In the battles with the Nazi invaders, Soviet soldiers showed samples of military skill. And now, after 66 years after the end of World War II, one of the most important sections of the combat training of the Russian Armed Forces is the improvement of the intelligence activities of the troops.
Two combat rules must always remember the commander involved in the tactical training of his unit. First: in a war, troops have no right to take a single step without intelligence. Secondly, intelligence activities are by no means a monopoly of special units. On the contrary, all battalions, companies, platoons on the front line, on the march, participating in the breakthrough of the enemy defense, perform reconnaissance functions.
Purposeful, active, continuous intelligence should precede each battle, each operation. Intelligence does not stop during the battle. You can be a master of tactics, you can have a numerical superiority over the enemy, but without knowing his strength and capabilities, you can not achieve victory in battle, you can not break and destroy the enemy.
“Never neglect the enemy, but study his troops, his methods of action, learn his strengths and weaknesses,” the Russian commander A.V. Suvorov demanded from his troops as early as the end of the 18th century.
The great importance of intelligence indicates история all past wars. The same situation is indisputably confirmed by the combat experience of the Great Patriotic War. In this war, which is characterized by large maneuverable battles and battles, high mobility of the troops and the use of numerous technical means of combat, the importance of reconnaissance increased unusually. At the end of 1944, Colonel K. G. Andreev, senior officer of the 3-th Ukrainian Front of the Guard, spoke in the front press with his considerable military experience gained in military intelligence. He also highlighted the work of the reconnaissance units of one of the most famous formations of the Red Army - the 1 Guards Mechanized Corps, which is undoubtedly of interest to specialists even today, since many of the problems characteristic of army intelligence officers at that time are as relevant as today. for reconnaissance units and subdivisions of the Russian army, as well as for special purpose units and special services of special services and law enforcement agencies carrying their difficult troop service bu.
KG Andreev noted that intelligence is first of all an area of daring, an area of the most active and sudden actions, military tricks. Without the use of these properties, it is impossible to successfully solve any, even the simplest intelligence task.
That is why the specialty of a reconnaissance fighter is the hardest and most complex of all military specialties. No one in war has to overcome more difficulties than a scout. He must possess exceptional energy, endurance, resourcefulness, high political and moral qualities. No danger, no matter how serious, can stop it and does not stop it.
“A scout is a person of strong will, keen eyes and fine hearing,” Colonel Andreev wrote in his review. “He will not succeed without courage.” Acting in the enemy's disposition, he risks his life every second.
The combat activities of Soviet intelligence officers are diverse and complex. Day and night they observe. To capture the prisoners, they undertake the most difficult, risky night and day searches, organize ambushes in the enemy's location, smash enemy headquarters with bold raids, seizing operational documents.
In order to disrupt control, create panic in the enemy’s rear and inflict the greatest possible losses in manpower and equipment, our reconnaissance forces often make deep raids on enemy backs; they mine roads, blow up bridges, destroy communications, warehouses and the material part of the enemy, destroy thousands of hated invaders.
Intelligence by observation requires high qualification, great ingenuity and resourcefulness from observers.
So, an intelligence observer should have a tactical sense. Like a photographic plate, he instantly captures and fixes in his memory everything that his armed and unaided eye sees. In the future, this information is summarized, and conclusions are drawn from it. All day long, from early morning until late at night, thousands of Soviet intelligence observers, armed with optical means — binoculars, a periscope, a stereo tube — often under artillery, mortar and machine-gun fire, directly in the first line of trenches or behind enemy lines, are continuously observation of the enemy, identify and clarify the location of his fire weapons and the system of barriers, closely and vigilantly monitor all his movements. At nightfall, the work of observers does not stop. Thousands of them go on night raids and searches directly to the enemy's lair and by ear clarify the data of day observation, reveal in more detail the system of obstacles and the location of firing points, monitor the night regrouping of enemy troops.
