Military Review

Anton Denikin - the fate of the officer on the altar of history

19
Anton Ivanovich Denikin - a noble officer who remained loyal to Tsarist Russia, or the leader of an unbridled gang of marauders? Today, there are adherents of both that and this point of view. Rate historical the personality that Denikin is without a doubt follows, given the most varied facts and characteristics. The character of this outstanding personality can be understood only by turning to the path of life that he had to go through. The complex life of a person who is strong and certainly talented, rich in both tragic and bright events, deserves the attention of posterity.


Anton Denikin - the fate of the officer on the altar of history


A white officer was born in the village of Shpetal Dolny in the Warsaw province 4 December 1872. The Denikin family, although related to military families, lived in poverty. His mother, Elizabeth Franciskovna, practically did not express herself in Russian, since she was a pure-blooded Polish woman, and her father had no noble origin. Ivan Efimovich, that was the name of the father of the future leader of the white movement, was a serf who was recruited and promoted to the rank of major. Despite the "proletarian" origin, the orders in the family were very refined and strict. Since childhood, the boy was inculcated with a sense of dignity, honor and responsibility. Ivan Efimovich professed Orthodoxy, while his wife was a Catholic. Little Anton was introduced more to the Russian church, but occasionally he attended the church. The boy grew up talented and lively, at the age of four he read well, and at nine he entered the Vlotslavskoe real school.

In 1885, Major Denikin passed away, and his relatives found themselves in very cramped financial conditions. The already small monthly pension for which the family existed has drastically decreased. Anton Ivanovich by that time turned 13 years, but already at such an early age he showed his best qualities. The young man took upon himself the burden of keeping his relatives and began giving paid lessons. Soon the diligent and out of age reasonable student noticed. In 15 years he was assigned student allowance, and also granted the right to live in a special apartment, together with peers. The responsible young man quickly gained credibility and was appointed a senior student in the dormitory. The fate of Denikin from an early age made him be strong and fight for well-being.

The atmosphere in the Denikins family reigned patriotic. My father spent most of his life in real service and from an early age instilled in his son love and respect for the Russian army. The dream of a young man soon came true. Immediately after the end of the Lovitsky Real School, Denikin was enlisted in the first rifle regiment as a volunteer and lived in the barracks for several months. However, a military career without appropriate training in Russia was impossible, especially for a person who had no noble origin. In July, Denikin entered the Kiev Junker School, graduating in 1892 with the rank of second lieutenant. In the same year, Anton Ivanovich met his future wife, Xenia, who was only a few weeks old at the time. Denikin met her father under very curious circumstances, after killing the boar who had driven the venerable Vasily Chizh to a tree. After the “salvation”, Anton Ivanovich became a family friend and even attended Xenia’s christenings.

In 1895, Denikin entered the Academy of the General Staff, but was expelled in his first year for academic debts. The hardness of character manifested itself at this stage in the life of the young officer — he again passed the entrance tests. 1899, Anton Ivanovich gets the rank of captain. A diligent and talented graduate was supposed to be enrolled in the General Staff, but some General Sukhotin changed the lists on his own initiative. Denikin complained about the general, and Sukhotin’s actions were declared illegal, but the impudent officer was not credited with the Headquarters.

In addition to abilities in military science, Denikin also possessed a literary gift. In his youth, he wrote poetry, but after that he preferred prose. His works Anton Ivanovich devoted to questions of army life. His first creations saw the light through the Warsaw Diary and Scout journals. The critics' literary ability was appreciated, but the command was wary of the thinking officer. Most of the problems that Denikin affected in his works were unpleasant for the commanding staff and aroused the keen interest of the public. Anton Ivanovich wrote all his life, especially his works became popular in the West. Each line of his writings is imbued with genuine love of country and rejection of the communist system.



Friendship with Kuropatkin allowed Denikin to finally get to headquarters. The officer, who said that he was not looking for mercy, still actively used connections to move up the career ladder. Since 1902, Anton Ivanovich is one of the staff officers and receives not a small pension. Young, full of strength, Denikin sought to win awards and honor in real battles. Despite the slight injuries caused by falling from a horse, Anton Ivanovich goes to the front of the Russian-Japanese war. The first experience of the battles was obtained in clashes with the Chinese brigands, as the border brigade entrusted to Denikin was in the rear. However, October 28 in the rank of lieutenant colonel Anton Ivanovich sent to the Cossack division under the command of Rennekampf. While serving as chief of staff, Denikin participated in the Tsinkhechensky battle, where, under his leadership, one of the hills was repelled in a bayonet attack. This was followed by active and successful reconnaissance actions, as well as a clash with the Japanese at the Vancelin pass, the Mukden battle, and other effective operations. The command highly appreciated the merits of the brave commander, and from the war Denikin returned as a colonel who was awarded the Order of St. Anna 2 degree with swords, as well as St. Stanislav with bows and swords.

