Military Review

Why does the Middle Kingdom expand its military presence around the world

29
Recently, China has begun to build its own military bases in various regions of the world. For a long time, such a blatant policy aimed at expanding its military presence was not characteristic of China. Of course, even during the Cold War, the PRC supported a number of Maoist national liberation and communist movements, mainly in the zone of its direct geopolitical influence - in Southeast Asia. However, by now, having become the most important economic competitor of the United States, China has embarked on a much more active policy to expand its influence. The creation of military bases in this regard is a step aimed, firstly, at designating its political ambitions, and secondly - at ensuring economic interests in various countries and regions of the world.


Why does the Middle Kingdom expand its military presence around the world


Of course, China began its policy of expanding its military presence from nearby regions. The reason for the creation of Chinese military posts and bases in South and Southeast Asia lies, first of all, in the undisguised confrontation with India. China seeks to surround India with its military bases in order to ensure control over the situation. Initially, China identified its military-political interests in Myanmar. This country has long and very close contacts with Beijing, since it is in the zone of its influence. In the second half of the twentieth century, China supported the Burmese Maoists and some armed rebel movements of the country's national minorities. Currently, the main object of support from the PRC is the so-called. “Wa State” is a small territory, virtually independent of the central authorities of Myanmar and controlled by the Wa Waist State insurgents. This organization received from China a variety of weapons, it is possible that its military personnel were trained by Chinese instructors. Simultaneously with the support of the WA, China is working closely with Myanmar. There are Chinese military posts in the country, China has very serious economic interests in Myanmar. In the face of rebels from the State of Wa, China has a lever of pressure on the government of Myanmar, which demonstrates the possibility of more active support for the movement if Myanmar begins to pursue a policy contrary to Chinese economic interests. They are connected, first of all, with the Myanmar-China pipeline, built in the 2013 year and supplying 12 billion cubic meters of gas to the Celestial Empire annually.

But Myanmar also has its own oil and gas fields - in yet another troubled state of Rakhine. Recently, this area, home to numerous Rohingya communities practicing Islam, has come to the center of attention of the whole world. Then the government forces of Myanmar carried out punitive operations against the Muslim people. It is likely that this was done with the direct support of Beijing, which is very interested in stabilizing the situation in Rakhine State. It is not by chance that the Americans, indifferent to everything that does not belong to their political and economic interests, suddenly became so concerned with punitive operations against a distant and previously unknown people. For them, it is just very important to weaken the influence of China and prevent its control over the oil and gas fields in Rakhine.



The second object of Chinese military-political interest in South Asia is Pakistan. Beijing has a long and special relationship with Islamabad. The fact is that Pakistan has been the main opponent of neighboring India since its inception. China, in turn, operates on the principle of "the enemy of my enemy is my friend." As early as the second half of the twentieth century, China began supporting Pakistan in all areas, from the economy to the military. The products of the Chinese military-industrial complex are supplied to Pakistan, China assisted Pakistan in the creation of Pakistan’s nuclear weapons. In turn, the grateful Islamabad, which always speaks out in defense of Islam, closes its eyes to the “Xinjiang Question” - a difficult situation in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of China. XUAR, historically known as East Turkestan, is populated by Uighur Muslims.

Islamabad, well aware of the problematic relations between the Uyghur national movement and Beijing, has repeatedly openly declared that it recognizes both the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region and Tibet as integral parts of the People’s Republic of China.

However, relations of China and Pakistan are not limited to moral and informational support and supply of weapons. In 2015, China Overseas Ports Holding from China received a plot of 43 hectares in the strategically important port of Gwadar in the Arabian Sea on 152 of the year. Recall that Gwadar is crucial for the Sino-Pakistani corridor, through which China, again, plans to increase the supply of oil and gas from Iran. The corridor, about 3 long thousandth of km, should connect the port of Gwadar and just Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of China.

Until recently, about 80% of oil imported into China was transported through the Strait of Malacca. Using the port of Gwadar represents an opportunity for China to gradually abandon this route, or at least significantly minimize its use.

