Military Review

Troops Smoke and Flame. Part of 3. The brainchild of the Russian emperor

55
Founder of taking flamethrower weapons The Russian Emperor Nicholas II became the arsenal of the Russian army and the formation in its structure of specialized flame-throwing units.


The last Emperor paid great attention to armaments, and the flamethrower weapon, a novelty of that time, was no exception.

The Russian army captured samples of enemy flame throwers as trophies.


59. Chronicle of the war 14-15 No.42.


60. Russian soldier with captured Austrian 50L flamethrower M. 15 Flammenwerfer captured in the Carpathians. Niva.


61. Russian soldier with captured Glue arr. 1912 Niva.

When in May 1915, the Main Artillery Committee decided that the adoption of flamethrowers by the Russian army was inappropriate, it was the decision of Nicholas II that allowed further study of the flamethrower issue.

In September, 1915, just a month after the Emperor occupied the post of Supreme Commander-in-Chief of the Army in the Army, 20 tests were carried out on the excavation of the Gorbov’s backpack flame thrower. And in February 1916, an order was issued for the manufacture of 1500 such flame throwers.

19. 02. 1916. The Emperor authorized the establishment of the Military Chemical Committee of the Main Directorate of the General Staff - he had to carry out the functions of supervising the production of gas masks and monitor the training of troops in countering the enemy’s chemical weapons.

And 08. 03. 1916 on the Yakobshtadsky bridgehead 5-I Army Lieutenant-General V. I. Gurko in the Naroch operation for the first time uses a new weapon - gas grenades and flamethrowers.

On April 3, the Emperor establishes the Chemical Committee of the Main Artillery Directorate, whose 3 department was in charge of the flame-throwing weapons. The Committee included officers, scientists and representatives of non-governmental organizations. An 3-company training fire-chemical battalion is being formed (9 officers, 20 non-commissioned officers and 645 privates).

Troops Smoke and Flame. Part of 3. The brainchild of the Russian emperor

62. The emblem of the educational fire-chemical battalion. Photos from the book. Thomas Wictor Flamethrower Troops of World War I., 2010.


63. Instructors of the Training Fire-Chemical Battalion. Photos of the period of the October events 1917, Petrograd. The emblem has migrated from the disappeared epaulettes to the band around hats. Near the black with a light green vypushkoy. In addition to studying flamethrowing, the battalion trained 14-ti army chemical command specialists on gas warfare and smoke screen installation. Disarmed by the Provisional Government in July 1917 for pro-Bolshevik sympathies, units of the battalion took an active part in the October Revolution. Ibid.

Tests of flamethrowing weapons continued.

So, 28. 04. 1916, Mr. Nikolay II was present at the ground tests of the Tilly-Goskin flamethrower. The Emperor has posted a corresponding entry in his Diary. [Diaries of Emperor Nicholas II. M., 1991. C. 584.]. The importance of the fact of testing a new weapon is evidenced by the fact that the next day, in a letter to the Empress, Nicholas II returned to the question of a flamethrower test. [Platonov, O. A. Nicholas II in secret correspondence. M., 1996. C. 529.].


64. Nicholas II (leftmost) on the tests of the Tilly-Goskin flamethrower, April 1916. Ibid.

The decisions of the Emperor influenced the changes in the structure of the Russian army. It was decided to form teams of heavy flamethrowers. These teams were to be given to armies (at first, their number — by the number of armies — 13) and fronts. But by the end of 1916, flamethrower teams equipped with light flamethrowers appeared in the troops of the current army. It was decided to include them, as well as machine-gun teams, in the regiments - these teams were to become an important tool of fire confrontation. The flamethrower team had to be active both in the offensive and in the defense - and the presence of such units in the infantry units was especially important during the period of positional warfare. The armament of such a flamethrower team - 12 knapsack flamethrowers and 4 - 37 mm trench guns. The flamethrower team included an officer and 29 of the lower ranks. The creation of flamethrowing teams began in the fall of 1916, starting with the divisional level (one flamethrower team per infantry division), and then planned to descend to the level of the regiment. In order of priority, flamethrower teams equipped the troops of the following fronts: Caucasus, Western, South-Western and, finally, Northern.


65. Russian sapper, a fighter of one of the chemical teams. Ibid


66. The mining engineer of the 1 Army Chemical Team. Ibid

11. 09. 1916 was a landmark order for the flamethrowing troops of Russia. He ordered the creation of flamethrower teams in a number of regiments of the Army in Action - 12 Guards, 16 Grenadiers and 208 primary infantry. Appeared 236 flamethrower units - at the level of the tactical (regimental) level of the Russian army. December 5 was ordered to form 3 powerful stationary flame-throwing batteries - for the defense of key sectors of the front. The structure of such a battery included 4 powerful trench flamethrowers (systems of Tovarnitsky, Vincent and General Ershov) with 6 officers and 128 sappers.


67. Flamethrower with a flamethrower knapsack (Gorbov or Aleksandrov system arr. 1915). Ibid

The decision of the Emperor and the Supreme Commander Nicholas II was of key importance for this process.

Flamethrowers should not only hit manpower and equipment, but also have a moral impact on the enemy - which was very important. Observing some technical backwardness of the Russian army from the enemy in certain positions, the Emperor during the war paid special attention to the adoption of technical innovations for the use of Russian troops. The war, marked by an unprecedented use of technical means of warfare, led to the rise of national science and technology.

In the middle of 1916, the backpack flame-throwers of the systems of the designers Tovarnitsky and Aleksandrov were put into service. At the same time, Russian engineers Strandin, Povarnin, and the Capital invented a high-explosive piston flamethrower. The flamethrower weighed about 16 kg (curb - 32,5 kg). 35 - 50 flame throwing range. The combustible mixture was pushed using the pressure of powder gases, while in comparable foreign flame throwers (which had lower characteristics), the mixture was usually ejected with hydrogen and compressed air, carbon dioxide and nitrogen. Named after the first letters of the names of the designers, the ATP flamethrower at the beginning of 1917 passed the tests and went into mass production. The use of pressure of powder gases for the release of fire mixture is the basic principle of the functioning of flame-throwing weapons until now.

Another flamethrower produced in small quantities was the flamethrower t. Arkhangelsk system, produced in Kiev Arsenal. Tovarnitsky’s flamethrower was produced at Kiev automobile and wire-nailing plants, and Tilly-Goskin’s flamethrower at Korsak’s factory. The chemical committee ordered: Aleksandrov flamethrowers - 6 thousand units, Tovarnitsky flame throwers - 6 thousand small and 200 trench. The committee also acquired 65 Vincent batteries (of which 50 is the newest model) and Xvenmx Liveens large gallery flame throwers.


