Military Review

Russia and Pakistan: what are the reasons for improving relations?

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Serious changes in the foreign policy of the Russian Federation followed the violation of the traditional layouts that took shape in the world during the second half of the twentieth century. Not so long ago, Russian representatives stressed that they did not object to Pakistan’s joining the Nuclear Suppliers Group. Recall that the NSG was created in 1975 year to prevent the proliferation of nuclear weapons and at the early stage of its existence included the USSR, USA, Great Britain, Canada, France, Germany and Japan. Currently, the NSN includes 48 states, but Pakistan is not among them.


Russia and Pakistan: what are the reasons for improving relations?


Meanwhile, relations between Russia and Pakistan for a very long time could not be called not only friendly, but even simply neutral. Practically from the moment of its creation in the process of decolonization of British India, Pakistan found itself in the orbit of the strategic interests of the USA and Great Britain. Although the diplomatic relations between the Soviet Union and Pakistan were already established on 1 in May 1948, in fact both the USSR and Pakistan were very tense to each other. Pakistan was worried about the union relations of the USSR and India, in turn, the Soviet Union considered Pakistan as the most important US ally in South Asia. Prior to 1951, Pakistan remained a British dominion, but having received full independence in 1951, becoming an Islamic republic, it did not interrupt good relations with London and Washington. Communist activities in Pakistan were banned, Pakistani intelligence agencies actively cooperated with American intelligence, and Pakistan was used by the United States as the main springboard in South Asia. Pakistan was part of the CENTO and SEATO blocs created at the initiative of the United States and Great Britain, representing one of the components of the containment system being created by the West in South Asia and the Asia-Pacific region.

1 May 1960 of the year over the territory of the USSR, in the Sverdlovsk region, the Soviet calculation of air defense shot down an American U-2 aircraft, piloted by the pilot Francis Powers. As it turned out, the plane took off from Pakistan. Naturally, this situation also had a negative effect on Soviet-Pakistani relations. At that time, the Soviet Union was led by Nikita Khrushchev, who did not stint on strong language and threats. Moscow even threatened to strike at the Pakistan Air Force base. Since the Soviet Union was selling weapon India and in general built positive economic and political relations with India, in Pakistan they also viewed the USSR as an adversary.

Relations between the two states worsened even more in the 1970s - 1980s. A short period of establishing relations took place only in the middle of the 1970-s, when the government of Zulfikar Ali Bhutto came to power in Pakistan. The new head of state headed for a change in the country's foreign policy and the development of good-neighborly relations with other states, made a formal apology to the newly created state of Bangladesh (former East Pakistan), and brought Pakistan out of the pro-American unit of SEATO. Naturally, these changes could not but provoke a response of right-wing Pakistani circles, first of all, a generals associated with the United States. In 1977, a military coup took place in the country, as a result of which General Mohammed Zia-ul-Haq, known for his anti-communist views, came to power. When Zia-ul-Haq was in power, relations between Pakistan and the USSR deteriorated again. First of all, the deterioration of relations was connected with the ideological position of Zia-ul-Haq himself, who hated the communist ideology and everything connected with it.

In 1979-1989 Pakistan played a crucial role in supporting the movement of the Afghan Mujahideen, who fought against the government of the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan and came to the aid of the Soviet troops. It was during this period that Pakistan became an open enemy of the USSR. Pakistani instructors trained the Mujahideen, including in Pakistan. The field commanders actively used data from Pakistani intelligence, received weapons, financial assistance from Pakistan, Pakistani volunteers and even regular army soldiers fought in the Mujahideen units.

One of the most disgusting pages in stories Pakistan-Soviet relations became the existence of the Badab camp on the territory of the North-West Frontier Province of Pakistan, where not only the Mujahideen militants were trained, but also Afghan and Soviet prisoners of war were kept. The conditions of detention of prisoners of war were appalling, despite the fact that the camp functioned on the territory of Pakistan, which had not officially severed diplomatic relations with the Soviet Union. It was in this camp of 26 on April 1985 of the year that the legendary uprising of Soviet prisoners of war broke out, cruelly suppressed by the Mujahideen of Burhanuddin Rabbani with the direct support of the Pakistani regular armed forces.

The brutal suppression of the uprising of Soviet prisoners of war involved artillery and tank units of the 11th army corps of the armed forces of Pakistan and helicopters of the Pakistani air force. The Pakistani leadership, fearing the Soviet reaction, tried in every way to silence the very fact of the uprising in the Badaber camp, the brutal massacre of the rebels, and the participation of Pakistani military personnel in the massacre. Nevertheless, as is well known, there was no tough reaction from the USSR - Moscow limited itself to the duty note of protest.