At the same time, Beijing is well aware that it is better to ensure the security of their economic interests in Pakistan with their own hands. For this, it is supposed to transfer fighters to one of the Chinese private military companies to the country. Naturally, Beijing will not engage the regular forces of the People's Liberation Army of China in guarding the port, so as not to arouse discontent not so much with the world community, but with the Pakistani population. But here a private military company is well suited to protect Chinese economic interests in Pakistan. Despite the fact that a number of Pakistani politicians are opposed to this initiative, it is likely to be implemented and China will have its own armed forces in the port of Guadara. Not only port security, but also surveillance of India as well as American fleet in the Indian Ocean - these are the most important tasks that the Chinese military contingent will carry out.



But if the expansion of the Chinese presence in Myanmar and Pakistan can be explained by direct interests associated with the provision of oil and gas transportation and control over the countries bordering with China, then the deployment of Chinese bases in Africa indicates Beijing's much greater geostrategic ambitions. Back in 2016, construction began on China’s first open military base abroad. This base will begin to operate in a small state of Djibouti on the shores of the Red Sea. For a long time, Djibouti, a former French colony, was under the complete control of France; French troops were stationed here, including the forces of the Foreign Legion. However, not so long ago, the leadership of Djibouti, seeking to extract economic benefits from the lease of its territory to the military bases, turned to a policy of military cooperation with a number of interested states. The base of the Chinese Navy, officially called Beijing only a logistics center, should appear in Djibouti. In fact, this is a standard point of logistics, designed to serve the Chinese Navy ships when they enter the Red Sea. Beijing explained to the world community the construction of a base the need to expand China’s participation in the fight against piracy Not so long ago, a small Chinese military contingent was deployed in Djibouti, which will be engaged in the provision and protection of the base.

Like other steps to expand the military presence in different countries of the world, the construction of a base in Djibouti has two main reasons. First, China seeks to secure its economic interests. Large volumes of oil are exported to China across the Indian Ocean. However, Somali pirates are active in this part of the Indian Ocean, which periodically seize oil tankers. Naturally, ensuring the supply of energy to the PRC needs serious military support. Secondly, Djibouti - another point with access to the Indian Ocean, with which you can put pressure on India. China seeks to counterbalance the dominance of the Indian Navy in the Indian Ocean. But there is a third reason - China’s economic rivalry with the United States, including in East African countries. As is known, China has long been expanding its economic influence on the African continent. Deploying military bases in Africa is another way to identify our interests and show Washington that it cannot rely on a monopoly presence in the region. By the way, do not forget that it is in Djibouti that the largest American military base is located in the region, which is constantly serviced by about 4 thousands of American military personnel.

A number of American analysts are confident that China will not stop at creating a naval base in Djibouti, but will continue to encircle the Indian Ocean with a network of military bases. Presumably, such bases may appear in Sri Lanka, Pakistan, Myanmar, with which China has established close cooperation. In addition, China plans to create a whole “string of pearls” - a network of artificial islands in the Indian Ocean, which can also be used for military purposes.

In Africa, the Chinese military has long been involved in peacekeeping operations. This also demonstrates China’s military presence on the continent, although Beijing explains participation in peacekeeping actions by purely humanitarian considerations. Many African countries, where China has its own economic interests, are very unstable. They have rebel groups, terrorist organizations, and just a high level of crime. At the same time, there are more and more Chinese economic facilities, Chinese citizens are working, who may be exposed to the threat of attacks from extremists or criminals. Of course, China will not send PLA troops to protect workers of private companies, but it may well use well-trained private military companies for this purpose.