According to the observation, which at times seems, at first glance, unimportant, insignificant, our command often has the opportunity to draw conclusions about the intentions and preparations of the enemy. ”
Andreev gives a number of examples of the selfless combat activities of the Soviet intelligence officers, which they conducted during the war years.
Senior Sergeant Potters for several days noticed that five horses graze on the glade, one of whom was sivaya. On another nearby site, the scouts saw a gangly German in yellow trousers appearing at the dugout every day. The fighters called him a “crane” and asked the snipers not to touch the “conspicuous” German.
The presence of the gray horse and the “crane” in this area of defense for a long time gave reason for our command to conclude that the Germans did not change their part here.
The observer Gregory Plutanov, day and night, secretly advanced beyond the leading edge and, ignoring enemy fire, conducted observation in the immediate vicinity of the enemy. It is not clear when this brave scout slept, since he continuously reported his reports over the phone for 24 hours. He then caused artillery fire on enemy firing points he had discovered, then he warned about a counterattack, then he reported movements on the enemy's line.
Or another scout Chekarkov. He is a very quiet person, and his specialty is “quiet”: the observer is at the forefront.
In the observation log he notes: “In the afternoon I heard the sound of one saw. At night - a few. At dawn, they sawed again for about three hours, but it wasn’t heard so that it was pricked. In his report, he concludes: “It is clear that the Germans were not collecting firewood, but logs, which means that they are planning to build a new DZOT. And why should he, when the old lot. Surely replenishment waiting. "
The most common method of action by scouts is the search, which is undertaken to capture control prisoners and documents, identify fire weapons and a fire system on the front edge of the enemy, all kinds of obstacles, intermediate defensive lines in the enemy’s location, identify the area of its tactical reserves and their combat strength etc. The seizure of the “tongue” in the search is not only bold and risky, but also very painstaking. However, our intelligence officers have learned to work not according to a pattern and systematically capture the “language” with a variety of methods. In one case, they search or organize an ambush at the front line, in the other, with the support of our artillery, they shortly burst into the enemy's position; Often they undertake a deep raid on the enemy’s rear, make raids on headquarters, etc.
It is estimated that on the 3 of the Ukrainian Front, intelligence officers conduct 40 – 60 reconnaissance operations during the day. No wonder they are jokingly called "linguists."
Nikolay Patashev is a fearless and talented scout. He began his combat life in the ranks of the Red Army with a sapper. More than once he had to act together with the scouts, making passages for them in the wire and minefields of the enemy. And often, having completed his task, Patashev “spontaneously” found himself in the capture group and acted together with the scouts. So gradually he became an experienced intelligence officer.
Once Patashev with a group of sappers had to make a passage in the enemy’s barriers. At nightfall, Patashev crawled to a wire fence; the sappers quickly made the passage and gave the scouts a signal of its readiness. But our scouts did not have time to rise for a throw, as the enemy noticed them and opened heavy fire. Scouts lay down. The senior intelligence group gave the order to stop the search and move away. Sappers also signaled a departure. During the retreat, Patashev noticed a German soldier in a trench. Using a short break in the enemy's fire, Patashev rushed to the German trench. The hour was taken aback; he did not have time to raise the rifle, as Patashev sent his scissors straight into the enemy's nose, forcing him to drop weapon and raise your hands. One, without any help, armed only with scissors for cutting the wire, Patashev captured the “tongue”. A brave soldier was so fascinated by intelligence that he decided to become a professional intelligence officer. For a long time he had to petition for his transfer to the intelligence unit. But he got his way. Soon, Patashev and his comrades Fedorov, Deniskin and Nalyagach made up the combat reconnaissance group and gained the fame of the intrepid reconnaissance, who are always sure to be in effect.
In the area of Makhotkina’s farm, our command was unclear about enemy grouping. In order to define it, it was necessary to capture the "language". Searches undertaken for this purpose for several days were unsuccessful. Then this task was assigned to Patashev. He conducted thorough training, hunted down the German post, and one night, secretly making his way to the post, quietly captured the sentry and took him to headquarters.