68. Small flamethrower Tovarnitskogo arr. 1916 Ibid.


69. Explosive flamethrower ATP. Entered the Russian army at the beginning of 1917, ibid.


70. The Red Army at the Vincent Flamethrower Battery, 1920-ies. Russia managed to get 36 of such batteries. Ibid


71. Large gallery flamethrower system Livensa. Ibid


72. Trench flamethrower system of General Ershov. Ibid

By mid-December, 1916 Gorbov Flamethrowers, Alexandrov Flamethrowers 180, Tovarnitsky Trench Flamethrowers 140 Flamethrowers, and Tovarnitsky Flamethrowers were produced, and a Vincent battery was obtained. The new ATP flamethrower was adapted to conduct a second salvo fire - and became a powerful stationary weapon of positional warfare.

But…
It happened историяthat the completion of training for divisional and regimental flame-throwing teams coincided with the abdication of the Emperor. Headed and disorganized Russian army began to plunge into chaos ...


73. The poor quality photo shows the knapsack flamethrower of the Russian army in action. On the head of the flamethrower (in the lower left corner) of the photograph is a steel helmet of the Russian modification (sample 1916) of Adrian’s helmet 1915. Flame-throwing teams, as well as assault companies and machine-gunners, were equipped with such helmets in priority order. Ibid


74. Fire-resistant asbestos suit of the Russian flamethrower, 1916.

Not being able to complete the formation of full-time flame-throwing units of the Army, the General Staff decided to unite the units and units of the gas and fire war: to form special flame-throwing units within the Chemical teams. The latter were supposed to be temporarily attached to infantry regiments to solve specific offensive or defensive tasks, returning to the chemical teams after the completion of operations.

Units equipped with knapsack flamethrowers, participated in the fighting in the summer and autumn of 1917. Russian troops not only used flamethrower weapons, but also developed tactics for its use.

So, portable flamethrowers were used by shock units - with the support of infantrymen and grenade throwers. In the defense, pairs of stationary flame throwers covered the most important combat areas, and portable flame throwers were used for counterattacks. Trench flame throwers were used exclusively for defense - also used in pairs. SPS were used as trench flame throwers, with batteries of up to 25 units. But they could also support attack parts, as well as ensure the conduct of local counter-attacks.


75. The use of ATP in the defense. Tactical scheme. Ibid

In the middle of 1917, three batteries of trench flame throwers finished their training and went to the front.

6 June 1917 The Supreme Commander ordered the formation of a flamethrower unit with one regiment of each infantry division. Each of the 14-ti chemical teams was supposed to organize courses - in order to teach the infantrymen to use flame-throwing weapons. Instructors from the Fire-fighting Chemical Battalion were sent to each army.

On June 17, on the first day of the 1917 June offensive, the 7 Army chemical team carried out a flamethrower attack — a blow was struck against the positions of the German 104's reserve infantry regiment near Březan. After an hour-long artillery preparation, sappers-flamethrowers under the cover of a smoke screen moved forward. And behind them rushed waves of infantry. But the Germans repulsed the attack with heavy fire of artillery, mortars, grenade launchers and machine guns. The repeated attack was frustrated — the enemy’s strong fire did not allow him to leave the trenches. Then an artillery strike was struck against the German positions, and then a gas balloon attack was carried out.


76. Russian sapper - flamethrower. Ibid

Other information about the use of flamethrowers during the Summer Offensive is not available - although this weapon was certainly used in other sectors of the Russian-Austro-German front. There is no information about the inclusion of flamethrower units in the composition of the shock and death units. In September 1917, the chemical team will be reorganized into chemical companies numbering 240 people each.


77. Tilly-Goskin flamethrower system. Ibid

During World War I, more than 10500 flamethrowers were produced in Russia. The bulk (10000 units) - knapsack flamethrowers of regimental flamethrower teams. In the development of flamethrowing weapons, the Russian army not only kept pace with the demands of the times - it significantly exceeded the leading powers of the Entente (France - 3930, England - 214 flamethrowers) in terms of flamethrowers, producing flamethrowers more than the rest of the Entente taken together.


78. Russian infantrymen. Arisac rifles are armed, some in steel helmets. In accordance with the order of Glavkoverha from 6 June 1917, the flamethrowing units were to be formed in the part of the infantry regiments of the Russian army. Ibid
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  1. Rotmistr
    Rotmistr 16 January 2018 06: 15 New
    19
    In terms of the scale of the flamethrower produced and plans for its operation, Russia is the leader of the Entente.
    The leadership saw the prospect of the latest weapons - and it is a pity that it was not possible to fully see the corresponding fruits.
  2. Streletskos
    Streletskos 16 January 2018 06: 51 New
    19
    Napoleonic plans
    The regiment has a machine gun, flamethrower team, trench battery
    Army level and developed during the war
    Sorry for the wings ...
  3. XII Legion
    XII Legion 16 January 2018 07: 25 New
    20
    Detailed consideration of the creation of flamethrower troops in Russia
    Although the organizational plans were not fully realized, the results are still impressive.
    And Nicholas II ... Once he was discussed as a military leader. Well, if as such he did only 2 things - he introduced Zelinsky’s flamethrowers and gas masks into the army (and did much more - for example, as far as I remember, his position was decisive in the issue of adopting a heavy bomber) - well done.
    Colorful and interesting
    Thank you!
  4. parusnik
    parusnik 16 January 2018 07: 49 New
    +5
    The first order for Zelinsky gas masks in the amount of 200 thousand pieces was given in March 1916 under pressure from the General Staff, bypassing the Chemical Committee ..... And the first known use of the SPS flamethrower took place in the autumn of 1920 during the defense of the Kakhovsky bridgehead by the Red Army.
    1. XII Legion
      XII Legion 16 January 2018 08: 09 New
      18
      But the adoption of the Zelinsky gas mask occurred after a personal letter from the scientist to the tsar and assigned to the last tests. The highest will turned out to be more important than headquarters and committees.
      Regarding the use of flamethrowers on our front, there is still much unknown.
      The field of activity for the future ...
      1. XII Legion
        XII Legion 16 January 2018 08: 21 New
        14
        And they released Zelinsky gas masks in Russia only for 1916-17. if memory serves - more than a million
        1. soldier
          soldier 16 January 2018 10: 00 New
          18
          A bit wrong.
          In the years 1916-1917. as many as 11 (!!) million Zelinsky gas masks were issued
  5. soldier
    soldier 16 January 2018 10: 02 New
    17
    A number of flamethrowers - domestic design +
    A variety of systems ++
    High-explosive piston flamethrower - Russian know-how +++
    And September 11 can be considered the birthday of Russian flamethrower troops good
    1. soldier
      soldier 17 January 2018 10: 50 New
      15
      And September 11 can be considered the birthday of Russian flamethrower troops

      And fix
      RCB Troops Day is available
  6. Olgovich
    Olgovich 16 January 2018 10: 37 New
    13
    - in terms of the volume of flamethrower produced, it significantly exceeded the leading powers of the Entente (France - 3930, England - 214 flamethrowers), producing flamethrowersin more than the rest of the Entente put together.

