“The flight of the people from state power
made all the content of the people stories Russia ".
made all the content of the people stories Russia ".
23 March 2017 marks exactly 26 years since the death of Friedrich August von Hayek (1899 - 1992) - the great Austrian economist, philosopher, public figure and Nobel laureate 1974 of the year in economics. Friedrich von Hayek was a consistent supporter of the fundamental theory of "open society", and one of the most prominent thinkers of our recent history. Contemporaries Hayek note that he was "lucky" and he was able to see "the rise and fall of fascism, national socialism and Soviet communism."
Friedrich August von Hayek
And it was so that in the twentieth century the appearance of the economic picture of the worlds was determined by the views of only two, however, outstanding scientists: the father of a market economy, Friedrich von Hayek and Lord John Maynard Keynes, who was the founder of the foundations of state planning and interventionism in the capitalist, that is, market management.
Friedrich von Hayek believed that the main trouble of the socialists is that they always promise more to the people than they can really give, because in this case all the knowledge needed to manage their society is ultimately collected and processed by the sole authority. They do not understand, or rather do not want to understand, that modern society basically exists on the application of diffuse knowledge, which no central command structure, and especially one person, whoever it is - Duce, Führer, Caudillo, Paul Sweat, “ Baby Doc "or the general secretary, to process and use will not be able to physically. However, socialist doctrines gained great popularity after the end of the First World War, during which all the warring countries had to create a centralized military economy on the principles of administrative planning. And under these critical conditions, they did it. But when the war ended, in the same way they wanted to solve the problems of economic management and in the conditions of the coming peacetime.
So in 30-ies of the twentieth century in the economy of two schools arise. The first addressed the socialist principles in the economy and considered it necessary state control of all economic activity in the country. The second school, headed by Friedrich von Hayek, spoke out with sharp criticism of such state intervention in the economic life of the country. However, he has repeatedly argued that the requirement of equality in the material situation, in his opinion, can be achieved only by a totalitarian government, acting by the methods of the "Gestapo".
John Maynard Keynes was a representative of the Cambridge School of Economics. Friedrich von Hayek has been giving lectures at the London School of Economics since 1931, including lectures on the most pressing issue of the time, the Great Depression.
In 1935, he published the book "Collectivistic Economic Planning: A Critical Study of the Possibilities of Socialism." The answer to it was the book by John Maynard Keynes, published in 1936: "The General Theory of Employment, Income, and Money." One of the historians of the time wrote about the theory presented in it as follows: “The fact that Keynes’s economic system offered a painless solution to difficult problems and was politically possible guaranteed its popularity; all collectivists, socialists, liberals, and even conservatives like Macmilan were quick to accept it ... To defy Keynes's theory, it was necessary to be reactionary and, as they said, adamant.
Friedrich von Hayek responded to her with The Road to Slavery, published in 1944, and brought world renown to Friedrich von Hayek. The book was translated into 20 countries of the world, and in the USSR it was published in 1983 year.
W. Churchill was very pleased with the ideas of “The Road to Slavery”, and he constantly repeated to his ideological opponents, the Laborites, that socialism was somehow connected with totalitarianism and contemptible worship of the state. He even made a speech, which was called "Speech about the Gestapo".
Nevertheless, it was not he who won the 1945 election, but the Labor Party Clement Attley, who promised the British full employment for the entire population. During the period from 1945 to 1951, a wave of nationalization passed in Great Britain: the English bank was nationalized and such industries as coal, civil aviationTelecommunications, transport, electric energy companies, gas and mining companies, and iron and steel are just all of the British industries where many millions of English workers worked.
And although full employment could not be achieved anyway, Keynes’s theory became dominant in many countries of the world for many years. Hayek responded by creating the Mont Pelerin Society in 1947, which gave the world such Nobel Prize winners and public figures like Karl Popper, Milton Friedman and Ludwig Erhard - the creator of the economic miracle in Germany and subsequently the German Chancellor from 1963 to 1966 a year.
In the 1950 year, Friedrich von Hayek became a professor at the University of Chicago, where he worked until the 1962 year. Here he wrote the book The Constitution of Freedom (1960), which was published on the eve of the celebration of the 100 summer anniversary since the writing of the book On Freedom by the great nineteenth-century English philosopher John Stuart Mill (1806 - 1873).
People do not like to think, much less follow the advice of smart people, because most of them themselves are profoundly ignorant. But even such people by the 70-th years of the twentieth century began to notice that in all countries with a centralized economy, inflation suddenly jumped from something, and the promised decrease, and significant unemployment, did not happen to everyone. . The works of Friedrich von Hayek were immediately in demand by M. Thatcher’s administration in England and the R. Reagan government in the USA, which, according to Hayek’s recommendations, began to reduce government spending, abolished government control in the economy and chose to limit the monopolistic influence of trade unions.
In 1991, the longstanding work of Friedrich von Hayek was awarded the Medal of Freedom, the highest and honorable US civilian award. 1988 revealed his work in three volumes: “Law, Legislation and Freedom,” which explored the legal norms necessary to maintain and develop a free society. In the conditions of high inflation and equally high taxation, it is this book that provides intellectual support for market reforms and gives grounds for an optimistic view of the modern industrial development of society. The latest work of Friedrich von Hayek was published in 1988, the work "Pernicious arrogance - the intellectual error of socialism."
