Military Review

Museum among museums

47
What museums are there? Ohhh, there are a lot of them and the most various directions. These are the Louvre and the Hermitage, the Metropolitan Museum and the Higgins Museum, the Royal Arsenal in Leeds and Tank Museum in Bovington, it is the Central Naval Museum in St. Petersburg and the Navalhistorical Museum of fortifications "Mikhailovskaya Battery" in Sevastopol, this is a great many local history museums in Russian cities, sometimes even in the smallest, and even in the villages, for example, Taman, and ... the same many municipal and private museums abroad. That is, people are interested in their past, their culture and all these museums, their interest in them in one way or another satisfies. There are ethnographic museums and technology museums, there are rarities museums, the same Kunstkamera in St. Petersburg, there are wine museums, a beer museum, a museum ... a museum ... a cat museum, and not even one!



National Museum of Archeology of France. A real castle, isn't it?

Nevertheless, there is one historical direction that is always somehow present in the work of any historical museum, but the main thing is only for some. This trend is archeology. We can see archaeological finds in almost every museum in our country, but they are enough, let's say, for one hall and nothing more. We also have special museums, for example, in Anapa, where archaeologists excavated ancient Gorgippia, or in Taman, where there is a small but beautifully decorated museum in the ancient city of Hermonassa, but only Athens and Cairo can boast huge collections and impressive buildings, although Many archaeological sites can be found in the British Museum and the Tokyo National Museum, which is not surprising, of course.


In spring, tulips bloom all around him.

Museum among museums

The plan of the castle museum.

However, there is a completely unique, and purely archaeological, museum in France, moreover, in just some 19 kilometers west of Paris. This is the National Museum of Archeology, which is one of the main French museums, and its exposition covers the period from prehistoric times to the Merovingian era. It is located in the Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye in Saint-Germain-en-Laye. Of course, one has to go there so that everything that is displayed there can be seen with one's own eyes, because it is difficult to convey with words all the amount of information that can be obtained. But, nevertheless, if you can try, then ... why not do this and at least mostly not try to tell about it. Moreover, archeology is a subject that interests many visitors to the VO website.


Courtyard.

To begin with, the fact that the castle of Saint-Germain was one of the most important royal residences near Paris since the XII century. After the court moved to Versailles, the castle housed a court, and then it was granted to King James II expelled from England, became a cavalry school in 1809 and finally a military prison from 1836 to 1855. By this time he was in very poor condition, and the monument of history was recognized 8 April 1863 year.


Inside the halls are impressive even by themselves.


Exposure in them to match the size of the premises.

In those years he was a real labyrinth of corridors, raised floors and temporary partitions. The castle is very dilapidated and was black with soot. Architect Eugene Millet, a student of Eugène Viollet-le-Duk, was instructed to rebuild the castle in order to transfer the National Museum of Antiquities into it, for which it was necessary first of all to dismantle all the cameras that were made there when it was used as a prison. Already in 1857, he reported that all the partitions forming the chambers had been demolished, and the castle grounds had been cleared. Construction work began in the 1862 year, and Millet set a goal to restore the castle as it was under King Francis I. The work required time and money and was completed only in the 1907 year.


The Hall of Antiquities, named after the archaeologist Edward Pietta, is a “museum in a museum”.


Showcase of ancient stone chopped.


On the left there are products made of bone, on the right - made of stone.

His first name was the Museum of Gallo-Roman Antiquities, he received in 1862 year. He then visited the “Museum of Celtic and Gallo-Roman Antiquities”, “The Museum of National Antiquities” (1879), until in 2005, he acquired his present name: “National Archaeological Museum”.


The famous "Brassempui Venus".

It should be noted that any empire is good because it allocates a relatively large amount of funds for science and art. The Second French Empire was no exception, and its epoch coincides in time with a surge of interest in archeology in France. This is not surprising: after all, the Emperor Napoleon III himself was fascinated by history and archeology, and financed the excavations. Well, the finds found needed to be stored somewhere. Therefore, 8 March 1862, Napoleon III, and signed a decree on the creation of the Gallo-Roman museum of archaeological antiquities.