    Such a "bast" Russia was.
    Putin about WWI: "Glory to the RUSSIAN WEAPONS!"
    And he is right.
    The author is again grateful for the opening of all the new glorious pages of our History.
    1. Alexey RA
      Alexey RA 16 January 2018 12: 43 New
      +4
      Quote: Olgovich
      Such a "bast" Russia was.

      So ... with tanks and hoses there were no problems. But as something more complicated - right there plug.
      The king of the battlefield PMV - His Majesty the machine gun:
      If in 1914 1161 machine guns were made, then in 1915 4124 were already received, in 1916 their release rose to 11 172, and finally, in 1917 11 420 machine guns were produced. Thus, the plant’s productivity increased by 9 times, and yet in 1917, the Stavka demanded to put 28 thousand machine guns in the army, have at least 10 thousand in stock and, moreover, acquire more than 110 thousand machine guns and 10 thousand Colt machine guns.
      Since increasing the productivity of the Tula plant to 2700 machine guns per month was extremely difficult, GAU made an attempt to attract private entrepreneurs. Despite the support of the Special Defense Conference, the attempt was generally unsuccessful. Then the military department accepted the offer of the Danish syndicate to build a plant for the manufacture of machine guns of the Madson system near the town of Kovrov. The Council of Ministers allowed the military department to allocate funds for ordering 15 machine guns to the syndicate in order to start their production on July 1, 1917. But the syndicate did not fulfill its obligations due to the lack of machine tools and tools.
      ... the greatest saturation with machine guns was achieved only in 1917. In general, the Russian army in this respect was inferior to its opponents in 1915-1916. more than twice, and in 1917 - even more.
      © Bloodless
      Of the more than 76 thousand machine guns available to the Army of the Empire, Russian factories produced only 32 thousand. Despite the fact that machine guns were adopted at the end of the XIX century and were produced in Russia since 1905. The reason for this shortage is simple: in the whole Empire there was the only plant whose machine accuracy was sufficient for the production of parts for automatic infantry weapons.
      For comparison: in the USSR they managed to expand the production of Maxims at the Izhevsk Motor Plant and even in besieged Leningrad at the facilities of LMZ named after Max Geltz (Lennpolygraphmash).
      1. Olgovich
        Olgovich 16 January 2018 14: 22 New
        +9
        Quote: Alexey RA
        For comparison: in the USSR they managed to expand the production of Maxims at the Izhevsk Motor Plant and even in besieged Leningrad at the facilities of LMZ named after Max Geltz (Lennpolygraphmash).

        Yeah, the "huge" achievement is in the middle 20 century execute an obsolete machine gun ...19-th century .. Maybe, even compare the products made by a 3D printer today and its same on the machine 1988,?

        Remind me how many more battleships the USSR built than RI. What not one? Though tried? And didn’t they even manage to keep what they got? This is an achievement, yes!
        1. Alexey RA
          Alexey RA 16 January 2018 15: 30 New
          +3
          Quote: Olgovich
          Yeah, the "huge" achievement is to execute an obsolete machine gun in the middle of the 20th century ... of the 19th century .. Maybe, even compare the products made by the 3D printer today and its same on the machine 1988,?

          At a non-core plant in the besieged city? Yes - a huge achievement. Moreover, the "tolerances and landings" have not gone away.
          Quote: Olgovich
          Remind me how many more battleships the USSR built than RI. What not one? Though tried? And didn’t they even manage to keep what they got?

          And what - helped the Empire its battleships? Maybe they drowned someone? Or participated in at least one battle? Well, at least shot at least once in the direction of the enemy?
          Ksta-a-ati ... and who was the instigator and the main participant in the revolutionary bacchanalia on the Baltic Fleet? wink
          Maybe it was necessary not to invest in battleships - which were outdated right during the construction and which by the beginning of the war had not even been tested? Maybe it was necessary to rearm the army and industry? For example, to lay a railway to the Izhevsk plant?
          Without access lines, the Izhevsk Plant (the largest enterprise in the empire) used river routes during the navigation period. The access road to the Golyany pier on Kama - a 40-kilometer highway - in the summer during the rainy, autumn and spring became impassable. Traveling even in a light carriage to this distance could take 18 hours, and the transportation of goods stopped.

          Unlike the Empire, the USSR built what might be needed in a future war. And even the shipbuilding industry was developed with an eye to land war: armor plants were reconstructed according to the program of the Big Fleet, but first of all they demanded tank armor from Izhora and Mariupol.
          The empire with battleships reached the collapse of the railways in late 1916. The USSR won the war without battleships.
          1. Curious
            Curious 16 January 2018 16: 09 New
            0
            Do not waste your energy on this Romanian strategist. He writes comments, as he once said about a single battleship in the dark - without regaining consciousness.
          2. Gopnik
            Gopnik 16 January 2018 18: 21 New
            +6
            Quote: Alexey RA
            And what - helped the Empire its battleships? Maybe they drowned someone? Or participated in at least one battle? Well, at least shot at least once in the direction of the enemy?


            Of course they helped. The Germans were restrained from the thought of breaking through to Petrograd. Did the ballistic missiles really help the USSR? Shot at least once in the direction of the enemy?

            Quote: Alexey RA
            Maybe it was necessary not to invest in battleships - which were outdated right during the construction and which by the beginning of the war had not even been tested? Maybe it was necessary to rearm the army and industry?


            Or maybe this one, instead of the battleship "Soviet Union", Stalin had to bring the DS machine gun to mind, what are you grieving about below?

            Quote: Alexey RA
            Unlike the Empire, the USSR built what might be needed in a future war.


            Yeah battleship "Soviet Union" especially. And about MZA and DShK, normal self-propelled guns, armored personnel carriers they forgot something. They are not needed in the modern war, you see, they were.
            1. Alexey RA
              Alexey RA 16 January 2018 19: 38 New
              0
              Quote: Gopnik
              Of course they helped. The Germans were restrained from the thought of breaking through to Petrograd.