Deservedly received the title of master of intelligence junior commander Nikolai Vavilov. His favorite method is to sneak into the enemy’s position and, from the rear, seize the “tongue” in enemy trenches. Vavilov was able not only to capture the “tongue” at lightning speed and covertly, but also to master the enemy defenses skillfully.
He was very persistent in battle, stubborn and persistent in achieving the goal. To accomplish the task Vavilov used all his cunning and ingenuity.
Once the Germans discovered the reconnaissance group headed by Vavilov, still at the initial position. If a less energetic scout had been in his place, he would have hopelessly waved his hand and turned it back. But this is not Vavilov. He ordered the two scouts to move to the side of the main group and to capture the attention of the Germans with his fire.
Engaged in a shootout, the Germans did not notice how the adventurous scout dodged in the other direction, went out to the rear of the Nazis, climbed the trench to a height and captured the "language".
Where necessary, Vavilov showed boldness - one of the most essential qualities of the Soviet intelligence officer. Vavilov in intelligence is bold, adventurous and observant. These qualities he brought up in his fighters, who, trying to imitate their commander, acted decisively, slyly and initiatively, without fear in the fight against the enemy.
Private Silaev, one of the most experienced and experienced scouts, is in special account with the command. In intelligence, in order to obtain any data, he often used his special tricks and methods of deceiving the enemy.
Once, Silaev was given the task of identifying enemy firing points in one of the sectors in front of which our rifle company was defending. When he came to the company, Silaev learned that only one machine gun had been seen in front of the front of the company for all the time, so Germans were careful. He himself watched for several hours, but also did not notice anything. Then he decided to force the Germans themselves to reveal their system of fire.
At nightfall, Silaev crawled up to the German wire and opened fire with a machine gun. However, the Germans did not respond. On this night, Silaev did not achieve any results. But in the morning he made a firm decision to outwit the Germans. It was then that he was helped by the trick that everyone needs in war, but to the intelligence officer most of all.
Together with two fighters, Silaev built a scarecrow from branches and grass during the day and strung them on a rope with an interval of 5 – 6 meters. When it got dark, Silaev, along with one of his comrades, moved out of our wire fence, put the stuffed animals on the field, and themselves, sitting at the ends of the rope, took refuge in the previously dug ruts and began to wait for the Germans to launch rockets.
The night was dark. But finally a rocket broke out and lit up the whole area. Silaev pulled the end of the rope, and stuffed "lay down." The rocket rose again, and again the same method was repeated with the stuffed animals. This time the Germans noticed them. Outbreaks of missiles increased. Opened heavy machine and light machine guns. Talked mortars and machine guns. The entire front edge of the enemy defense came to life. That was what the scouts needed. The task has been completed.
Often, scouts have to conduct night searches in very difficult conditions. But the difficulties, no matter how great, never stopped our fighters.
Thus, in the area of the settlement of Bucany, the enemy, who had been in the defense for about 18 months, installed minefields and wire barriers, and the system of machine-gun and mortar fire was thought out by him very carefully. All attempts of our scouts to capture a control prisoner for a long time did not lead to success. However, in the end, the problem was solved thanks to the wit of our courageous intelligence officers.
An experienced and dedicated intelligence officer, the corporal Gusev, took up the capture of the prisoner. He considered the situation for a long time. Finally, he proposed to the command the following plan: to dig a tunnel under the wire and minefields of the enemy.
On long nights, Gusev, along with other scouts, patiently and silently dug a tunnel. And the time has come when the tunnel was dug. The next night, Gusev with a group of scouts crawled through a tunnel and went out through a window near a German machine gun. The Germans were confused. They could not assume that the Russian intelligence officers could appear in this place.
Using the confusion of the enemy and the panic that had arisen in its ranks, the scouts immediately threw residential dugouts and dugouts with grenades, captured two prisoners and destroyed 25 enemy soldiers and officers. Returning in the same way and not suffering losses, the intelligence officers brought to their headquarters two prisoners who gave valuable testimony.