In 1864, Jean-Baptiste Werscher de Refi, who was involved in the work on the museum project, proposed to the emperor a project of a “historical museum” capable of “providing historians with accurate documents about the lives of our fathers ...”, as well as engaging the industry with ancient samples and technologies. Napoleon III liked the idea, and he personally opened the first seven rooms of the 12 museum on May 1867 of the year during the Paris World Fair.

Beginning with 1936, the museum begins to create plans to save artifacts, list the most important works and prepare for their possible evacuation, which clearly indicates the foresight of the museum staff and their practical mind. Basements with vaults of 2,70 square meters were prepared as a shelter for museum staff. Wooden boxes were prepared for the transportation of collections (it was estimated that 12 trucks had to be used to remove them, but all of them were requisitioned by the army in 1938).


Traditional Gallic helmet with headphones on which three discs are printed.

24 August 1939 received an order to close the museum, after which its collections were evacuated. From 24 June 1940, the museum was occupied by German troops, which turned the exhibition hall No. XXUMX into a conference room for the German authorities in charge of Ильle-de-France. Later, the castle suffered from bombing, but, in general, survived the occupation quite successfully, and already 1 August 26, the French flag was hoisted over one of its towers. The collections were repatriated up to March 1944 of 15, but 1946 of October 2 of the year was opened to visit the museum.


The original Gallic helmet with swastikas.


"Helmet with swastikas" close-up.

By 1961, the museum exposition was recognized as obsolete and its reconstruction began. The number of rooms has been reduced to 19, the number of exhibits has decreased to ... 30 000. The new 25 museum in March 1965 was visited by Charles de Gaulle, and on 9 on April 1965, it was opened to visitors. The facades of the courtyard were renovated from 1998 to 2000 year, the rooms of the first floor (from Paleolithic to the Iron Age) were restored from 1999 to 2006 year. In total, the museum contains about 3 millions of archaeological objects, of which about 30 000 exhibited, making it one of the richest museums in Europe. These are, first of all, the finds made on the territory of France and represented by the following chronological periods: Paleolithic, Neolithic, Bronze Age, Iron Age, Roman period (Roman Gaul) and the early Middle Ages (Merovingovskaya Gaul). The comparative archaeological hall contains collections of foreign archaeological and ethnological objects. The museum represents the evolution of the genus homo starting with the skulls of homo erectus and Neanderthal.


But for some reason, the Gauls did not decorate this helmet ...


Simple Gallic helmets riveted from two halves, 1150-950 BC

Among the most famous objects of the Paleolithic collections of the museum - Venus Brassempuyskaya, found by Edouard Pietta in the Pyrenees. In his honor, 10 000 finds are exhibited in a separate room of his name. This room was re-restored and opened in 2008, in order to demonstrate the original museology of the XIX (museum in the museum!), So that it is necessary to consider not only the finds themselves, but also how they are exhibited there, or rather exhibited in the already distant from us time.


Gallic Breastplates (around 950 BC and before 780 BC).

The Neolithic (around 5800 to 2100 BC) was the second period of prehistory, the artifacts of which are presented in the museum. The population becomes settled, agriculture and cattle breeding arise, people create the first artificial materials - fabric and ceramics. For the first time an international exchange is being formed.


Bronze swords of Koban culture of the Caucasus.


The blade of the Roman dagger pugio.

In the Bronze Age (around 2100-750 BC), the society is still very similar to the Neolithic society, but the technical advances presented by the bronze metallurgy are changing the society, which is becoming more and more hierarchical.


Spines against cavalry. It was used by the Romans and ... Gauls against the Romans. They were clogged in a wooden block that was buried in the ground. This kind of spines was considered economical. weapons.


But such spikes or “garlic”, as they were called in Russia, were scattered, so a lot of them were needed and it was difficult to collect them later.


Roman kaliga - legionary sandal.

The first Iron Age (terminology adopted in France) dates back to the 780-480 era. BC, and corresponds to the culture of Hallstatt, a period characterized by the burial of the privileged part of the population in the barrows.


The roman rider - a statuette of bronze. And someone, however, still believes that horses got to Europe only after the 1492 year?


And this is a gladiator. That is, gladiator fights were also fond of Gaul. The conquered Gauls did not want to yield to the Romans.

The Second Iron Age (480 BC - the beginning of our era) is marked by the growth of the militarization of society, which takes place from the fifth century BC to the second century AD. Gauls surpass other peoples of Europe in ceramics, dishes, metallurgy (bronze and iron).