              And what were the plans? No. seriously - the Germans all the pre-war time built a fleet to fight with RN ... and suddenly decided to merge it in the Marquise puddle, where few fairways suitable for LK and KR have been shot by all calibers for half a century, including 11 ”mortars ideal for such conditions?
              Quote: Gopnik
              Did the ballistic missiles really help the USSR? Shot at least once in the direction of the enemy?

              Taki Dropshot and other Totalities were real plans.
              Quote: Gopnik
              Or maybe this one, instead of the battleship "Soviet Union", Stalin had to bring the DS machine gun to mind, what are you grieving about below?

              It is possible to build new railways instead of the LC in 7 pre-war years. To bring the machine gun to mind in lieu of a year and a half, no. How much money do not allocate.
              Quote: Gopnik
              And about MZA and DShK, normal self-propelled guns, armored personnel carriers they forgot something. They are not needed in the modern war, you see, they were.

              Just MZA in a series launched and produced.
              Normal self-propelled guns for the USSR were impossible in principle - for without normal communications, artillery observers and spotters, ammunition carriers and all-wheel drive trucks, they simply were not needed. Well, the self-propelled gun battery flew into the position ... and waits until the spotters crawl along the NP, while the signalmen stretch out the wire connection (as the tests showed, tank radios are not suitable for adjusting fire), while the control will tie the positions. Then they shot a BC (you know how much the rate of consumption of shells for PDO is higher than for direct fire) - and that’s all, we smoke bamboo, wait until one and a half on the broken road get to the warehouse and return. Or they don’t get it - if artillery, along with the engine parts, entered the breakthrough.
              Oh yes, all these operations must be carried out keeping in mind that the battery commander has classes of 9, and 2/3 of his subordinates have 7 classes or less. Moreover, even the younger command staff, which in theory should train ordinary soldiers.
              In theory, all-wheel drive was planned for 1942 - the same GAZ-63.
              On the armored personnel carrier the USSR held the engine - we did not have a compact dvigla for 120-150 hp Tasks were set, the design bureaus promised, every experiment was done - but it didn’t reach the series. And there is no money to help here - it is only in Ziva that increased funding for science is directly converted into a reduction in development time. However, the first armored personnel carriers were planned for the same 1942 - from the converted T-26.
              1. Gopnik
                Gopnik 17 January 2018 00: 51 New
                +4
                Quote: Alexey RA
                No. seriously - the Germans all the pre-war time built a fleet to fight with RN ... and suddenly decided to merge it in the Marquise puddle, where few fairways suitable for LK and KR have been shot by all calibers for half a century, including 11 ”mortars ideal for such conditions?


                Did the Germans have any plans for Tannenberg? There is an opportunity - there will be plans. And that you have no doubt about the appropriateness of the "ideal" 11 "mortars? Did they at least once shoot at the enemy in WWII? Treat the Baltic battleships as part of the Peter the Great Fortress, such as Krasnaya Gorka or Fort Ino, and immediately understand The Germans decided to carry out a landing operation in the Baltic only when the central Baltics refused to recognize the government and came under the control of extremists. And the foreign powers decided to land in Aland and Finland only after the Maidan. At the same time, the Swedes decided to enter the war twice, in in the beginning and summer of 1915. It would be desirable, but pricked. And pricked with Baltic battleships. Well, take a look, there are no battleships. The Swedes enter the war, the German-Swedish landing occupies Aland and landed in Finland not in 1918, but in 1915. You would be the first to reproach the king -batushka "what landed under his nose, why there are no battleships !!! ???" Battleships, or rather what was left of them, shot at the enemy during the Blockade. Well, excuse me, the king-priest didn’t let the enemy under Petrograd, P shoot the battleships, excuse him.

                Quote: Alexey RA
                It is possible to build new railways instead of the LC in 7 pre-war years. To bring the machine gun to mind in lieu of a year and a half, no. How much money do not allocate.


                During the war years, the tsar’s king built a road to the Arctic, Pacific and Pacific Oceans, creating the last city of the empire - Murmansk. but to the Bolsheviks, yes, how much money pumped from the peasants and don’t give time — all through one place.

                Quote: Alexey RA
                Just MZA in a series launched and produced


                just compare this "series" with other WWII participants.



                Quote: Alexey RA
                Normal self-propelled guns for the USSR were impossible in principle - for without normal communications, artillery observers and spotters, ammunition carriers and all-wheel drive trucks, they simply are not needed


                That’s because the priest-king, the pest, did not create all this, ah-ah-ah, and Marx did not teach the handhelds themselves in their capital ...

                again, ah-ah-ah, the king-father didn’t leave an inheritance, bad-bad ...

                Quote: Alexey RA
                On the armored personnel carrier the USSR held the engine - we did not have a compact dvigla for 120-150 hp Tasks were set, the design bureaus promised, every experiment was done - but it didn’t reach the series.
                1. Alexey RA
                  Alexey RA 17 January 2018 16: 37 New
                  0
                  Quote: Gopnik
                  There is an opportunity - there will be plans.

                  The German fleet did not have the opportunity to break through to Petrograd both in the presence of the BF LK and in their absence. Otherwise, the Germans would have done it already at the beginning of the war, when our LCs had not even passed the tests. You remember that at the beginning of the war the BF had the only modern ship - EM Novik.
                  Quote: Gopnik
                  The Germans decided on the landing operation in the Baltic Sea only when the central bolt refused to recognize the government and came under the control of extremists.

                  The Germans decided on the DESO in the Baltic when they realized that nothing shines on them in the North Sea, and the fleet is decomposing without work.
                2. Alexey RA
                  Alexey RA 17 January 2018 18: 54 New
                  0
                  Quote: Gopnik
                  So take a look, there are no battleships, the Swedes enter the war, the German-Swedish landing occupies Aland and landed in Finland not in 1918, but in 1915.

                  In this case, the LC are in Reval. smile Because the only way to use them is like PBA for MAP. For a mine position to release them is simply dangerous - with their armor protection and speed. And also with the amount of LK and LKR at the opponent.
                  Quote: Gopnik
                  During the war years, the tsar’s king built a road to the Arctic, Pacific and Pacific Oceans, creating the last city of the empire - Murmansk.

                  The Tsar Father in 1911 liquidated the Warsaw UR, which had been under construction for 50 years, because the pace of concentration of our forces was inferior to the German one. Instead of strengthening the railway network on the future main theater. As a result, the fortress Novogeorgievsk, which was previously the supporting position of the UR, turned out to be hanging in a vacuum.
                  Quote: Gopnik
                  just compare this "series" with other WWII participants.

                  From 1941 to 1945, 20 000-K units were produced.
                  Quote: Gopnik
                  That’s because the priest-king, the pest, did not create all this, ah-ah-ah, and Marx did not teach the handhelds themselves in their capital ...