Recall that the Chinese private military companies are already actively working in Iraq, where they provide protection for employees of Chinese corporations. For a long time, Chinese companies were forced to hire local private guards, however, for obvious reasons, it is far less reliable than fellow countrymen, and less prepared. It is known that the special units of the PLA and the Chinese police have a very high level of combat training. Meanwhile, such “giants” of the Chinese private military business as the Shandong Huawei Security Group prefer to staff their states, especially those working in foreign “hot spots”, exclusively from among the former special forces with a good level of training. Following Iraq, Chinese private military companies penetrated into Afghanistan, and now the next in line are the majority of African states where China has its own economic interests. By the way, the number of employees of Chinese PMCs operating in other states in 2016 was 3200 people. This is more than the total number of Chinese peacekeepers. The last were in 2016, 2600 people.

It can be said that the Chinese military expansion will not stop on the African continent. China has significant economic interests in Latin America, for example - in the same Venezuela. China ranks third in the world in terms of turnover with Latin America. Moreover, economic relations between China and the states of the continent are rapidly developing. During the lifetime of Fidel Castro and Hugo Chávez, the Bolivarian Alternative was formed. Since left governments are in power in a number of Latin American countries, they are close to China ideologically. Beijing is well aware of this, increasing the pace of economic cooperation and investment in Latin American economies. Chinese companies are investing huge amounts of money in Latin America, investing in the development of the mining industry, power industry and transport infrastructure. Of course, it is still very early to speak about the appearance of Chinese military bases in Latin America. Naturally, in Washington this will be viewed as a direct military threat from Beijing. Moreover, the United States and so have a very negative attitude to the penetration of China into countries for two centuries considered exclusively the sphere of influence of Washington.

However, behind the Chinese economic presence in Latin America will inevitably come the need for its power supply. So far, China is limited only to investments in the sphere of defense of Latin American states. For example, China is actively involved in arming the Bolivian army. It is interesting for China to cooperate in the military field with other Latin American countries, and its intensification in Beijing has traditionally been explained by the need to combat terrorism.
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  1. 1536
    1536 24 January 2018 15: 23 New
    +9
    Yes, I understand why. Then, so that Chinese citizens feel safe in any country, anywhere in the world, and calmly go about their business: relax, study, work, play sports, etc. Well done, only this can be said.
    1. seti
      seti 24 January 2018 15: 35 New
      +4
      Quote: 1536
      Yes, I understand why. Then, so that Chinese citizens feel safe in any country, anywhere in the world, and calmly go about their business: relax, study, work, play sports, etc. Well done, only this can be said.

      Of course .. Yes, of course not. It’s just that the world is entering a new colonial era, which all stakeholders call the struggle for democracy and hide behind a brawl with terrorists. Only where can you save them at all .. The world has long been divided and the Soviet legacy has been successfully divided by impudent Saxons. Well, someone else on the little things. The USA has surrendered the biggest piece that they are still not able to digest. Because the Chinese are in a hurry to overcome what is bad without too much noise and dust.
      This must be taken into account by us - the seats at the table are occupied, but our task is to make us squeeze. And it’s better just to throw freeloaders. By them I mean, first of all, the Anglo-Saxons. But others need to give hands. This is our cow and we must milk it.
      1. Per se.
        Per se. 25 January 2018 06: 55 New
        +2
        Quote: seti
        This is our cow and we have to milk it.
        Our cow was slaughtered after 1991, there is no “our cow” now, the world is not just divided, the world of capitalism long ago took place under a monopolist host, and these are Anglo-Saxons, along with transnational corporations and clans of world ghouls like Morgans, Rothschilds, Rockefellers .. These are our homegrown bad guys, renegades from the CPSU and degenerate criminals from the oligarch brothers, hope to get rid of something, maybe even build some kind of parallel capitalism, but all this is utopia, being in a different pole of power, in a system already sharpened under the owners, they they will be only vassals, puppets. At best, they will inflate their cheeks, depicting "multipolarity" and "separatism", so that "People will shaval". You say, China ... Well, first, China was lifted out of the mud only thanks to the USSR, had the Chinese not done this starting line, in helping with industrialization and cover at the time of its formation. Secondly, the further "Chinese miracle", took place only because the same West, these omnipresent-smart-ass Anglo-Saxons, appreciated the events in Damansky, and, as in their time from Nazi Germany began to create anti-USSR in the West, it was useful here anti-USSR, anti-Russia in the east. If capitalist Russia continues to be pressed, because of our self-sufficiency and dangerous Soviet legacy (nuclear and industrial potential), then “red” China is not touched, there are no significant sanctions and, especially, global isolation, despite the terry piracy, technology theft, brazen violation of all copyrights, finally, simply because there are "communists". The West is waiting for the Chinese nationalists, who have territorial claims to all neighboring countries, to gain strength, and finally, they will do the main thing for which they are allowed to be, decide to kill a weakened Russia, weakened by external sanctions and internal parasites, with their chosen capitalism.
    2. Normal ok
      Normal ok 24 January 2018 23: 26 New
      +1
      Quote: 1536
      and calmly went about their business:

