly to refer only to the Internet. Internet links alone are a sign of bad taste.
            As they used to say about him - a world trash?
  8. soldier
    soldier April 7 2018 12: 58
    +15
    All 3 counter-maneuvers of Nikolai Nikolaevich were beautiful and clear.
    The answer to the question is what other generals of the first echelon are in Russia except Pleve, Brusilov and Yudenich.
  9. soldier
    soldier April 7 2018 13: 34
    +15
    The figure of Nikolai Nikolaevich is significant
    And she did a lot for our army
    Both in peacetime and in war
    To win critical operations
    So that there polyphony Shamsonov buzzed in all the variety of his flags.
    1. soldier
      soldier April 7 2018 13: 37
      +15
      So that there polyphony Shamsonov buzzed in all the variety of his flags.

      worried poor fellow
      like trying to troll
  10. iouris
    iouris April 7 2018 13: 34
    +1
    Quote: “And it is obvious that in many ways the basis of the German world losing the First World War ...” End of quote.
    “Obviously” is not something that “can be seen”, but that which the author is able to prove on demand.
    1) About the "German world". The union of the "central powers" included Turkey, Bulgaria, Italy (at the end of the war, Italy crossed over to the Entente).
    2) About the reasons for the defeat. The defeat of Germany was a natural result of an incorrect assessment of the situation and capabilities of Germany, the adventurism of the plans of the Kaiser. In particular, the Kaiser was sure that in Russia, immediately after its entry into the war, a revolution would occur.
    3) About the subjective factor. Entente allies from the very beginning assigned Russia a supporting role and used the Russian army to divert German troops from the Western Front in the most difficult moments as they wanted. To this end, Republican France’s Ambassador Paleolog and Buchanan’s British Ambassador worked very closely with leaders of the Duma parties, key government ministers and the aristocracy, including members of the imperial family. In fact, the Russian army fought for interests alien to Russia. Leadership decisions led. Prince N.N. Romanova, as well as the successes of the Russian army, attributed exclusively to Brusilov, could not play the role of the main factor in the victory of the Entente in the war. In addition, the emperor ultimately set aside the vel. Prince N.N. Romanov and assumed an exclusive role in the leadership of the state and the army, then the February Revolution, the October Revolution, the Civil War took place in Russia ...
    Regardless of the result, the catastrophe to which Russia’s ruling circles brought Russia led. Prince N.N. Romanov can be attributed to the outstanding military and statesmen of Russia.
    1. soldier
      soldier April 7 2018 13: 51
      +15
      n-yes
      About the "German world".

      The term German world is generalizing. Moreover, Germany and Austria were the backbone players of GB.
      The union of the "central powers" included Turkey, Bulgaria, Italy (at the end of the war, Italy crossed over to the Entente).

      lol
      Italy "flipped" not at the end of the war, but in June 1915.
      The defeat of Germany was a natural result of an incorrect assessment of the situation and capabilities of Germany, the adventurism of the plans of the Kaiser. In particular, the Kaiser was sure that in Russia, immediately after its entry into the war, a revolution would occur.

      The defeat was the result of the failure of a distinct pre-war strategic planning and the entry into force of the strategy of starvation - the opponents' resources were not comparable. Naturally, a revolution will immediately take place in Russia - the Kaiser did not know. But brought closer as they could)
      Entente allies from the very beginning assigned Russia an auxiliary role and used the Russian army to divert German troops from the Western Front in the most difficult moments as they wanted

      No, France understood that she could not stand alone. England attached great importance to the alliance with Russia, since it understood that France, even with the help of the British expeditionary army, could not resist the German ground forces. The pre-war meetings of the chiefs of the General Staffs resolved particular questions and settled down the details.
      In fact, the Russian army fought for interests alien to Russia.

      In fact, the Russian army fought against German hegemony in Europe. So as not to be left alone with the whole machine of the German bloc after the defeat of the allies. And also to solve a number of important tasks for the state.
      1. iouris
        iouris April 7 2018 14: 42
        +3
        Quote: soldier
        In fact, the Russian army fought against German hegemony in Europe.