                  And don’t say ... remember - on whose engines imperial aviation flew? After all, it came to insanity - they used German engines from downed cars. smile
                  And as for the handshakes ... I now know one country that developed, produced and brought to mind the anti-aircraft machine gun for 10 pre-war years - and as a result, the war began with 3 "anti-aircraft guns in the MZA sockets, because neither the design nor the production technology I’ll tell you more - right before the war, this country abandoned all its own MZA (already in production) and bought licenses from the Swedes and Swiss, after which it spent 2 years to refine the design and technology to conveyor production. 2 years (of which 1,5 are military) - in the most industrialized and wealthy country, in the territory of the Metropolis of which there was no war. smile
            2. albert
              albert 16 January 2018 22: 27 New
              +1
              Quote: Gopnik
              Did the ballistic missiles really help the USSR? Shot at least once in the direction of the enemy?

              That you are alive now, write comments, you owe it to the Soviet missiles. Otherwise, the entire population of the former USSR would roll through the glass desert, in the form of radioactive dust from American bounties.
          3. Olgovich
            Olgovich 17 January 2018 07: 52 New
            +4
            Quote: Alexey RA
            At a non-core plant in the besieged city? Yes - a huge achievement. Moreover, the "tolerances and landings" have not gone away.

            Once again, for thirty years, on new machines, learn how to make a product of the last century, an achievement? You still count in the tomahawks
            Quote: Alexey RA
            And what - helped the Empire its battleships? Maybe they drowned someone? Or participated in at least one battle? Well, at least shot at least once in the direction of the enemy?

            I did not expect such ignorance from you: read about the Black Sea Fleet of the WWII. Peter is not all of Russia. Russia possessed the OCEAN fleet, the next government was not able to do this for a very, very long time.
            Quote: Alexey RA
            Unlike the Empire, the USSR built what might be needed in a future war. And even the shipbuilding industry was developed with an eye to land war: armor plants were reconstructed according to the program of the Big Fleet, but first of all they demanded tank armor from Izhora and Mariupol.

            The whole world built battleships, i.e. all fools, yes. They tried to build battleships in the USSR, but they didn’t have enough brains.
            Quote: Alexey RA
            The empire with battleships reached the collapse of the railways in late 1916. The USSR won the war without battleships.

            The Empire also won the war. But the losses are about 10% of the world, and in the SAI-53% of the world. Differences, don’t you see?
            1. Alexey RA
              Alexey RA 17 January 2018 19: 11 New
              0
              Quote: Olgovich
              I did not expect such ignorance from you: read about the Black Sea Fleet of the WWII.

              I wrote about the Baltic four.
              And in the Black Sea LK ... on that theater would be enough pairs of LK. And one of them was sold in Britain - but while the Empire was swinging, the Turks outbid it. ICH, British LC has traditionally been cheaper than domestic. smile
              Quote: Olgovich
              Russia possessed the OCEAN fleet, the next government was not able to do this for a very, very long time.

              Russian Ocean Fleet ended at BRKR "Rurik-2". The seaworthiness of the Sev and Empresses with the missing forecastle was, to put it mildly, very poor. And the cruising range corresponded to inland seas.
              Quote: Olgovich
              The whole world built battleships, i.e. all fools, yes.

              Whole world fought on the other side of Germany and Japan. Where it was possible and necessary to fight also in the Atlantic and the Pacific Ocean - for the same communications.
              The war of the USSR and the Reich was ground and air. The fleet in this war was on the last roles.
              Quote: Olgovich
              The Empire also won the war.

              The empire needed to last a year. That with the collapse of the railway was extremely unlikely.
              1. Olgovich
                Olgovich 18 January 2018 07: 55 New
                +2
                Quote: Alexey RA
                I wrote about the Baltic four.

                Judging by the text, no.
                Quote: Alexey RA
                And in the Black Sea LK ... on that theater would be enough pairs of LK.

                The theater of war was not only the Black Sea.
                Quote: Alexey RA
                Russia's kean fleet ended at Rurik-2. The seaworthiness of the Sev and Empresses with the missing forecastle was, to put it mildly, very poor. And the cruising range corresponded to inland seas.

                He was. And at a good level. The next government-did not have, and even got-ditched.
                Quote: Alexey RA
                The war of the USSR and the Reich was ground and air. The fleet in this war was on the last roles.

                Now it’s clear why the Black Sea Fleet was hiding in the last small harbors of Georgia, giving the Black Sea to undivided dominance — it was not needed, and the transportation of the Nazis was “insignificant.” yes Recall PMV, yes ...
                For the same reason, the Baltic Fleet hid at the mouth of the Neva. "Not needed" and did not decide anything! yes
                Quote: Alexey RA
                The empire needed to last a year. That with the collapse of the railway was extremely unlikely.

                For others, everything was perfect, yes, no collapses and starvation of hundreds of thousands. yes
                By the way, in Grazh, how did the Bolsheviks fight at the collapse?
      2. Gopnik
        Gopnik 16 January 2018 14: 25 New
        +6
        And what is the “plug”?

        Quote: Alexey RA
        For comparison: in the USSR they managed to expand the production of Maxims at the Izhevsk Motor Plant and even in besieged Leningrad at the facilities of LMZ named after Max Geltz (Lennpolygraphmash).


        Come on?? Not even 30 years had passed and were able to produce a machine gun still of royal design at more than one factory. This is undoubtedly a huge success. Although comparing 1916 and 1941, all is one that comparing 1945 and 1970, or 1889 and 1914. It is a pity, however, that the Great Patriotic War could not establish production of a modern machine tool at that time, and were inferior to the Germans with their MG-34 and MG- in machine-gun issues. 42, and with a heavy machine gun, as you elegantly put it, there was a plug - just an insignificant number. Well, let's not jump from flamethrowers to machine guns and from one world war to another
        1. Alexey RA
          Alexey RA 16 January 2018 15: 59 New
          +3
          Quote: Gopnik
          Come on?? Not even 30 years had passed and were able to produce a machine gun still of royal design at more than one factory. This is undoubtedly a huge success.

          The ability to mobilize the non-core industry and produce machine guns at the printing equipment factory is really a huge achievement.
          This is how the problem of machine guns was tried to solve in the Empire:
          The very first days of the war revealed a huge demand for machine guns. GAU decided to increase their production at the Tula plant in 1914 to 80 units. per month, and from January 1, 1915 to 200 pcs. per month (2400 - per year). But this amount was not enough. In 1915, the Headquarters determined the need for machine guns in 1916 in 14, which forced the Main Artillery Directorate to establish a standard for the production of machine guns in 072 pieces. per month. It was possible to increase the productivity of the plant through tremendous stress. The machine park has been increased by 800 machine tools. The number of workers in this department has been doubled. The plant was transferred to round-the-clock work.