A further career has been quite successful, but the merit of career advancement belongs exclusively to Denikin himself. After the war, he spent a long time in a lower position at the headquarters of the second cavalry corps, awaiting an acceptable appointment. During this period he visited Europe. Anton Ivanovich was distinguished by astonishing self-control and perseverance, he was not afraid to give up his post as chief of staff of the Eighth Siberian Division and received the desired appointment to the Kazan Military District. The ability to wait and demand more than once helped Denikin to take a worthy place in the hierarchy of military officials. The conduct of the post of Chief of Staff of the Reserve Infantry Brigade in Saratov No. 57 is evaluated by researchers in different ways. During this period, Anton Ivanovich was actively writing to the journals, and his work contained sharp criticism of not only the existing orders in the army, but also contained clear "injections" addressed to the immediate commander, General Sandetsky. Life-filled with events and appointments shows us Denikin as an active and purposeful person. Anton Ivanovich openly expressed his political views, defiant in his youth, he softened somewhat in his mature age, but did not give up his convictions.



In 1914, Denikin arrives in Kiev in connection with his appointment to the post of general on instructions at the headquarters of the Commander in the Kiev Military District. By the beginning of the First World War, he received the rank of Major General and served under the command of Brusilov. Again, Denikin wrote a petition for his transfer to the line service and sent to the front. Almost immediately, Anton Ivanovich conducted a successful attack from Grodek, for which he was marked by Georgievsky weapons. The command of the Iron Brigade was so productive that soon the brave commander was awarded the Order of St. George 4 degree. In September, 1915, for taking Lutsk, he was promoted to lieutenant general, even a wound in the arm did not force Denikin to return to the rear. For the secondary capture of Lutsk, he was again granted a George’s own weapon adorned with diamonds and a special engraving. From September 1916 to 1917, Denikin commanded the Russians of the Eighth Corps on the Romanian front. For his services to Romania, he is awarded the highest military award by the Order of Mihai the Brave of the third degree.

The February Revolution interrupted Anton Ivanovich's glorious feats of arms, as it was caused by the new Minister Guchkov. After a long conversation, he was appointed chief of staff at the new Supreme Commander. Alekseev's displacement and the arrival in his place of Brusilov Denikin met tensely. The rejection of political change was reflected in the refusal of the post. For a sharp statement in support of General Kornilov, Denikin was arrested and thrown into Bykhov prison as a supporter of the rebellion. Together with Kornilov, he soon escaped under the name of Dombrowski. Combat experience made Denikin an authoritative figure in the military-political arena; in June 1918, he became the head of the Volunteer Army, numbering about 9000 people. The white general moved his troops to Yekaterinodar, and thanks to his knowledge, he was able to smash the Kuban grouping. By early next year, Denikin controlled the northern territory of the Caucasus, as well as the Kuban and the Don. Using political connections, he receives impressive assistance from members of the Entente, which largely determined the success of offensive operations.

In January, 1919, the Denikin Volunteer Army merged with the Don military forces, and Anton Ivanovich became the commander of the Armed Forces of Southern Russia. Researchers of personal correspondence and diaries of this extraordinary and strong person indicate that, despite the importance of the position, Anton Ivanovich was not happy with her. Being a successful commander-in-chief, he did not strive for sole authority, but rather feared it. Perhaps that is why in June 1919 he recognized the power of Kolchak. However, there are other points of view. For example, some historians prove the Nizhneudinsky decree of Kolchak 1920 of the year to prove the opposite, in which he confirms the possibility of transferring all the power to Denikin. The commander himself, in his memoirs, confesses that he would have refused sole authority. Historians explain the failure of the White Army, Denikin’s miscalculations in the area of ​​discipline, as well as an insufficient assessment of the forces and capabilities of the enemy.