        In fact, Germany "fought for its hegemony." Russia was firmly tied with debt to France and its interests, primarily related to Alsace and Lorraine.
        Great Britain until the last moment “remained neutral” and the Kaiser was sure that England would not enter the war.
        The wife of the German ambassador warned of an imminent revolution at a farewell dinner when the ambassador left after the declaration of war. She asked those present to leave Russia as soon as possible. It must be borne in mind that the aristocrats throughout Europe were closely acquainted, or even relatives. This was especially true for Russia and Germany. In Russia, the Empress was called the German Empress’s granddaughter of the Queen of Great Britain. The ambassadors of Britain and France also pointed to the danger of revolution and the need for reform.
        Emperor Nicholas II did not want a war, but after the attack of Austria-Hungary on Yugoslavia, he was forced to declare a mobilization, which he even tried to suspend in order to avoid a war with Germany, which stood on the side of Austria-Hungary.
        "A number of important tasks for the state" was the carrot that carries the donkey. The unresolved land issue so far did not allow Russia to win the war, because the Russian peasants had to fight for these "tasks".
        1. soldier
          soldier April 7 2018 15: 03
          +15
          after the attack of Austria-Hungary on Yugoslavia,

          after this phrase we’ll talk about something else? When did Yugoslavia appear?
          and the rest
          In fact,

          also - not really
          1. iouris
            iouris April 7 2018 15: 25
            0
            Mentioned, of course, on Serbia.
      2. Monarchist
        Monarchist April 7 2018 17: 22
        0
        To the soldier. Perhaps you can already look at that alignment.
  11. Some kind of compote
    Some kind of compote April 7 2018 13: 41
    +15
    A very interesting article about an outstanding figure in Russian military history
    Capacitively, convincingly, interesting.
    Respect for the author
    Fine good
    1. ccsr
      ccsr April 7 2018 14: 13
      +2
      Quote: Some kind of Compote
      A very interesting article about an outstanding figure in Russian military history

      By the way, about the authority of Nikolai Nikolayevich in the guard is well described in the Notes of the cuirassier by Trubetskoy - it tells how he conducted exercises under Peter in the Krasnoselsky camps.
  12. antivirus
    antivirus April 7 2018 14: 29
    +1
    The first is the withdrawal of armies to the Bug River. This led to the abandonment of the Advanced Theater - Russian Poland. Not a planned evacuation - but a quick abandonment with the loss of huge resources. One doesn’t have to prove - what harmful consequences would such a decision have for the country and the army.

    THERE WHERE ROOTS LEAVES (WHERE WAS BORN) THOUGHT "THE RKKA WASHER BLOOD, WHILE THE INDUSTRY was EVACUATED" -
  13. Monarchist
    Monarchist April 7 2018 16: 08
    +3
    Quote: Cartalon
    It’s not even funny, a man completely failed his task and is ultimately removed from his post.

    I did not know that PMV amuses you.
    In my opinion, the author correctly pointed out the most noticeable milestones of the WWII.
    Foch had a lot of fanabury, but he recognized the strategic thinking of vk.
    1. Cartalon
      Cartalon April 7 2018 19: 02
      0
      And what does Fosh have to do with it, maybe he is not a great strategist, but he did his job in 1914 and 1918, and the hero of this article failed.
      1. soldier
        soldier April 7 2018 19: 20
        +15
        Foch at the same time - that recognizes the strategic merits of the Grand Duke.
        1. Cartalon
          Cartalon April 7 2018 23: 01
          0
          The Grand Duke was very popular with the French, as he wanted to invade Berlin without fail, this exactly corresponded to the French strategy.
          1. soldier
            soldier April 8 2018 08: 27
            +15
            The Grand Duke was very popular with the French, as he wanted to invade Berlin without fail, this exactly corresponded to the French strategy.