          That is, they squeezed all the juices out of a single plant - and got production of 30-40% of the front’s needs.
          Let me remind you - at the beginning of the WWI, Maxim machine guns were made in Russia for 10 years.
          Quote: Gopnik
          It is a pity, however, that in the Second World War they could not establish the production of a modern machine tool at that time, and were inferior to the Germans with their MG-34 and MG-42 in the machine-gun issue

          Alas, yes - we were not given time to fine-tune the DS.
          Quote: Gopnik
          and with a heavy machine gun, as you elegantly put it, there was a plug - just an insignificant number.

          Not everything is so simple. © Large-caliber machine guns of the USSR produced about 160 thousand. Just 150 thousand of them were aviation. smile
          By the way, if it weren’t for the army’s desire to get the KKP with maximum armor penetration, our infantry had a chance instead of the DShK to get a normal sane machine gun - Ma Deuce. The product of John Mozesovich was bought, tested, imbued, wanted from us in the 30s ... but the less powerful cartridge crossed out all plans.
          1. Gopnik
            Gopnik 16 January 2018 18: 07 New
            +5
            Quote: Alexey RA
            The ability to mobilize the non-core industry and produce machine guns at the printing equipment factory is really a huge achievement.


            This is normal. It is one thing to produce the latest weapons, which have been in production for 10 years, and it is another thing to produce obsolete weapons that have been produced for almost 40 years, and even with more modern technologies and more modern equipment.

            Quote: Alexey RA
            That is, they squeezed all the juices out of a single plant - and got production of 30-40% of the front’s needs.


            The front always needs more than they give it. Already WWII it showed in all its glory. In any case, the Empire produced machine tool workers comparable to the rest of the participants - some more (but not at times), some less. 30-40% of the needs - it’s not bad to dream, so many lovers and Germany didn’t let out, and she let them out the most.

            Quote: Alexey RA
            Alas, yes - we were not given time to fine-tune the DS.


            And not only DS, which is the saddest thing. It seems that in the USSR on June 22, 1941, in general, not a single “brought up” model of armament was available, except for obsolete ones.

            Quote: Alexey RA
            Not everything is so simple. © Large-caliber machine guns of the USSR produced about 160 thousand. Just 150 thousand of them were aviation


            Yeah. Now compare how many 12,7 machine guns the United States fired. Germany didn’t bother with the KKP, it riveted anti-aircraft guns of 20 mm, although it released more than 60 thousand MG131. As a result, the Germans reliably covered their MZA troops, including self-propelled, and this was the weak point for us until the end of the war, ZSU were absent as a class. And in 1943-44, the Germans could, even with a catastrophic shortage of fighters, decide the outcome of ground battles.
            1. Alexey RA
              Alexey RA 16 January 2018 20: 02 New
              +1
              Quote: Gopnik
              and another thing is to produce obsolete which has been produced for almost 40 years, and even in the conditions of more modern technologies and on more modern equipment.

              Ahem ... EMNIP, Allies in WWII used might and main localized versions "Maxim" and its competitors from John Mozesovich (M1917).
              Quote: Gopnik
              The front always needs more than they give it. Already WWII it showed in all its glory. In any case, the Empire produced machine tool workers comparable to the rest of the participants - some more (but not at times), some less. 30-40% of the needs - it’s not bad to dream, so many lovers and Germany didn’t let out, and she let them out the most.

              The empire made 32 thousand machine guns on its own. And she received 44 machine guns from the Allies and the United States. Despite the fact that foreign suppliers also provided their armies.
              By the way, can you tell me how many machine guns were in the division of the Russian army for 1917, and how many were in French, British or German?
              Quote: Gopnik
              Yeah. Now compare how many 12,7 machine guns the United States fired.

              There is one problem here: the Yankees Ma Deuce went both to land / sea and to aviation. wink
              Quote: Gopnik
              And in 1943-44, the Germans could, even with a catastrophic shortage of fighters, decide the outcome of ground battles.

              Our eternal problem: basing (rear), organization and management. Aircraft are literally nearby - but this is a strip of the neighboring front and another air army. There are airplanes - there are no suitable airfields. There are airplanes and airfields - there is no fuel. There is everything - no connection. In general, the use of communications in the Air Force (especially with the posts of the Air Force Inspectorate) and the systemic application and management of the same IA devastating orders went until the end of the war. It was necessary, through orders, even to teach the use of radar. Not by instruction or other educational documentation, but by orders.
              The Navy aviation especially got it after it switched to supply from the NKVMF: in 1944, the 1st Guards and Military Transport Command, after relocation, was waiting for its rear for 3 weeks. The last week, the regiment was actually shut down from combat work.
              1. Gopnik
                Gopnik 17 January 2018 01: 10 New
                +4
                Quote: Alexey RA
                The empire made 32 thousand machine guns on its own. And she received 44 machine guns from the Allies and the United States. Despite the fact that foreign suppliers also provided their armies.


                I don’t understand something, would you like the Empire not to receive flights from the allies and the USA, or what?

                Quote: Alexey RA
                By the way, can you tell me how many machine guns were in the division of the Russian army for 1917, and how many were in French, British or German?


                As far as I know, at the beginning of 1917 there was one loom in the company. At least RIA and Germany.

                Quote: Alexey RA
                There is one problem - the Yankees Ma Deuce went both to land / sea and to aviation


                Yes, actually for the United States this is not a problem at all, it was enough for everyone. The problems were just the Red Army.

                Quote: Alexey RA
                Our eternal problem: basing (rear), organization and management. Aircraft are literally nearby - but this is a strip of the neighboring front and another air army.


                I don’t have to explain it. Explain this, for example, to the Russian soldiers who in the summer of 1944 near Vyborg were bombed with impunity by the German Stucks (long written off from the Western Front), which stopped their further offensive after the capture of Vyborg. And read, for example, Kurochkina "At war as at war", where he describes how the Germans calmly and orderly stood in a circle bombing the advanced units of the Red Army in late 1943 (this episode was not included in the film). The fact that the fighters have one, or even two, 12,7 mm machine guns is cool, but the fighters couldn’t brush the Germans out of the sky until they took away the pain of their fighters to the West to fight heavy bombers
                1. Alexey RA
                  Alexey RA 17 January 2018 19: 49 New
                  +1
                  Quote: Gopnik
                  I don’t understand something, would you like the Empire not to receive flights from the allies and the USA, or what?