      those. squeezed their business from indigenous peoples
      1. dSK
        dSK 25 January 2018 08: 38 New
        0
        Quote: Normal ok
        own business
        "In China, rap and tattoo were banned. The relevant order issued The main Chinese department of radio, film and television. It says that on television to prevent "cultural decay" should not invite representatives of hip-hop and other subcultures. Taboo is also imposed on those artists who have tattoos. There shouldn’t be on television"vulgar" guests, singers and actors with "bad reputation implicated in scandals." (Channel "Tsargrad" 16: 22,24.01.18)
  2. Razvedka_Boem
    Razvedka_Boem 24 January 2018 16: 34 New
    +1
    The tiger decided it was time to go down the mountain .. Although the proverb was a monkey "..
    But here you can already feel the dragon ..
    1. NF68
      NF68 24 January 2018 17: 45 New
      0
      Quote: Razvedka_Boem
      The tiger decided it was time to go down the mountain .. Although the proverb was a monkey "..
      But here you can already feel the dragon ..


      For China, this is just the beginning. It is not known what the Chinese will do next.
      1. self-propelled
        self-propelled 24 January 2018 20: 56 New
        +1
        Quote: NF68
        It is not known what the Chinese will do next.

        I dare to suggest - a creeping quiet expansion around the world (first in Southeast Asia and Africa, then Latin America). the booming dawn of Chinese business in the world. over time, silent death. history develops in a spiral - It is worth looking at the former colonialists.
        PS purely my vision of the situation. I do not pretend to be Vanga repeat
        1. NF68
          NF68 25 January 2018 19: 47 New
          0
          Quote: self-propelled
          Quote: NF68
          It is not known what the Chinese will do next.

          I dare to suggest - a creeping quiet expansion around the world (first in Southeast Asia and Africa, then Latin America). the booming dawn of Chinese business in the world. over time, silent death. history develops in a spiral - It is worth looking at the former colonialists.
          PS purely my vision of the situation. I do not pretend to be Vanga repeat


          Yes, there’s no point going to the grandmother either. Only after all, it can happen that China, which has gained strength, will be no better than the current USA. And if China is even more shameless than the United States? This option cannot be ruled out either.
    2. iDOLLM4STER
      iDOLLM4STER 24 January 2018 21: 25 New
      0
      Did you mean this tiger?

    3. Alber
      Alber 25 January 2018 07: 49 New
      0
      Quote: Razvedka_Boem
      The tiger decided it was time to go down the mountain .. Although the proverb was a monkey "..
      But here you can already feel the dragon ..

      I wonder how still China has not begun its "research", multi-million procession around the world ... God forbid
      1. Razvedka_Boem
        Razvedka_Boem 25 January 2018 15: 15 New
        +1
        I am surprised