Friedrich von Hayek 23 died on March 1992 of the year on the 93 year of life in the city of Freiburg-Breisgau, having managed to see the collapse of the Berlin Wall, the long-awaited unification of Germany and the decline of the era of world communism. Hayek personally observed the dismantling of the Berlin Wall and, as his relatives said, very much wanted to visit Moscow.
But the main result of the work of Friedrich von Hayek was a convincing victory over Keynes, which showed the advantage of decentralizing the economy, the victory of self-organizing synergistic systems of spontaneous order over any state control in public life. He proved that public order in a civilized society can be carried out without administrative coercion and orders from above. Well, the fall of the socialist economic system took place in the eyes of millions of people, and they all saw the truth of the ideas of Friedrich von Hayek.
In the era that followed the collapse of the Berlin Wall, Hayek’s ideas for a transitional period in Russia, no longer socialist, but not yet fully market-oriented, are more than relevant. The fact is that the main enemy for modern Russia, as well as for Russia after 1861, was the fear of a developing new capitalist economy and nostalgia that arose on its basis for the old communist regime. It is obvious that today we are encountering an increasing number of attempts to discredit the market economy and the fundamental principles of a democratic social order. It is conducted both with the aim of justifying the well-known policy of the "Red Terror" and the state non-economic coercion to free, in fact, labor. It seems to many, and perhaps not only it seems that they see the dangerous features of the country's return to the 30-s of the 20th century - a period which, by the way, has already received in scientific literature the interesting name of “feudal socialism”.
At that time, the country's economy was characterized by undeveloped trade relations, surrogate money, patriarchal and semi-patriarchal economic relations, barter and barter, as well as government regulation and pronounced state patriotism, which A. Bogdanov had warned about in his novel Red Star. Well, the ideology of state power, or rather, its foundation was the Russian Orthodox idea of the nineteenth century. It is an idea at the level of belief in “holy communism”, because even its economic theory never really existed. The only person in the USSR who dared, by the way, to write “The Political Economy of Communism” was the Chairman of the USSR State Planning Committee N. Voznesensky, who was shot in 1949 for the “Leningrad Affair”.
Well, manipulation, and very ineptly, with public opinion with the aim of unattainable “unanimity”, significant ideological (and inevitable) demoralization of society, as well as the presence of a purely military manic-depressive syndrome in many respects cause the opposition of the government and society. Recently, there was an interesting piece of information on the fact that the government today is betting on large monopolies, that one thing is possible, while others just can't do anything. But about this at one time wrote Hayek. “Each has a special place: one is given to dominate, the other is to obey,” he noted. The spontaneous nature of economic relations is being replaced by a “vertical of power” in the form of the military organization of the state, which, as we know, is easiest to manage. The purpose of this economy is not the prosperity of the citizens of the country, but “economic security”. The spirit of enterprise begins to be replaced by the heroic spirit of the nation, which is vividly illustrated by the articles about the “legendary Hyberbore”, the homeland of the “great rusas”, the Egyptian pyramids in which the Slavic princes are buried, and the bearded god Quetzalcoatle, certainly Russian, sailed to sea from the sea. Kon-Tiki is also bearded, and, consequently, he was an ancient Rus!
However, Hayek poses an interesting question, why is this and “why are people so indulgent to pressure from the state and so mistrustful of the market?” Why don't they raise the question of the need to limit the power of officials in the country? Why aren’t laws restricting government functions, as many European countries have done? After all, everyone understands that it is impossible to live in a society where de facto capitalism exists, and de jure is still largely socialism.
But here again, thanks to the scientific work of Hayek, we have three imperatives of social progress: free movement of capital (“economic freedom”), protection of private property and private entrepreneurship, ensuring the realization of personal capabilities of a person for his productive work, as well as the desire use their individual freedom as a means of their own development. As a result of the adoption of such imperatives and the market reconstruction of the old state social mechanism, a system of laws of “self-organizing” or “spontaneous order” based on the principles of a free-market market economy will be created and begin to work stably.
Friedrich von Hayek was optimistic about the collapse of the Berlin Wall and thought that once people would feel the taste of freedom and prosperity and would like to preserve for themselves the freedom of spontaneous social order based on the power of private property. Hayek's life is an example of selfless service to an open society, so that people themselves can understand the simple truth that their own freedom and well-being depend only on themselves. And this is the only way to overcome corruption in the upper echelons of power, and not with the help of satellite photos.
However, our people were no less talented, including such a philosopher as Nikolai Aleksandrovich Berdyaev. He proposed to “formalize” the territory of Russia, i.e. evaluate the entire land of the country in monetary terms. In the future, he believed, it was impossible to interfere with the sale of land, including land, through the Commodity and Raw Materials Exchange, which would allow the market to monitor the circulation of land as a commodity. Land should be sold, and not distributed to the population of one hectare. Berdyaev believed that literally everything was subject to counting and counting: forests, water, mineral resources, land, and what was on the ground or in water. And from here there is only one step for such a profitable society and prospective taxation on resources, when those who enrich themselves from the sale of natural resources pay maximum taxes, and those who are straining their mind, no matter how much they get, pay only for renting a room. This is just where the “gold mine” is for Russians ’rich in talents, new Kulibins and Kalashnikovs! It should also agree with N.A. Berdyaev, that only the land market can ensure a stable paper-money emission and allow a maximum increase in the amount of money in circulation in the country. Capitalization of the state, as the total capitalization of national enterprises, includes, first of all, the value of the land on which the enterprises are located. And this is practically all that needs to be done in order for the economic miracle of 1913 of the year to be repeated right before our eyes.