The Golden Hat is a unique type of cone-shaped product made of bronze and gold, characteristic only of the proto-Celtic culture of the fields of burial urns. Currently, there are only four such items, dating from the period from 1400 to 800 BC. er Three were found in Germany, the fourth - in 1844, far to the west - in the town of Avanton near Poitiers.

The collections of the museum show the life of the Gauls before being conquered by the Romans. The collection of Celtic art museum is one of the richest in the world.

Roman Gaul (from 52 BC to the end of the 5th century AD) was the result of the conquest of Gaul by Julius Caesar. Gaul was forcibly integrated into the Roman Empire, but benefited it. The growth of cities and the construction of public buildings began, a road network was created throughout Gaul, which has been preserved (including bridges!) And today.


Beautiful Roman mosaics.



In the six rooms of the Gallo-Roman department there are artifacts of religious content (gods, the world of the dead), the presence of the Roman army in Gaul, various types of handicrafts and household items (related to the preparation and use of food, clothing, ornament, transport, writing ...).


Completely tasteless helmet of the era of the sunset of the Empire.

The era of the Merovingians (from 5 to 6 century AD) is also reflected in the museum exhibition. From this period, numerous items decorated with garnets, items decorated with cloisonne enamel, as well as buckles from belts inlaid with silver or brass wire, have come down to us.


Here they are - buckles, which can be said: "barbaric splendor."


And this buckle is decorated with cloisonne enamel.

Because the remains of the past are silent, the archeologist sometimes attracts other humanitarian sciences, such as ethnology or sociology, to help them interpret these traces more confidently.


Umbon shield francs.

It was in this spirit that the comparative archeology of the five continents, at the beginning of the twentieth century, Henri Hubert and Marcel Mous conceived of an exposition that was supposed to illustrate the ethnographic history of Europe and humanity from the origins of man to the Middle Ages. This comparative approach was popular in the 19th and 20th centuries, and although some of the comparisons could not be seriously criticized, it turned out that it is quite applicable today. In addition, he allowed to go beyond the borders of French territory only and draw broad historical parallels.


The famous francisco francs.

In the National Archaeological Museum, this approach led to two “axes” in the exhibition. The technical achievements of a person from the Paleolithic to the Middle Ages are demonstrated on one axis of the room: stone processing, terracotta, metallurgy. The transverse axes represent the geographical division: Africa, Asia, the Middle East, Europe, America and Oceania. This approach allows us to show the similarities and differences in the evolution of cultures in different regions of the world. The visitor consistently meets the Paleolithic and Neolithic culture of Africa (Maghreb, South Africa, Ethiopia, Benin, Congo, Cote d'Ivoire, Zaire, etc.), then proceeds to the birth of civilizations of the Mediterranean basin and the Middle East (Egypt, ancient Susa , Bulgarian Thrace). Then he can compare the development and technical skills of bronze and iron metallurgists in the Caucasus and in Europe (objects from Cyprus, Greece, Italy, Spain, Hungary, Germany, Denmark, Sweden, Azerbaijan, North Ossetia, etc.). Taken from different continents, and sometimes at different times, the exhibits show a similar state of development (the transition from the hunter-gatherer to the manufacturer), or, conversely, very different forms or products (for example, there is a comparison of products from Asia and America, the findings from China, Vietnam, Japan, Malaysia, Peru, Greenland, North America, etc.).

Most of the collection came here in the First World War. The first contribution was the Scandinavian collection, proposed in 1862 by Frederick VII from Denmark. Other large collections came from the Caucasus, from the excavations at Susa (modern Iran) and in Egypt.


Another "barbaric" pin made of gold and rubies.


And these are traces of trade with Byzantium - the coin of Emperor Justinian.

Since 2014, the ethnographic collections of Pacific origin from Papua New Guinea have come back to the room.


The comparative room of archeology is located in the old ballroom of the castle, it is also called the “room of Mars”.

So, if you will be in Paris, then ... do not be lazy and wrap more and here, in Saint-Germain. Believe the word - no need to regret!
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  1. Olgovich
    Olgovich 30 January 2018 07: 19
    +1
    So, if you will be in Paris, then ... don’t be too lazy and also wrap here, in Saint-Germain. Take my word for it - you won’t have to regret it !.