        Mentality .. We think for decades .. China for centuries.
        Kipling think out of the blue wrote his poems? ..)
    4. WapentakeLokki
      WapentakeLokki 25 January 2018 19: 24 New
      0
      There is no need to deceive oneself about China, followed by centuries of being a colony, and from the side of literally everyone who wandered into those lands; starting from the Mongols, they crossed the Great Wall of China and took away China for many centuries to the British as part of the mouth of the Chinese army which, incidentally, concerns both the German and our Russian Empire at the turn of the 45th century. Well, then Nihon-Japan embarked on China until the XNUMXth successfully pursuing a policy of capturing China in parts, and only with the filing of Comrade Stalin and our disinterested help in the education and training of the Chinese comrades (which always happened to us), the PRC began to rise, but genetically they are still the same small narrow-eyed who trampled everything (and this inferiority complex is especially bright in their films where invincible Shaolin monks or PLA fighters beat their enemies in packs but ...) Such are the prerequisites and what will come out of China and whether it will come out, whether time will tell at all.
      PS According to the results of the Korean War of the 53rd, at a meeting of Mao, Kim Il-sung and Soviet military advisers, the question was raised about the comparative effectiveness of Korean and Chinese soldiers and a Soviet adviser was involved as an arbitrator: to which he replied that according to statistics from 10 9 PLA recruits 5 at the moment of shelling or bombing fall into a stupor, for the Korean People’s Army this ratio is 5 to 10 (the question about the Soviet Army was answered that usually in such cases it is one out of 53 fighter but Mao, your Chinese are very obedient). How do you think in today's PLA everything is different than in the distant Korea of ​​the XNUMXrd?
      1. yehat
        yehat 26 January 2018 13: 41 New
        0
        since then a lot of things have changed
        Now the Chinese army is no longer a conscript, but a real elite, often well equipped.
        the weakest part of the Chinese forces is the fleet. it is large and modern, but the personnel on the ships cannot keep up with the studies. Sailors and even officers often do not quite understand what needs to be done.
        If you compare with the schedule of training the personnel of the Kaiserreich fleet before the 14th year, the Chinese are now about 1895-1897.
        however, on the way to preparation, the Chinese have already caught the problem - their terry nationalism makes them too complacent in the self-confidence that they are cool, although they still have something to learn.
        Yes, they are stronger than Thailand, but with the Vietnamese or Indian soldiers, the comparison in favor of the Chinese is far from always.
  3. NF68
    NF68 24 January 2018 17: 44 New
    +1
    It is possible that China, as its influence in the world grows, will behave in much the same way as the United States.
    1. iDOLLM4STER
      iDOLLM4STER 24 January 2018 21: 26 New
      0
      China is even worse than the US ... it's time to think about how to abolish both to the county of Luxembourg. And then we, besides the USA, will get another “that Germany” on our borders.
      1. yehat
        yehat 26 January 2018 13: 45 New
        0
        China now is very similar in growth and behavior to the growth of the Kaiserreich.
        they have similar processes and problems.
  4. MRomanovich
    MRomanovich 24 January 2018 18: 13 New
    0
    It is known that the PLA special forces and the Chinese police have a very high level of combat training.