            Lyrics.
            And the fact that V.K. - a fact.
  14. Monarchist
    Monarchist April 7 2018 16: 38
    0
    Quote: iouris
    Quote: “And it is obvious that in many ways the basis of the German world losing the First World War ...” End of quote.
    “Obviously” is not something that “can be seen”, but that which the author is able to prove on demand.
    1) About the "German world". The union of the "central powers" included Turkey, Bulgaria, Italy (at the end of the war, Italy crossed over to the Entente).
    2) About the reasons for the defeat. The defeat of Germany was a natural result of an incorrect assessment of the situation and capabilities of Germany, the adventurism of the plans of the Kaiser. In particular, the Kaiser was sure that in Russia, immediately after its entry into the war, a revolution would occur.
    3) About the subjective factor. Entente allies from the very beginning assigned Russia a supporting role and used the Russian army to divert German troops from the Western Front in the most difficult moments as they wanted. To this end, Republican France’s Ambassador Paleolog and Buchanan’s British Ambassador worked very closely with leaders of the Duma parties, key government ministers and the aristocracy, including members of the imperial family. In fact, the Russian army fought for interests alien to Russia. Leadership decisions led. Prince N.N. Romanova, as well as the successes of the Russian army, attributed exclusively to Brusilov, could not play the role of the main factor in the victory of the Entente in the war. In addition, the emperor ultimately set aside the vel. Prince N.N. Romanov and assumed an exclusive role in the leadership of the state and the army, then the February Revolution, the October Revolution, the Civil War took place in Russia ...
    Regardless of the result, the catastrophe to which Russia’s ruling circles brought Russia led. Prince N.N. Romanov can be attributed to the outstanding military and statesmen of Russia.

    But this is how it is: the military commander was a strong-willed man, and a weak-willed commander is a guarantee of defeat. Nicholas 2 was henpecked, and henpecked cannot be a commander!
    1. iouris
      iouris April 8 2018 13: 08
      0
      Quote: Monarchist
      Nicholas 2 was henpecked, and henpecked cannot be a commander!