    This is the San Germain where they stole the picture of Pierre-Auguste Renoir, "Portrait of a Young Blonde."
    Wrap up when we are near.
  2. Operator
    Operator 30 January 2018 07: 23
    +2
    “The First Iron Age (the terminology adopted in France) refers to the era of 780-480 BC and corresponds to the Hallstatt culture, a period characterized by the burial of a privileged part of the population in the mounds" - this privileged part of the population were Cimmerians ( R1a), who came from the Black Sea region to Western Europe (Austria, Hallstatt) at the end of the 2 millennium BC. and spreading their Indo-European language and culture throughout Europe.

    Prior to this, Western Europe spoke the non-Indo-European languages ​​of the Basque group (Celts, R1b) and the Illyrian group (Scandinavians, J1).

    The Celts and Illyrians adopted chariots and iron processing from the Cimmerians.
    1. kalibr
      30 January 2018 07: 29
      +1
      Thanks! This is a good and valuable addition.
    2. marline
      marline 30 January 2018 10: 02
      +1
      Quote: Operator
      the Cimmerians (R1a), who came from the Black Sea region to Western Europe (Austria, Hallstatt) at the end of the 2nd millennium BC, were a privileged part of the population. and spreading their Indo-European language and culture throughout Europe.

      I wildly apologize, but that the "Cimmerian Aryans" carried out genetic examinations and only men with haplogroup R1a were taken on hikes? Or did they initially cut out all of the other haplogroups?
      Quote: Operator
      Prior to this, Western Europe spoke the non-Indo-European languages ​​of the Basque group (Celts, R1b) and the Illyrian group (Scandinavians, J1).

      If my memory serves me right, then the Celtic and Illyrian languages ​​belong to the Indo-European language family. By the way, do not explain what the Scandinavians have to do with the Illyrians? (honestly, just interesting)
      1. Luga
        Luga 30 January 2018 11: 19
        +4
        Quote: merlin
        Or did they initially cut out all of the other haplogroups?

        Dear Operator, makes a mistake common to all Klesov's followers - he identifies the carriers of the haplogroup with the native speakers of the language and culture, which is fundamentally wrong. Hence the confusion.
        Quote: merlin
        By the way, do not explain what the Scandinavians have to do with the Illyrians?
        Halogen groups, dear, what else? Mostly I1 among Scandinavians and I2, respectively, among Albanians. But wait for the Operator’s response, I’m always interested to read his messages - he is really passionate about DNA genealogy and owns a lot of material.
        1. marline
          marline 30 January 2018 11: 29
          +2
          I agree. The response of the Operator really promises to be interesting.
          Quote: Luga
          Haplogroups, dear, what else?

          Clearly, the same as between Richard III and Comrade Stalin - a haplogroup! wink
          1. Mikado
            Mikado 30 January 2018 16: 24
            +2
            Clearly, the same as between Richard III and Comrade Stalin - a haplogroup!

            I rephrase: what was common between ancient people - they were Holozad. And with haplogroups drinks
            1. marline
              marline 30 January 2018 16: 32
              +2
              Quote: Mikado
              I rephrase: what was common between ancient people - they were Holozad. And with haplogroups drinks

              Nikolai, you, as always, brought the very essence to the light laughing
              1. Mikado
                Mikado 30 January 2018 17: 08
                +4
                Pulp, Vadim wink I try. As I was taught to think about the fillet parts of the ancient Mongols, it tempts me to remember about them, I can not help myself ... recourse request
          2. Operator
            Operator 30 January 2018 19: 17
            0
            Quote: merlin
            between Richard III and Comrade Stalin - haplogroup

            The haplotypes of Richard III and Stalin coincide - both are carriers of the Caucasian haplogroup G2 (naturally, of different subclades).