Relations between post-Soviet Russia and Pakistan began to gradually improve. His role was played, of course, the collapse of the Soviet Union. If before Pakistan perceived the USSR as its direct adversary, which controlled Central Asia and Afghanistan, then after the collapse of the Soviet state, the political situation changed. Pakistan and Russia have common problems, including the fight against terrorism in the region. In the 2007 year, for the first time in 38 years, Russian Prime Minister Mikhail Fradkov paid an official visit to Pakistan, meeting with head of state Pervez Musharraf. The growth of interest in bilateral relations was due, primarily, to economic reasons - countries needed to increase trade.



Of course, the tradition of friendly relations between Russia and India has not disappeared anywhere. Moreover, Moscow still emphasizes the priority of Russian-Indian relations, but economic interests in the modern world are becoming more and more significant. For example, European and American sanctions against Russia forced Moscow to look for new partners. The fact that it’s time for Russia to “start looking at the East,” was spoken at the end of 1990, the beginning of 2000, and today it is a fait accompli. Russia is interested in the markets for energy raw materials in China and India. In particular, Russia plans to build a huge gas pipeline to supply gas from Iran to India. It is clear that this gas pipeline must pass through the territory of Pakistan, but then the consent of the Pakistani side is required.

In addition, the United States and Russia are opposed to laying the gas pipeline. It must be emphasized that it can become a partner for Pakistan no less valuable than the United States. Therefore, Russia is increasingly trying to interact with Pakistan in a number of important areas. For example, the Prime Ministers of the two countries, Dmitry Medvedev and Khazid Hakan Abbasi, reached agreements on the construction of an offshore gas pipeline, in which Pakistan will take an active part. A Pakistani-Russian commission is working to determine the most promising areas of cooperation in the scientific, technical, economic and commercial fields.



Sino-Russian relations also play their part. In the late Soviet era, both China and Pakistan were strategic adversaries of India and the Soviet Union. Therefore, they could easily cooperate with the United States. Now the situation has changed radically. China is the main economic and political rival of the United States, maintaining good relations with Pakistan and improving relations with Russia, becoming its important partner. In turn, relations between India and the United States continue to improve. The United States and Great Britain gradually shifted from cooperation with Pakistan to cooperation with India, knowing full well that in the new conditions India could become the most serious alternative to China in Asia.

Relations between Pakistan and the United States are also deteriorating. First, Islamabad does not like a significant improvement in US-Indian relations. The United States provides India with great support, which cannot but alarm the Pakistani authorities. As the United States curtailed military assistance to Pakistan, establishing further cooperation with India, the authorities are concerned about the possible deterioration of Pakistan’s positions in South Asia, primarily on the Kashmir issue.

Second, the United States continues to attack Pakistan, accusing it of collaborating with terrorist organizations. This is a question of an ideological nature. The fact is that a significant part of these organizations was once formed, if not with direct participation, then with the connivance of the United States. Now that “the genie has escaped from the bottle,” the United States continues to blame anyone for this, just not themselves.

For Pakistan, the support of a number of radical organizations is an ideological question. It should be understood that Pakistan is an Islamic republic, religion plays a huge role in its life, is the only fastened Pakistani national identity in this multinational country (Pakistan includes Punjabis, Sindhs, Pashtuns, Baluchis, Kashmiris and some other peoples). So simply from the support of religious fundamentalist organizations in the same Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir, as well as the Taliban in Afghanistan (the activity of the Taliban in the Russian Federation is prohibited), Pakistan will not refuse.

In November 2017, US Secretary of State Rex Tillerson urged Islamabad to abandon the support of terrorist organizations, as it "does not bring benefits to the country." But Pakistani special services do not even think about stopping the support of radical organizations, since they completely disagree with the opinion of the Americans - Islamabad, unlike the United States and India, is very interested in expanding the influence of religious-fundamentalist organizations in South and Central Asia. The “Islamic belt” in which Islamabad expects to involve Afghanistan should be a reliable deterrent to India’s geopolitical plans.

Thirdly, the anti-Islamic rhetoric of Donald Trump, of course, does not really like the modern Pakistani leaders, at least from the considerations that it is offensive to the overwhelming majority of the population of this country. In early December 2017, Islamabad condemned Donald Trump's decision to recognize Jerusalem as the capital of Israel (this is a matter of principle for Muslim believers).