      The tragedy is that Nicholas II, the son of the suddenly died authoritarian king-peacemaker Alexander III, was not ready for the reign, but became emperor by virtue of the law on succession. In general, the general direction of domestic politics in his reign is characterized as reactionary. The inability of the emperor to implement long overdue reforms in the interests of the national bourgeoisie, but especially the peasantry, led to such consequences. The only possibility of changing the nature of government was the transition to a constitutional monarchy, which was incompatible with the ideas of the emperor and, especially, the empress, who most consistently expressed the interests of the narrow ruling class of the aristocracy, practically unlimited by any laws. The complete elimination of the king - the core of the political system - inevitably led to the collapse of the state. This is the relevance of studying this period in the history of Russia.
  15. Rotmistr
    Rotmistr April 7 2018 17: 04
    +15
    The Romanov dynasty gave the Russian Army PMV 2 worthy Supreme Commanders: Grand Duke Nikolai Nikolaevich and Sovereign Emperor Nicholas II.
    Not the Suvorovs, of course, and who could boast of the Suvorovs in those years?
    They did a lot - at different stages of their commands. Nikolai Nikolaevich - during the Battle of Galicia, Warsaw-Ivangorod operations, Nicholas II during the Vilna operation, etc.
    We thought about the army, about victory. Well, of course life imposed corrections.
    Super that we remember about wonderful people - the stars of Russian military history. hi
    1. Cartalon
      Cartalon April 7 2018 18: 58
      +2
      Yeah, super commanders, men of rati and council, the empire is true about **** and, and so did everything right.
      1. soldier
        soldier April 7 2018 19: 16
        +15
        Is the commander and statesman an equal sign?
        1. Cartalon
          Cartalon April 7 2018 22: 57
          0
          And they were not generals, the emperor listened to reports, and his uncle dreamed about a deep invasion of Germany.
          1. soldier
            soldier April 8 2018 08: 30
            +15
            So you put an equal sign - that's why I asked
            Maybe generals and, as you say, were not.
            Only one in the 1914 campaign conducted 3 strategic counter-maneuvers, and the decisions of the second affected the turning point in the Vilna operation and the stabilization of the front. I am silent about the rest.
            1. Cartalon
              Cartalon April 8 2018 19: 00
              +1
              Once again, you are talking about three counter-maneuvers, so in Galicia the maneuver was and was victory due to the quality of troops, the numerical superiority and thoughtlessness of the Austrians at the deployment stage, and then the Austrians were allowed to leave, and then the Warsaw operation the Germans escaped under attack, Lodz was a draw in at best, the rest of the Grand Duke’s deed is failure.
              1. soldier
                soldier April 8 2018 19: 08
                +15
                Counter-maneuver in Galicia - because the reserves were destined for another direction
                And they went to the northern flank of the Battle of Galicia.
                No failures - 3 strategic counter-maneuvers are super.
                1. soldier
                  soldier April 8 2018 20: 04
                  +15
                  You are completely right Soldier
                  In the Warsaw-Ivangorod operation, "The creative approach in the implementation of the operational maneuver clearly characterized the Russian commander in chief. It also concerned the coordination of the activities of the two fronts."
                  G. Korolkov noted: “In this battle, the last resistance of the units of the allies (Austro-Germans) that carried out the so-called 1st gene attack was broken. Hindenburg to Poland. The success achieved by the Russians was caused by the systematic development of the battle using rounds and actions on the enemy’s flanks. ”
                  And Soviet military experts in the Collection of Documents wrote in the preface: “The positive side of the work of the Russian command was a fairly timely castling of large forces to the north. The German command was aimed at providing quick assistance to the defeated Austro-Hungarian troops, but in fulfilling their plan, the tasks of the 9th German army were expanded to capture Warsaw and consolidate on the Middle Vistula, which with cash was an unconditional adventure, designed only for the slowness of the Russian command, managed this time to oppose the Germans with a more complete plan of operation. "
                  And they understood right away, and the fact that, as noted above by the strategist Kartalon, the Germans “escaped from the blow” (far from all)) - this is a sign of the quality and beauty of the counter-maneuver. Yu. N. Danilov noted: “We undoubtedly gained a very large strategic victory over our opponents. The strategy did its job so brightly that the Germans did not dare to take a decisive battle. ”
                  Lodz was possibly surrounded by the 2nd Army - and it turned out to be the environment of the Germans and, ultimately, a draw.
                  Well, the battle of Galicia is a classic. The Russian high command was able to properly manage the reserves, forming the 9th army, and introducing it into battle on the northern front of the battle. Thus, the historian of the Battle A. Beloy noted the timeliness of the "railway maneuver carried out by the Russian supreme high command." Concentrating the 9th Army (the Guards, 1st and 18th Army Corps) in the Warsaw area as a reserve, which could, having gone on the offensive along the left bank of the Vistula, help the armies of the North-Western Front to overcome the barrier of German fortresses on the Lower Vistula , the Russian high command, in connection with the unsuccessful turn of affairs on the Southwestern Front, turned the railway echelons going to the 9th army onto the right flank of the 4th army in the Lublin region, which allowed overcoming the negative situation on the northern front of the Battle of Galicia.
                  While the Germans abandoned their ally.
          2. iouris
            iouris April 8 2018 18: 48
            0
            War (armed struggle) is a special technology. The war is waged by the state. "Leader" is a military politician and manager who develops, tests and applies in practice the most effective methods and methods for solving the problems of armed struggle, based on the available resources and capabilities of the state. During the war, all the possibilities and resources of the state come at the disposal of the commander in chief. But in peacetime, the commander-in-chief should also engage in raising the mobilization capabilities of the state.
            After all, someone before the First World War and during the war solved these issues? Russia did not win the war due to internal reasons, but in February 1917 the front was outside the borders of the Russian Federation, and, for example, in Turkey, troops occupied Trebizond and united with the British in the upper Euphrates.
            1. Cartalon
              Cartalon April 8 2018 18: 54
              0
              Outside say, well then, I won’t argue, but look at the map at your leisure, where are the limits and where is the front.
  16. Serg65
    Serg65 April 7 2018 17: 30
    +2
    soldier,
    Quote: soldier
    And what does the favorite of Stalin?