            The carriers of this haplogroup are concentrated (up to 90%) in the Caucasus (Abkhaz, Circassians, Georgians and Armenians) and in a small percentage (1-2%) are dispersed from the Pamirs to the British Isles. Caucasians came to Europe after the resettlement of the Illyrians and Aryans, but before the invasion of the Celts.
      2. voyaka uh
        voyaka uh 30 January 2018 17: 40
        +4
        "I am wildly sorry, but that the" Cimmerian Aryans "carried out genetic examinations and
        only males with haplogroup R1a were taken on hikes ////

        They rig the data under their theories. For example, take data, bio-material
        from some kind of burial place. If they find R1a = "our man." If with another haplogroup -
        Ignore or declare a "stranger", clambered with the slender ranks of the Aryans.
        To conclude that representatives lived in a certain area at such a time
        such a haplogroup, it is necessary to process the mass of material statistically, plus attach
        by time with the help of other artifacts and several methods: carbon, uranium, "optical" (when the last time sunlight hit the substance). The study takes ten years,
        until a scientific article comes out - a few more years.
        But the Klesians are too lazy to wait a long time: they found one aria, added at that historical time, which is convenient for them and please - the great transition of the Aryans from Asia to Europe, or vice versa.
      3. Operator
        Operator 30 January 2018 18: 57
        0
        marline

        In the Black Sea region, the Aryans were indigenous from the 8 millennium BC. immediately after the glacier left for the north, so no one had to be cut. In the 1 millennium BC after moving to Hallstatt and further west and north, the Cimmerian Aryans mixed with local Celts and Illyrians, resulting in a percentage of R1a carriers among them currently ranging from 25% in Austria to 20% in Sweden and 3% in Britain.

        Modern Celtic languages ​​(Irish, Scottish and Welsh) are a hybrid between Aryan and Basque (native to Celts), modern Scandinavian languages ​​are a hybrid between Aryan and Illyrian (native to Illyrians).

        The Illyrians are carriers of the same haplotypes I1 (northern) and I2 (southern), the name is in honor of the ice shelter in the Balkans, where the Illyrians survived the last ice age in Europe.
        Currently, the percentage of descendants of Illyrians is: 70% among residents of Bosnia and Herzegovina, 40% among Scandinavians and 10-15% among Western Europeans and Slavs.
        1. marline
          marline 31 January 2018 12: 09
          0
          Quote: Operator
          In the Black Sea region, the Aryans were indigenous from the 8th millennium BC. immediately after the glacier left for the north, so no one had to be cut.

          That is, what we have: 8 thousand or a little earlier in the Black Sea steppes as a result of a mutation, a boy was born with the haplogroup R1a. He grew up physically strong, smart and cunning, as a result of which he very soon became the leader of a local tribe. After that, he forbade all other men to breed, gathered a harem for himself and began scribbling the boys. Naturally, only his descendants multiplied further. So apparently the arias appeared - 100% carriers of the haplogroup R1a. Something somehow hard to believe.
          Quote: Operator
          Modern Celtic languages ​​(Irish, Scottish and Welsh) are a hybrid between Aryan and Basque (native to Celts), modern Scandinavian languages ​​are a hybrid between Aryan and Illyrian (native to Illyrians).

          The Basque language is perhaps the native language of the autochthonous population of Western Europe, however, if we are talking about the Celts, we mean a certain ethnicity and culture. That is, we automatically assume that the Celts spoke Celtic languages. As an example - can a person who is not a native speaker of the Russian language and culture be considered Russian?
          In fact, my claim to you is that you put an equal sign between such concepts as a haplogroup and an ethnic group.
          1. Operator
            Operator 31 January 2018 20: 39
            0
            The very first R1 carrier was born 26 thousands of years ago in Altai from its father, the carrier R1 (the former was distinguished from the latter by a mutation in the Y chromosome). After that, children with the corresponding mutation in the Y chromosome began to be born in the family of the first R1a carrier, then grandchildren, great-grandchildren, great-great-grandchildren, etc.

            Since then people lived in clans and tribes (and not ethnic groups, as now), the clans / tribes consisted exclusively of blood relatives.

            20 thousands of years ago, the carrier tribe R1a began to migrate west through Central Asia, Asia Minor and the future Bosphorus and Dardanelles. For 12 thousand years, the tribe of R1a carriers came to the Balkans and began to spread throughout Central and Eastern Europe after the retreating glacier. 9 thousand years ago, the carriers of R1a reached the Karelian Isthmus. After that, the number of the tribe began to grow and it was divided into many tribes - carriers of different subclades of the haplogroup R1a.