    I wonder how things are with experience, thanks to which they have a "high level of training"?
    1. yehat
      yehat 26 January 2018 13: 49 New
      +1
      they have sharpened experience in narrow individual skills. This is often pumped very well. For example, trap shooting or melee or driving or language skills (I remind you that China uses 2 main dialects and 36 languages) or cooking hawchik))) But group actions are often weaker trained - the exception is probably only drill and step. In this component, they are very much inferior to the Japanese, which is why they often turned out to be bits of samurai.
  5. Sergey Cojocari
    Sergey Cojocari 24 January 2018 19: 39 New
    +3
    One and a half billion Chinese, closely within the borders of the current state. Therefore, they are conquering “living space” by quiet expansion. Drang nah ... well, you understand where, and glory to Confucius, that they moved to the warm side for fruitful lands, and to the West for technology, and not to Siberia, for minerals. But for the time being ...
  6. Silver fox_2
    Silver fox_2 24 January 2018 19: 41 New
    0
    protects its trade routes)
  7. Nemesis
    Nemesis 24 January 2018 19: 53 New
    +2
    The fact that China is building aircraft carriers and destroyers has long been saying that its fleet is not going to limit itself to coastal defense, and its government wants to have leverage to protect the interests of China, anywhere in the world ... In addition, a territorial dispute with Japan, behind which the United States stands, also leaves its mark
  8. wachmann
    wachmann 24 January 2018 20: 24 New
    0
    anyway, sometime they’ll have to think about resettling part of the population, so they’ll pillar territories in advance, well, and fossils at the same time
  9. HEATHER
    HEATHER 24 January 2018 23: 09 New
    0
    China will not stop at the establishment of a naval base in Djibouti, but will continue to encircle the Indian Ocean with a network of military bases. Do not stop. From China you can expect everything. It is growing too militarily.
  10. andrewkor
    andrewkor 25 January 2018 11: 13 New
    0
    And how is work progressing along the Nicaraguan Canal?
  11. Mustached Kok
    Mustached Kok 25 January 2018 14: 11 New
    0
    Why China is expanding its military presence.
    You can answer briefly and succinctly simply by saying that:
    1) It is beneficial to consolidate your control in the country
    2) In turn, the era is the wounding of the war infrastructure through which the crushing of the local population will begin
    3) Which, in turn, quickly opens up a sales market for China
    As a result, spending the nth amount of money at a military base. In the long term, China will profit from a contribution 10 times greater than its profit. And money is always needed)
  12. The comment was deleted.
  13. Anchonsha
    Anchonsha 26 January 2018 12: 24 New
    0
    China is in the near future a monster like the United States today and it is not known which of them is worse. If now China, with the existing military and economic power of the United States, carries out such expansion around the world, then who will forbid him to continue to seize his military the presence of all the continents of our planet. Moreover, even if Russia announces its presence on any continent, it develops equal good relations on mutual interests, which cannot be said about China, which literally ties itself to itself with economic dependence, which our very allied and self-interested Lukashenko has already begun to fear. China is not Russia, which does not act self-servingly with Belarus, but we also try to be less with the cunning Old Man and kind to his immense demands with his cunning multi-vector ..
  14. evgeny68
    evgeny68 27 January 2018 17: 59 New
    0
    Quote: Per se.
    Quote: seti
    This is our cow and we have to milk it.
    Our cow was slaughtered after 1991, there is no “our cow” now, the world is not just divided, the world of capitalism long ago took place under a monopolist host, and these are Anglo-Saxons, along with transnational corporations and clans of world ghouls like Morgans, Rothschilds, Rockefellers .. These are our homegrown bad guys, renegades from the CPSU and degenerate criminals from the oligarch brothers, hope to get rid of something, maybe even build some kind of parallel capitalism, but all this is utopia, being in a different pole of power, in a system already sharpened under the owners, they they will be only vassals, puppets. At best, they will inflate their cheeks, depicting "multipolarity" and "separatism", so that "People will shaval". You say, China ... Well, first, China was lifted out of the mud only thanks to the USSR, had the Chinese not done this starting line, in helping with industrialization and cover at the time of its formation. Secondly, the further "Chinese miracle", took place only because the same West, these omnipresent-smart-ass Anglo-Saxons, appreciated the events in Damansky, and, as in their time from Nazi Germany began to create anti-USSR in the West, it was useful here anti-USSR, anti-Russia in the east. If capitalist Russia continues to be pressed, because of our self-sufficiency and dangerous Soviet legacy (nuclear and industrial potential), then “red” China is not touched, there are no significant sanctions and, especially, global isolation, despite the terry piracy, technology theft, brazen violation of all copyrights, finally, simply because there are "communists". The West is waiting for the Chinese nationalists, who have territorial claims to all neighboring countries, to gain strength, and finally, they will do the main thing for which they are allowed to be, decide to kill a weakened Russia, weakened by external sanctions and internal parasites, with their chosen capitalism.


    Simplified look at things.
  15. antiamerikan
    antiamerikan 28 January 2018 09: 25 New
    0
    well done chinese

    and Russia calls all partners, banyats at the Olympics - regrets, but buys the Amersky tribes

    the Chinese would never forgive the bana