Often, our scouts commit attacks on enemy headquarters and command posts in order to capture important operational documents, maps with the situation, ciphers, etc. It is extremely tempting to obtain from the original source information about the enemy’s intentions and location of his forces. As a result, thanks to audacious reconnaissance operations, our command receives genuine, extremely valuable documents of the enemy.
So, for example, a small group of scouts led by senior sergeant R. Eskolin, a native of North Karelia who knew Finnish perfectly, went out into a dark, damp night by a deaf forest path to the village. Crawling on the wet, cold, sticky ground, the scouts reached the fence at the beginning of the street.
With him, Eskolin took two fighters, ordered the others to wait for the signal and for the time being not to move.
The scouts secretly approached a small house with a thin strip of light breaking through a curtained window. A guard stood motionless on the porch. The scout turned sharply to the left, slipped past the sentry and hid behind the house. Soon the sentry went around the house. He went straight to Silence. Holding his breath, the scout pressed tightly against the wall. Then he quickly darted and thrust his knife into the enemy's throat. Sentinel soundless ass. After one or two minutes, the Soviet intelligence officers broke into the house, where three officers sat at a table on which documents were laid out ...
After a few minutes, the scouts again walked through the dark, more often Karelian forest, escorting three captured enemy officers. In addition, the scouts carried in the bag all operational documents captured at this headquarters.
Once, Lieutenant Nikiforov received a task from the commander of a unit — to penetrate the village at night and establish what enemy forces are located in this village and what he intends to undertake.
In the evening, the scouts set off. Along the way was to force the river. At nightfall, the enemy watered the river with lead fire. But a group of scouts Lieutenant Nikiforova successfully overcame this zone of fire. When the scouts approached the village, they found a watchman in the garden, whom they skillfully and silently removed.
Our soldiers entered the village, in every house of which there was an enemy. In one house there was a light. The scouts secretly moved into the light. On the way to this house they found telephone wires. There was no doubt - the enemy headquarters was located there.
Sergeant Vanakov cautiously approached the window and looked into it. Four drunken German officers were sitting at the table. Soon grenades flew through the windows of the house where the headquarters were located. The glass jangled, the lights went out. Leaving Bondarenko under the windows, Vanakov rushed into the house. The Nazis were lying dead. Vanakov quickly removed two field bags from the killed officers, took out documents from the table, took the briefcase full of papers, and jumped out into the street. By this time, Lieutenant Nikiforov had jumped out of another house with several soldiers. He also captured documents. Without a moment's delay, the scouts began to retreat.
The documents were very valuable for the command of this sector of the front.
In September, 1943 of the year, in one of the southern sectors of the front, the reconnaissance officers of the 2 Guards Mechanized Brigade learned that the command post of the enemy unit was located in Andreevka.
A group of intelligence officers at 12, a man under the command of Senior Sergeant Maluha, was given the task of defeating this command post and seizing the staff documents and enemy officers.
Senior sergeant Malukha, having traveled several kilometers along enemy lines with scouts, skillfully and covertly led the group to the village of Andreyevka. Having penetrated into the village, the scouts established the location of the enemy command post, crept up to it, killed the commander of the unit and took away the briefcase with his documents.
Among the captured documents there were various maps with the situation, including maps on which the positions in the defense of the 16th units were plotted tank and the 125th Infantry Divisions, the calculation of the combat strength of these divisions and various important correspondence. Based on these documents, it was possible to completely reveal the group of enemy units defending the northern sector of the Zaporizhzhya bridgehead on the left bank of the Dnieper River.
Our command immediately used this data and soon successfully eliminated the entire Zaporozhye foothold of the enemy.
To imagine the enormous results of the continuous combat activity of our scouts, it suffices to cite the following data.
In the 1943 year, 1 5 prisoners were captured by the 100 guards mechanized corps alone, which accounted for more than half of the combat strength of the German division. And if you add here the number of Germans killed during reconnaissance operations (which is many times higher than the number of captured), it becomes clear how the scouts selflessly performed the task of exterminating enemy manpower during the Great Patriotic War.