Despite the fact that the United States continues to perceive Pakistan as a country on which they have a great influence, the situation is still changing. It is unlikely that Washington and Islamabad will be able to agree on a number of fundamental issues, and therefore the contradictions between the two states will increase. Naturally, in such a situation Pakistan will seek more and more active contacts with China, and through China - with the Russian Federation.

Of course, for Russia in the politics of Pakistan there is also little good. It is known that many radical groups based on penetration into the republics of Central Asia are based in Pakistan. At the same time, economic interests dictate the need to expand cooperation, especially in the context of friendship with China. For example, Russia supports the idea of ​​creating a China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) as part of promoting the well-known Chinese strategy “One Belt, One Road” (OPOP).

Of course, this position of Russia is not to India’s liking, as Delhi fears the further development of Chinese-Pak-Russian relations. The complexity of the situation is that India also remains an important economic and political partner of the Russian Federation, and relations with which now also should not be deteriorated. Not interested in the deterioration of relations with Russia and India, which now has to balance between Moscow and Washington, looking also at what Beijing thinks and does.
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  1. ImPerts
    ImPerts 27 December 2017 07: 34
    +3
    I think one of the factors of rapprochement is the attitude towards the Taliban.
    1. Alone
      Alone 27 December 2017 07: 56
      +5
      Yes, the Taliban, unlike the merikosas, in which poppy fields begin to "spike" on the lands of Afghanistan, methodically burns these fields (as far as I know).
      1. ImPerts
        ImPerts 27 December 2017 08: 19
        +5
        There is one. In addition, they promise the inviolability of borders and their protection:
        “But we want friendship with Russia. Many field commanders support this idea. It will exhaust that hatred and smooth out the hostility left over from the Soviet invasion. And will benefit Russia. After all, we still see the former Soviet republics as the border with Russia, and we we can ensure the stability and security of these borders. "
    2. Aaron Zawi
      Aaron Zawi 27 December 2017 09: 30
      +5
      Quote: ImPerts
      I think one of the factors of rapprochement is the attitude towards the Taliban.

      That is yes. There is a progressive Islamization of the Russian Federation.
      1. ImPerts
        ImPerts 27 December 2017 11: 55
        +4
        There are a lot of subjects of the Federation in Russia, where Islam is the dominant religion.
      2. To be or not to be
        To be or not to be 27 December 2017 14: 25
        +3
        This is a general trend ...
        "" By 2030, three out of 10 people between the ages of 15 and 29 in the world will be Muslims. While in the 1990s, only two out of ten Muslims were.

        Researchers at the Pew Center believe that the only region where Muslims will grow over the course of 2020 is Central and South America, mainly due to immigration. In the United States, the number of Muslims from 2,6 million in 2010 is expected to increase to 6,2 million in 2030. Muslims in the United States will be about the same as Jews and members of the Church of England.

        Muslims in Europe, where they now constitute a minority, will increase from 44 million people in 1 to 2010 million in 58,2. The trend towards an increase in the number of Muslims is particularly pronounced in the UK. Here, the proportion of Muslims will grow from four to eight percent.
        By 2030, in 10 European countries, the number of Muslims will exceed 10 percent. By that time, the number of Muslims in Kosovo will be 93,5 percent, in Albania - 83,2, in Bosnia and Herzegovina - 42,7, in Macedonia - 40,3, in Montenegro - 21,5, in Bulgaria - 15,7, in Russia - 14,4, in Georgia - 11,5, in France - 10,3 and in Belgium - 10,2 percent.

        A large number of Muslims will continue to remain in Russia. Here, the Muslim population will grow from 16,4 million in 2010 to 18,6 million in 2030. ""
        (Gazeta.kz l Kazakhstan 2011)
  2. Cartalon
    Cartalon 27 December 2017 08: 13
    +4
    We and Pakistan enter the Chinese bloc, Russia does not have free hands in politics, soon the natural ally of India will become an enemy.
    1. ImPerts
      ImPerts 27 December 2017 08: 19
      +4
      Russia is building equal relations with everyone, which makes it possible to be a mediator and arbitrator.
      1. Cartalon
        Cartalon 27 December 2017 14: 11
        +1
        Only a dominant power can pursue such a policy.
        1. alexx-fenix
          alexx-fenix 31 December 2017 12: 00
          0
          The dominant power does not forget the destruction of their compatriots prisoners of war.
  3. Alexander Russian
    Alexander Russian 27 December 2017 08: 56
    +4
    “Nevertheless, as is well known, there was no tough reaction from the USSR — Moscow limited itself to the duty note of protest.”
    The author is not up to date. After this suppression, a number of significant sabotage was carried out in Pakistan, including the destruction of a warehouse with ammunition and a considerable number of victims.
  4. polpot
    polpot 27 December 2017 10: 02
    +2
    India has recently become a US-oriented country, pro-American sentiments are strong in the country, our interests in this area are serious, so now we are starting the game in Pakistan.
    1. avt
      avt 27 December 2017 15: 39
      +4
      Quote: polpot
      India has recently become a US-oriented country