                  You stopped drinking brandy in the morning, answer - yes or no? © smile
                  I only point out that with such a ratio of its own output and import, the Empire could not produce machine guns comparable to other participants. Especially considering that everyone also had light machine guns, which for some reason you discard.
                  Quote: Gopnik
                  As far as I know, at the beginning of 1917 there was one loom in the company. At least RIA and Germany.

                  And the handbrakes? Or, if the Empire does not produce them, then you do not need to take them into account? wink
                  Quote: Gopnik
                  And read, for example, Kurochkina "At war as at war", where he describes how the Germans calmly and orderly stood in a circle bombing the advanced units of the Red Army in late 1943 (this episode was not included in the film).

                  Upcoming parts. The separation of aircraft in the offensive was even among the Germans.
      3. Monarchist
        Monarchist 16 January 2018 14: 45 New
        +2
        It seems that Fedorov had another: the Kovrov plant did not work due to the outbreak of revolutionary events. By the way, Fedorov of the Cheka wanted to shoot as a counter-revolutionary, but the intercession of workers saved
    2. Alexey RA
      Alexey RA 16 January 2018 12: 59 New
      +2
      Although the arms industry of the USSR also sometimes ... delivered.
      With a creak and in hellish torment, the factories during the war gave the front as much as 9 thousand DShK. And for the same time, the Air Force received 150 thousands (!) Much more complex Berezin aviation machine guns under the same cartridge.
  7. Kapitan a
    Kapitan a 16 January 2018 12: 04 New
    19
    An excellent series of articles on the development of flamethrower weapons of the armies of the First World War.
    Everything is clear, detailed and level. The picture is completely clear. Respect and respect to the author. hi
  8. soldier
    soldier 16 January 2018 12: 08 New
    17
    The flamethrower system of General Ershov is very interesting.
    Like the British - some flamethrowers were designed, as I understand it, the specialists themselves
    1. soldier
      soldier 16 January 2018 12: 09 New
      17
      This is probably Ershov Alexander Pavlovich (1861-1922), lieutenant general of engineering troops.
      Orthodox. Educated at the 2nd St. Petersburg Military Gymnasium. He entered the service on January 11.01.1878, 1. He graduated from the 08.08.1881st military Pavlovsk and Nikolaev engineer. schools. Issued by Second Lieutenant (art. 1) in the 12.12.1883st Sapper. battalion. Moved to the Guard with the rank of Ensign Guards. (Art.30.08.1884). Second Lieutenant (Art. 30.08.1885). Lieutenant (Art. 1). He graduated from Nikolaev engineer. Academy (30.08.1894st category). Headquarters Captain (Art.06.12.1896). Captain (v. 06.12.1900). Colonel (st. 14). Commander of the 22.05.1901th Sapper. battalion (from 29.09.1906-29.09.1906). Grenadier commander. Sapper. battalion (26.06.1910-1910). Major General (Project 26.06.1910; Art. 5/26.06/17.10.1910; for distinction). Head of the 17.10.1910th Sapper. brigades (27.04.1911/27.04.1911/29.11.1912/29.11.1912/1917). Field inspector. Ing. troops of the Odessa Military District (06.12.1916-06.12.1916). Field inspector. Ing. troops of the Moscow Military District (XNUMX/XNUMX/XNUMX-XNUMX/XNUMX/XNUMX). Inspector Ing. parts of the Moscow Military District (XNUMX-XNUMX). Lieutenant-General (project XNUMX; Art. XNUMX; for distinction).

      Awards: Order of St. Anne, 2nd Art. (1898); St. Vladimir 3rd art. (1904); St. Stanislav 1st Art. (1912); St. Anne 1st Art. (VP 18.01.1915/19.11.1914/2; from 03.04.1916/XNUMX/XNUMX); St. Vladimir XNUMXnd art. (VP XNUMX/XNUMX/XNUMX).
      1. Monarchist
        Monarchist 16 January 2018 14: 56 New
        +3
        Comrade Armyman, such information somehow flashed on TV: naval engineering in Russia has traditionally been at a high level. According to Peter's on the table of ranks, it is clear that Peter appreciated most of all: navigators and engineers had an advantage in gaining the nobility. The Nikolaev edition of the Table also kept the primacy of engineers
        1. soldier
          soldier 16 January 2018 17: 15 New
          15
          I agree dear Monarchist
          We always had engineers on the shield
          And it is right
        2. Alexey RA
          Alexey RA 16 January 2018 18: 17 New
          +1
          Quote: Monarchist
          According to Peter's on the table of ranks, it is clear that Peter appreciated the most: navigators and engineers they had an advantage in obtaining the nobility.

          PMSM, this exclusivity was an attempt to somehow fix the situation of the same navigators in the fleet: in fact, for a long time they were on the ships "black bone", plebeians, somehow got into the "high naval light".
          The exceptional position of navigators in the fleet was mainly due to the class distinction. The fact is that before hereditary noblemen could be naval officers. Representatives of other classes did not have access to the maritime (naval) service. The navigator (like mechanics and naval gunners) did not belong to the privileged class and were from raznoshintsev - from the so-called "chief officer" children, from personal noblemen, from former conductors, etc.