            At the same time, the cultural community of the tribes was preserved for 26 for thousands of years - the same ceramics, the same tribal sign (swastika), the same language, the same grain culture - millet.

            The difference was only in habitats - forest and steppe.

            2,5 thousands of years ago, the steppe carriers of R1a went east (Asia Minor, Persian Highlands, Hindustan Peninsula) and the west (Hallstatt, Austria), and the R1a forest carriers remained in their places of settlement in Eastern and Central Europe.

            Further more or less is known from classical history.
            1. marline
              marline 1 February 2018 10: 10
              0
              Well, what is convincing. It remains only to prove that we and the Kyrgyz have the same language and the same pots with a swastika. wink
              1. Operator
                Operator 1 February 2018 20: 58
                0
                After the Aryans, the Kyrgyz were culturally assimilated by the Mongols, therefore the Kyrgyz are Turkic-speaking.

                Which is not uncommon: for example, Hamite-Bulgarians consider themselves Slavs.
                1. marline
                  marline 2 February 2018 08: 37
                  0
                  So the fact of the matter is that according to your opinion, there are more “Aryans” among the Kirghiz (65%) than among the Russians (up to 55% - again in the south). So maybe it was the Russian "Aryans" assimilated, but the Turkic-speaking Kyrgyz are the real, indisputable Aryans?
                  1. Operator
                    Operator 2 February 2018 19: 15
                    0
                    The existence of the Aryans is known from their books of the Rig Veda and Avesta, written in Aryan, and not in Turkic.
                    1. marline
                      marline 4 February 2018 13: 56
                      0
                      Quote: Operator
                      The existence of the Aryans is known from their books of the Rig Veda and Avesta, written in Aryan, and not in Turkic.

                      Is DNA analysis included? Where in the Avesta is it written that all arias had the haplogroup R1a?
                      1. Operator
                        Operator 4 February 2018 15: 05
                        0
                        In the burials of the Aryans of 3,5-thousand years ago, on the way to their migration from the Black Sea to India and in India, so far, bone remains of exclusively R1a carriers are found.

                        Or do you think that DNA analysis was available to the Aryans and they carefully sorted the remains before burial of their dead? laughing
  3. XII Legion
    XII Legion 30 January 2018 08: 10
    19
    Museum is good
    What's outside what's inside
    1. igordok
      igordok 30 January 2018 14: 26
      +2
      The first association in the photo entitled "The Absolutely Tasteless Helmet of the Sunset Age of the Empire." was - a sculpture of a toad, a frog. smile
  4. parusnik
    parusnik 30 January 2018 08: 15
    +3
    sometimes even in the smallest, and even in the villages, for example, Taman
    ... The Taman Peninsula, this is a reserved land for archaeologists .. Unfortunately, purposeful excavations are carried out for a long time only in Fanagoria and Taman .. Somewhere it is not possible to conduct, as in the village of Golubitskaya, it is located on the site of an ancient settlement .. Many cities , which at one time were located on the Taman Peninsula, mentioned by ancient historians, "ate" the sea .. Yes, and the location of some famous cities is not exactly established .. So some historians believe that Tmutarakan was not in the area of ​​the village of Taman, but where in the vicinity of Temryuk ...
  5. Vikxnumx
    Vikxnumx 30 January 2018 09: 05
    +4
    So, if you will be in Paris, then ... do not be lazy and wrap more and here, in Saint-Germain. Believe the word - no need to regret!