      bully Remember once and for all - India is oriented from the moment of its formation only to India, which was quite friendly and sincerely dear Indira Gandhi to Uncle Lena Ilyich No. 2, whoever expects fraternal brotherhood from the Indians - either stupidly does not own the question, or fool With regards to the packs, well, Marshal Ziya-ul-Haq also turned to the USSR with a proposal of a zero option in Afghanistan, namely, we are withdrawing troops, and he is tightening the Taliban tightly. They did not have time to discuss it - the plane with the Marshal S-130 fell into disaster. Now, taking into account the realities in the Levant, the weight gain by Iran and the trip of the main sponsors of the atomic project of packs to Moscow - the Saudi elite. We decided to play it safe.
      1. Krabik
        Krabik 28 December 2017 03: 23
        +2
        India and Pakistan have no orientation - these are countries without civilization, where dead people are thrown into the street, where there is no education or medicine.

        The video came across as tourists traveling on a bus saw a child eating a dog.
        Familiar acquaintances went there, at one student of the Bauman, the roof went specifically on the basis of Krishna, and he dragged his wife there.
        But even the crazy gooey student Baumanka escaped back to the Russian Federation, after all the delights of living in India%)

        Now India has fled to the United States due to large handouts and kickbacks.

        It makes no sense to be friends with them; managing and using them is another matter.

        India is a landfill ...
    2. Sergey53
      Sergey53 27 December 2017 22: 43
      0
      I think we're just trying to sit on two chairs at the same time.
      1. Kasym
        Kasym 28 December 2017 00: 55
        +3
        Russia can become a kind of arbiter in the Asian showdown - only competent policy on the continent is needed. As for Pakistan, it is enough to “smooth the corners” in the relations of this country with India by finding “points of contact and growth”. For example, energy and energy (it is in short supply for both countries). Piping pipelines from Central Asia and Iran through Pakistan to India - this will push them to sign a peace treaty, as a guarantee the start of these works. To tie their economies through trade and the construction of transport corridors - the PRC and India have already begun this process, which already has a charitable effect on their relationship. The visits of the leaders of these countries to each other are an obvious example. CICA also contributes to security on the continent - this organization and forums have already had a favorable impact.
        Pakistan is interested in developing its energy sector - there, rolling blackouts are the norm. In this, the Russian Federation can greatly help. Nuclear power station, thermal power station - what the "doctor" prescribed. Delhi needs to explain the positive aspects of this work, it also needs it - you can even connect the energy networks of these countries. In the end, good relations with neighbors will favorably affect them: trade, transit, security. They must be convinced that if they do not establish relations, then it is useless to wait for peace on the continent; to convince that territorial disputes will subside with the growth of prosperity and that this can be solved by the example of relations of the PRC-RF, PRC-RK. Escalation will only push the country away from investments and the construction of infrastructure projects in Asia. Corridors SOUTH-NORTH (railway, highways, air links) are needed. Asia is, after all, a self-sufficient region, and if the continent is made peaceful, then "outsiders will not dance." Everyone understands this in the West and lead their game. Therefore, I believe that through the SCO and CICA, Russia can play a key role, becoming a kind of arbiter - Asia needs this. The destructive policy of the West manifested itself in the Muslim world, Jerusalem showed it perfectly. Moscow needs to become more active, and there is no question of "two chairs." She has already shown that she does not give up “friends” - this image needs to be consolidated. hi
  5. Monster_Fat
    Monster_Fat 27 December 2017 18: 27
    +2
    Improving Relationships? Well, well ... Larchik just opens .... "against the backdrop of deteriorating" (and significant) relations with India, which has set its sights on breaking off relations with Russia (which is already uninteresting due to the lack of large corruption money in foreign currency, for top Indian officials, sanctions, sic ...) and for active cooperation with the USA and the EU, in which denyuzhki are found in practically unlimited quantities (if necessary, they will print how much will be needed, but Russia needs to earn currency ... .) .... wink
  6. cormorant
    cormorant 27 December 2017 22: 11
    +2
    Was recently in Karachi. It is surprising that this country also has nuclear weapons. From the inside, everything looks like a big trash. Piles of rubbish in the streets, pestering groups of beggars. Motor transport seemed to have collected everything in a landfill. A depressing impression ... The US Consulate is surrounded by almost a triple wall.
    1. Krabik
      Krabik 28 December 2017 11: 57
      +2
      Nuclear weapons presented to the USSR for the sake of its geopolitical troubles;)
  7. Normal ok
    Normal ok 28 December 2017 15: 08
    +2
    Russia and Pakistan: what are the reasons for improving relations?