          The navigator paved the way on the map, made a numbering, described coasts and surveys, made astronomical observations to determine the place of the ship, monitored nautical charts, the accuracy of compasses, and chronometers - in a word, he was mainly responsible for ship navigation and, following the captain, the first was strictly responsible court in case of stranded ship or any other misfortune, which was the result of a mistake or ignorance of the navigator.
          This serious part of the maritime business lay entirely with the navigators, especially in the old days, when naval officers abhorred the “vile”, noble, digital work (it was not without reason that the navigators contemptuously called the “digital work”), and most of the captains did not even know the navigational part at all , limited to the management of ships and military training teams. Without a good navigator, many captains in the old days could not have sailed, and on this occasion before there were many jokes among sailors.
          The downgraded position of the navigators was not limited to their career. And outside the service, the navigator, as a person not of a “white bone," was, so to speak, a "outcast." He was not admitted to the privileged naval caste. He was alienated. Not one of the sailors would have thought of marrying his daughter as a navigational officer. The superiors ruled the navigator with contemptuous rudeness; colleagues - with casual superiority. The navigator was considered a man of the "lower race", "bourbon". They scoffed at him.
          © Stanyukovich
  9. Ostrovsky
    Ostrovsky 16 January 2018 13: 08 New
    17
    The Russian leadership was thinking about introducing new technologies in the army. The leadership of those years was truly innovative and innovative.
  10. Curious
    Curious 16 January 2018 15: 38 New
    +1
    "The last Emperor paid great attention to weapons issues, and flamethrower weapons, a novelty of the time, were no exception."
    This attention was so great that in the six years since Nicholas II’s first acquaintance with flamethrowers, which practically did not differ from those used by the Germans against the Russian army, absolutely nothing was done. And only after the appearance in February 1915 of the German flamethrowers on the Western Front made a startling impression, Russia hastily set to work on creating a new type of weapon.
    Let me remind you that in January 1909, a German engineer Friedler turned to Emperor Nicholas II with a request to test his flamethrower apparatus. The German claimed that they are capable of throwing jets of burning liquid over considerable distances, and therefore can be used in military affairs when assaulting forts and fortifications, defending and attacking positions. The emperor instructed the SMI to conduct a test of Friedler’s devices in the presence of the head of the department at the Ust-Izhora training ground in March 1909. The inventor demonstrated three types of flamethrowers: small, medium and heavy.
    After a year and a half, the German engineer again turned to the SMI with a request to pay attention to his inventions, emphasizing the fact that their designs were significantly improved. The issue was resolved until March 1911, when the chief of the State Medical University, engineer-general N.F. Aleksandrov suggested that the devices not be purchased, "for now, to monitor the results of experiments on them abroad." Apparently, they watched badly.
    1. Some kind of compote
      Some kind of compote 16 January 2018 17: 05 New
      17
      in January 1909, a German engineer Friedler turned to Emperor Nicholas II with a request to test his flamethrower apparatus. The German claimed that they were capable of throwing jets of burning liquid over considerable distances, and therefore they could be used in military affairs when assaulting forts and fortifications, defending and attacking positions. The emperor instructed the SMI to conduct a test of Friedler’s devices in the presence of the head of the department at the Ust-Izhora training ground in March 1909. The inventor demonstrated three types of flamethrowers: small, medium and heavy.

      Yes, this was written https://topwar.ru/132645-izrygayuschee-plamya-ogn
      emetnoe-oruzhie-pervoy-mirovoy-chast-1.html
      This attention was so great that in the six years since the first acquaintance of Nicholas II with flamethrowers

      That's just it, that his first acquaintance with flamethrowers did not take place in Ust Izhora in 1909 (there was a "competent" commission - they hoped for her opinion), but on April 28, 1916 on the tests of Tilly Goskin - and after that the flamethrower weapons fell under the personal control of the emperor and began to be adopted. Flamethrower units also appeared.
      Apparently, they watched badly.

      They also watched poorly: the British, French, Austrians, Italians, Americans.
      Everyone was unprepared for a flamethrower war. Even the Germans are not 100% - they had to select flamethrowers from the Pioneer Bats and form a fire regiment from FIRE FIGHTERS.
      So, even though our "poorly watched" and went to the start late - ahead of all their allies and adopted a series of flamethrowers DOMESTIC design (unlike, for example, pasta).
      Fine good
      1. Alexey RA
        Alexey RA 16 January 2018 18: 20 New
        +1
        Quote: Some kind of Compote
        Even the Germans are not 100% - they had to select flamethrowers from the Pioneer Bats and form a fire regiment from FIRE FIGHTERS.

        "451 degrees Fahrenheit. Start." smile
      2. Curious
        Curious 16 January 2018 23: 55 New
        +1
        Firefighters in Moscow called professional beggars who collected alms under the guise of fire victims from villages.
        And fire fighters - they are FIRE.
        1. Horseman without a head
          Horseman without a head 17 January 2018 19: 25 New
          15
          Even firemen, fishermen called river gobies.
          And perches - by policemen (gray with red and fish are being chased). I heard from my grandfather in childhood)
  11. BRONEVIK
    BRONEVIK 16 January 2018 17: 31 New
    16
    Organization
    Application tactics
    on the first day of the June offensive of 1917, the chemical team of the 7th Army carried out a flamethrower attack - a blow was inflicted on the positions of the German 104th reserve infantry regiment near Brzezan. After an hour of artillery preparation, the flamethrower sappers moved forward under the cover of a smoke screen. And after them waves of infantry rushed. an artillery attack was carried out on German positions, and then a gas attack was carried out.

    Artillery flamethrower chemical strike.
    I mean at the level
    And good prospects
  12. Conductor
    Conductor 16 January 2018 18: 38 New
    +1
    Nikolay 2 !! but what about the lack of heavy artillery, almost all of our aviation, the Arisaki, purchased from the Japs, with the fleet in general, were driving the Geben fleet and did not catch up. shell hunger, and so on.
    1. Gopnik
      Gopnik 16 January 2018 18: 48 New
      +5
      having challenged again "start over"
      Quote: Conductor
      lack of heavy artillery


      Well, literally before that, the author finished a series of articles about heavy artillery. Walk down the page with articles and learn how.
      1. Conductor
        Conductor 16 January 2018 18: 59 New
        +1
        Thank you, I read it, but here's how a series of articles is one thing, and memoirs are different. and for example a 107 mm cannon is difficult to recognize for a heavy one.
        1. Blue cop
          Blue cop 16 January 2018 19: 13 New
          15
          107-mm gun officially belonged to heavy artillery
          According to classification
          And was in service with heavy artillery divisions
  13. Conductor
    Conductor 16 January 2018 19: 08 New
    +1
    The total number of guns in the states before the war:
    - Germany 9 388;
    - Austria-Hungary 4;
    - Russia 7 088;
    - France 4;
    - England 1 352;
    - Belgium about 900.
    1. Conductor
      Conductor 16 January 2018 19: 09 New
      0
      Belgium is difficult to consider, forts like that, for passive defense.
    2. Gopnik
      Gopnik 17 January 2018 00: 55 New
      +3
      Well, hurt yourself. Most of all, except Germany, preparing to start a war. It is very good for a peace-loving power, which has increased investments in public education and medical care every year.
  14. Blue cop
    Blue cop 16 January 2018 19: 15 New
    15
    Fire chemical battalion what handsome seasoned))
    And what is an asbestos suit worth)))
    Pages for technical improvement of our army
  15. Mamka pula
    Mamka pula 16 January 2018 19: 46 New
    15
    Thanks for the interesting series of articles on flamethrowers love
    Although I do not like weapons, it captures
    You look at the faces of those years
    And the fire is so bewitching
    What a person can do endlessly is to look at running water, a burning fire, and how others work yes
  16. Serge72
    Serge72 16 January 2018 21: 21 New
    15
    A good inheritance went to the Red Army
    Since then, our flamethrower has been one of the best (or even the best) in the world.
  17. Albatroz
    Albatroz 17 January 2018 07: 36 New
    +1
    Flames will ignite from the smoke
    Generally true)