    You will travel to Paris from Moscow by car, wrap in the Republic of Belarus in the castle complex Mir and in Nesvizh. Also worth a visit. And next to the highway to Brest.
    1. Mikado
      Mikado 30 January 2018 10: 34
      +3
      Damn, you read my thoughts. I have long wanted to go there, but I got only to Polotsk and Naroch. request
      About the article. Morning began well, thank God. Vyacheslav Olegovich, I think, once again, in an unobtrusive manner, expanded our horizons. It’s interesting that I accidentally found out about the “golden hats” a couple of weeks ago, walking on the links on Wikipedia. Thank! hi have a nice day, everyone! (for someone - a good end to the day) drinks
  6. marline
    marline 30 January 2018 10: 06
    +3
    Thank you for the article. I am glad that the series of articles devoted to historical museums does not end there. Let's hope this series becomes permanent.
    1. kalibr
      30 January 2018 16: 42
      +2
      It will become, I promise ... all the more so because some museums have a positive attitude to such articles and provide information.
  7. Curious
    Curious 30 January 2018 10: 47
    +2
    The "famous" Brassempois Venus ".
    Hello, Vyacheslav Olegovich! The photo is somehow strange. I have never seen her green. Usually, "Lady with a Hood" looks like this.
    1. Curious
      Curious 30 January 2018 10: 55
      +3
      “So, if you are in Paris, then ... don’t be too lazy and wrap it here in Saint-Germain. Take a word - you won’t have to regret it!”
      And if after Paris you have a desire to travel a little further, to Madrid there, or Lisbon, then when you pass through Aquitaine, wrap here in Brassempuis too, visit the Museum of Venus Brassempuis. You can not only inspect Paleolithic art samples, but also master some of the skills of the people of that time.
    2. kalibr
      30 January 2018 13: 33
      +2
      Private photo, what happened.
  8. Luga
    Luga 30 January 2018 11: 23
    +3
    The article is interesting and informative, thanks to the author. hi
  9. BAI
    BAI 30 January 2018 16: 08
    +2
    thorns or "garlic", as they were called in Russia

    They are exactly the same in the historical museum of the Trinity-Sergius Lavra.
  10. NF68
    NF68 30 January 2018 17: 40
    +1
    + + + + + + + + + +
  11. NF68
    NF68 30 January 2018 17: 44
    +1
    Munich Nymphenburg will be both richer and richer:

    https://www.tripadvisor.ru/Attraction_Review-g187
    309-d242773-Reviews-Nymphenburg_Palace-Munich_Upp
    er_Bavaria_Bavaria.html # photos; geo = 187309 & det
    ail = 242773 & ff = 17632721 & albumViewMode = hero
    & aggregationId = 101 & albumid = 101 & baseMe
    diaId = 17632721 & thumbnailMinWidth = 50 & cnt = 3
    0 & offset = -1 & filter = 7 & autoplay =
  12. Operator
    Operator 30 January 2018 19: 04
    +1
    Quote: Luga
    I1 among the Scandinavians and I2, respectively, among the Albanians

    In Scandinavians from 30 to 40, I1 carriers are really percent, but I2 reaches a maximum only among residents of the former Yugoslavia (the territory of the ice shelter).

    Among Albanians, the dominant haplogroup is Hamitic E1 (origin - North Africa), as well as among Greeks and Bulgarians.
    1. Luga
      Luga 30 January 2018 20: 51
      +3
      Quote: Operator
      Among Albanians, the Hamitic E1 is the dominant haplogroup

      Maybe. I am really not special in this branch of scientific knowledge. Offhand and so little to make a mistake - Yugoslavia and Greece is already an achievement for me. True, here I had a clue: the word "Illyrian", but oh well. smile
      The most important thing in this matter is not to confuse or identify gene carriers with native speakers and both of them with native speakers.
      1. voyaka uh
        voyaka uh 30 January 2018 23: 58
        +5
        This area of ​​scientific knowledge exists only in Russian. Klesov invented a new science DNA genealogy. And he founded the Academy of this new science: Academy of DNA Genealogy
        It is based on juggling the frequency of gene mutation markers. When running on a computer, it is easy to get how many thousands of years ago this group lived. If you replace the frequency with another, you will get a thousand years more. Until you write in your theory about the movement of this group on the planet, as you want. The greatest enemy of the Klesovites is archaeologists and artifacts found. And their antiquity. Because if the grain found in the grave from the jug put there is defined as 4000 years old, and the person in the grave according to the haplogroup supposedly lived 6000 years ago, then everything must be counted again ...
        There is genetics, but there are data adjustments. And the Klesovites begin to invent non-existent movements of peoples, non-existent battles between them. To explain the appearance of gene markers in different geographical locations.
        1. marline
          marline 31 January 2018 13: 28
          +1
          Quote: voyaka uh
          This area of ​​scientific knowledge exists only in Russian.