    Sorry, hoping for your logic to go too far ...... it didn’t work ...
    1. soldier
      soldier April 7 2018 17: 34
      +15
      Yes, what is the logic here)
      The complete lack thereof.
      Let’s ask then - how do you feel about Attila? This is not a difficult question?
      1. Cartalon
        Cartalon April 7 2018 18: 59
        0
        With great interest, sorry for a little sensible information on it.
        1. soldier
          soldier April 7 2018 19: 15
          +15
          Are you responsible for me as Attila as Serg65?
  17. Monarchist
    Monarchist April 7 2018 19: 05
    0
    The author touched on a sensitive topic: attitude to V.K.Nikalay Nikolaevich. For a long time, they tried to talk less about WWI, and if they did, they critically evaluated the Russian command: all the generals were mediocrity and only Brusilov was good (recognized the Soviet government), and then it suddenly became clear that the Russian Commander-in-Chief was a strong-willed person and possessed strategic thinking. It causes irritation and srach begins: bad - good. I am not a professional historian and not a military specialist, but a “couch” and I will try to evaluate it from my couch. If we compare the will of Nikolai Nikolaevich and Nikolai, 2 heaven and earth. Dear critics, agree with this? Now further: the Russian cavalry before the WWII and during the war was BETTER, and this is the great merit of V.K. and the author speaks about this. Critics, admit that the Russian cavalry was higher than that of others?
    In 1914, the RIA several times “clicked on the nose” of Hindenburg, and in the Second World War, if you look at the opposite picture, but this is a separate issue. If historians recognize the talent: Hindenburg, Foch, it will be appropriate to admit that Nikolai Nikolaevich was at least no worse than them. So it will be fair.
    1. ccsr
      ccsr April 7 2018 21: 35
      0
      Quote: Monarchist
      Now further: the Russian cavalry in front of the WWII and during the war was BETTER, and this is the great merit of V.K. and the author speaks about this. Critics, admit that the Russian cavalry was higher than that of others?

      Indeed, the Russian cavalry was the best, and it was precisely thanks to the efforts of Nikolai Nikolaevich. By the way, Ignatyev, as a professional military man, was surprised at the poor preparation of the French cavalry, which was described in his famous book, which describes the difference in the training and preparation of the cavalry of the two countries. So we have something to be proud of, and without any stretch.
  18. Black joe
    Black joe April 7 2018 19: 13
    +1
    Useful article
    Informative and interesting hi
  19. Rodent
    Rodent April 7 2018 20: 05
    +1
    A year ago, the author came out with a gorgeous series of articles about the last Sovereign as Supreme Commander
    and now about the first commander-in-chief of the Grand Duke.
    I hope the consideration of the persons of the Supreme will continue
    Well, of course, besides such types as Warrant Officer Krylenko (clique "Abram") - a parody of the commander in chief, rather the administrative manager for the dismantling of our army.
    It is significant that with the outbreak of war (!), The future commander-in-chief emigrated from Russia - and not just somewhere, but to Austria (where many others were, so to speak, idol leaders). Returning to Russia in 1915 for illegal “work” as an evader from military service until April. 1916. was in prison. From apr. 1916. sent to serve as an communications officer (!) In the 13th Finnish Rifle Regiment. He did a lot for the collapse of the Russian army. Active participant in political repression in the USSR. Just retribution came to him only in 1938.
    though such a glory to God was one and only fleeting. About him is not necessary, about the rest - with pleasure.
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