    The reason is simple: the loot defeats evil (((But when will they give the Soviet prisoners of war from the 40 Army, of which there are still a couple dozen ?!
  8. gsev
    gsev 29 December 2017 04: 20
    0
    Quote: Krabik
    India and Pakistan have no orientation - these are countries without civilization, where dead people are thrown into the street, where there is no education or medicine.

    The video came across as tourists traveling on a bus saw a child eating a dog.
    Familiar acquaintances went there, at one student of the Bauman, the roof went specifically on the basis of Krishna, and he dragged his wife there.
    But even the crazy gooey student Baumanka escaped back to the Russian Federation, after all the delights of living in India%)

    Now India has fled to the United States due to large handouts and kickbacks.

    It makes no sense to be friends with them; managing and using them is another matter.

    India is a landfill ...

    The Indian culture is the oldest in the world. Before the Magnitsky textbook published after the reforms of Peter 1, the number of Russians who know how to multiply 4-digit numbers was not more than a hundred. Russian (Soviet) physics was created by Ioffe after the 1917 revolution. Before that, Russian scientists practically only repeated Western experiments and systematized knowledge. The reason is the cooling of our relations with India, we have little to offer. Her current education system is considered to be the best in the world. Her engineering and scientific staff ensure the development of industry in her country and the development of software for the whole world. On the other hand, it is more profitable for us to trade with China.
    From the time of Gandhi and Nehru, the Indian intelligentsia and leadership built an independent, neutral India. The country has little land, resources, a lot of people. Its people will be replaced by a government that will sacrifice the interests of their country to even friendly but distant peoples.
    And it can more justly pay for qualifications, for visible successes, create competition in India, than pay for a place where a person works, as in Russia. Indeed, in Moscow, a cleaner can earn more than the chief engineer of a bakery in the Oryol region. So the Indians believe that they are helping Russia by providing jobs to Russian programmers if Russian business cannot offer better conditions.
  9. gsev
    gsev 29 December 2017 04: 28
    0
    Quote: Krabik
    Was recently in Karachi. It is surprising that this country also has nuclear weapons. From the inside, everything looks like a big trash. Piles of rubbish in the streets, pestering groups of beggars. Motor transport seemed to have collected everything in a landfill. A depressing impression ... The US Consulate is surrounded by almost a triple wall.
    cormorant
    0 Krabik Yesterday, 11:57 ↑ New
    Nuclear weapons presented to the USSR for the sake of its geopolitical troubles;)

    Interesting fact. In both India and Pakistan, ethnic Pashtuns led the development of nuclear weapons. Moreover, the Pakistani well helped the North Koreans. I think that both Indian intelligence and Pakistan helped their scientists worse than Soviet ones. So there are talents among different nations, just conditions are necessary for their development.
  10. A. Privalov
    A. Privalov 2 January 2018 21: 05
    +1
    The only one, it’s also the main reason for improving relations, is that Pakistan really needs money. Apparently, he is losing such a major sponsor as the United States, since Donald Trump accused Islamabad of assisting terrorists and threatened to stop providing economic assistance to Pakistan. He said that the United States "foolishly" transferred more than 15 billions of dollars to Pakistan over the past 33 years without receiving anything in return.
    Official sources told Reuters that the White House is not planning "for the moment" to transfer 255 millions of dollars to Pakistan, which Islamabad should have received from the United States in August. According to the statement, "the administration continues to check the level of cooperation of Pakistan." In August, the White House administration announced that the payment was postponed.

    But it’s necessary to take money somewhere, perhaps, now these billions of dollars will be given to him by the Russian Federation, and that’s what is coming up ...