          Not really. Genetic genealogy is a completely recognized section of population genetics recognized by science. In many countries of the world this section is also called "DNA genealogy", but not in Russia. The problem is that Klesov, using the results of genetic genealogy, speculates on the patriotism of our citizens.
          1. voyaka uh
            voyaka uh 31 January 2018 13: 45
            +1
            The trouble is that he uses the results of research (collecting genetic material by country) very selectively - under his favorite Aryan R1a.
            And he plays along with those whom he wants to attract to his side. Vivid Example - Announcement
            Jewish Levites, too, "a little" arias. Like the Saudi sheikhs.
            (Jews will help legitimation in the scientific world among geneticists, and Arab princes - financially).
            In any case, without archeology, carbon analysis, other methods, population genetics poorly helps to understand the movements of primitive tribes. And it’s more confusing when instead of scientific articles with reviews, popular science books are written right away.
            1. marline
              marline 31 January 2018 14: 11
              +2
              Quote: voyaka uh
              In any case, without archeology, carbon analysis, other methods, population genetics poorly helps to understand the movements of primitive tribes ...

              Of course, everything should be in a complex.
  13. BRONEVIK
    BRONEVIK 30 January 2018 19: 59
    17
    Already looked at the museum
    Nothing to do in Paris
    Thank you for the excursion!
  14. Operator
    Operator 30 January 2018 21: 29
    0
    Quote: Luga
    The most important thing in this matter is not to confuse or identify gene carriers with native speakers and both of them with native speakers

    Ethnos at a particular point in time is determined by language and culture, but in the historical retrospective the main role is played by the physical origin of the ethnos, clearly identified by the genetic label - the haplogroup of the Y chromosome.

    Not for all ethnic groups, it is possible to establish an unambiguous relationship with one haplogroup by origin. For example, Jews, Greeks and Armenians are pronounced mestizos, formed on a parity basis, not even two, but three, four, five basic "purebred" ethnic groups.

    On the other hand, there are ethnic groups almost homogeneous in origin - for example, the British, Welsh, Irish, Basques, Chinese, Mongols.

    The third option, the most common one, is the dominant part of the ethnic group, homogeneous in origin, a vivid example is the Russians, Ukrainians, Belarusians, Poles and Slovaks, whose 50-60% are direct descendants of the Aryan carriers of the haplogroup R1a, the rest are carriers of the Illyrian haplogroups J1 and J2, Celtic R1b, Ugrophin N1с1 and other, smaller groups.

    A feature of Russians, Ukrainians, Belarusians, Poles and Slovaks is that they are not only more or less genetically homogeneous, they also speak their original Aryan language (modern dialect, of course).

    In cultural and linguistic terms, only Albanians (who speak their native Berber language), Basque, Chinese, and Mongol can be compared with them.

    The Celts and Scandinavians speak Surzhik, the basis of which is the language of the conquerors - the Cimmerians.
    1. voyaka uh
      voyaka uh 31 January 2018 12: 14
      +2
      "they also speak their original Aryan language (modern dialect, of course)." ////

      The Aryan language has already appeared. The progressive primitive people of the Stone Age - Cro-Magnon Aryans. fellow
      Which brought light and knowledge to the deep world of the rest of the Cro-Magnons
      (speaking their non-Aryan Cro-Magnon language).
      1. Town Hall
        Town Hall 31 January 2018 12: 19
        +1
        Interestingly, were the Neo-Standardists blondes with blue eyes?
  15. marline
    marline 6 February 2018 09: 56
    0
    Quote: Operator
    In the burials of the Aryans of 3,5-thousand years ago, on the way to their migration from the Black Sea to India and in India, so far, bone remains of exclusively R1a carriers are found.
    Or do you think that DNA analysis was available to the Aryans and they carefully sorted the remains before burial of their dead? laughing

    It seems to me just what you think wink Firstly, “exclusively R1a carriers” is your speculation. Secondly, 2,5 thousand years - they themselves wrote.
  16. SPLV
    SPLV 16 February 2018 16: 41
    0
    with vaults measuring 2,70 meters

    As always. No mistakes were made.
  17. SergeyMA
    SergeyMA 17 October 2018 11: 16
    0
    All this, of course, is beautiful and healthy. But do not forget that in the outback there are also interesting museums in which people put their souls. Take at least a museum in the small provincial town of Lgov, Kursk region. See for yourself https://kursk.er.ru/news/2018/10/16/vo-lgove-po-iniciative-edinorossa-otkrylsya-muzej-boevoj-i-voinskoj-slavy/