By April, 1920, relations with the opposition are coming to a head, and Denikin is leaving for England, handing over his post to Wrangel. Despite his long tenure as commander-in-chief, Anton Ivanovich is practically deprived of his means of livelihood. In exile, he refuses to support Churchill and the aristocratic English circles, promising large financial injections. A few months later the white general departed for France. His life in emigration was modest, he lived a subsistence economy, but still closely followed the situation in Russia, leaving no hope of return. During the years of the fascist occupation, he refused to assist the Third Reich, sincerely rejoicing at the successes of the Soviet army. In the postwar years, Denikin arrived in the United States, where he was received very coldly, since the USSR was officially considered an ally, and the disgraced general was perceived as a provocateur and even an enemy.

Anton Ivanovich’s diaries, letters and memoirs testify to his sincerity in serving Russia. Perhaps the historical truth and power turned against his ideological convictions, but he remained true to his ideals of patriotism and officer duty. Denikin called the fight against the Soviets a personal spiritual confrontation, and considered only Russia as his motherland.
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  1. Follow us
    Follow us April 12 2012 09: 03
    +6
    It is interesting to read Denikin's memoirs, which very well describes the depth of the country's fall during the revolutions of the 17th year. The general was among those who passionately wanted change, a republican, an opponent of autocracy. And where did these "changes" bring him ...
    It is obligatory to read to lovers of liberalism, to take notes, to memorize certain places by heart.
    1. Paratov
      Paratov April 12 2012 14: 03
      +6
      Denikin is just one of those to whom the phrase fits perfectly — they wanted the best, but it turned out as always! Combat generals, grunts, in politics, and in sociology, as a rule, turn out to be naive as children! After all, these admiral generals never managed to agree on who was in charge: everyone was in charge!
  2. Brother Sarych
    Brother Sarych April 12 2012 09: 17
    +6
    Again, solid inaccuracies! Even somehow upsets, that again the next topic is replete with so striking blunders ...
  3. Alekseev
    Alekseev April 12 2012 10: 53
    +4
    The presentation of AI Denikin's memoirs "The Way of a Russian Officer" is commendable, but abounds in "blunders". Received a "pension" in active service, "a certain General Sukhotin" - in fact, the head of the Academy, etc.
    And the man and General Denikin was a wonderful, talented and courageous Russian patriot. True, a "political baby" in the words of the "hardened" revolutionary Ulyanov-Lenin, but he himself admitted this
    1. Dobrokhod Sergey
      Dobrokhod Sergey April 12 2012 17: 08
      +1
      "Kolchak and Denikin are the main and only serious enemies of the Soviet Republic." (V.I. Lenin)
  4. ward
    ward April 12 2012 12: 37
    +2
    Yes, white ... red ... promise doesn’t mean getting married ... the red ones first understood ... only Wrangel promised the land to peasants, factory workers ... but it’s too late to drink Borjomi ... But smart people persuaded Denikin and Kolchak to do this ... there were honest people ... this cannot be taken away from them ..
    1. Dobrokhod Sergey
      Dobrokhod Sergey April 12 2012 16: 58
      0
      Wrangel promised land, but with a ransom, and the Reds "without a ransom," that is, free.
      1. ward
        ward April 12 2012 23: 55
        0
        To promise does not mean to marry ... unfortunately ..
      2. Odinplys
        Odinplys April 13 2012 07: 01
        0
        Quote: Dobrokhod Sergey
        Wrangel promised land, but with a ransom, and the reds "without a ransom", that is, free


        The Bolsheviks did not hesitate to lie ...
        We can’t promise what we can’t give ... Denikin answered ....
  5. kasper
    kasper April 12 2012 12: 51
    +4
    Kolchak, Kappel, Denikin - outstanding people, real patriots of their homeland, up to the last stood for those who took the oath of allegiance! Eternal memory and honor.
    1. Brother Sarych
      Brother Sarych April 12 2012 13: 22
      +2
      To whom did they swear allegiance to the king? And then what did they recognize the revolution, and fought for the Constituent Assembly and other impostors?
      1. ward
        ward April 12 2012 14: 23
        +1
        You know, I swore an oath to the USSR ... formally, I did not swear an oath .. but that doesn’t hinder me if something happens ... it will do as my conscience tells ... brother you are looking at the point and not about inaccuracies ... Russia always stood and will stand to people who swore not to the king, not to the present ... but only to her ...
        1. Brother Sarych
          Brother Sarych April 12 2012 14: 56
          +2
          But they swore an oath to the tsar, and not to the country!
          1. ward
            ward April 12 2012 16: 17
            0
            We are all constantly trying to assess the current past from the point of view of the present day ... The Tsar was then literally the deputy of God on earth ... and in fact, the first words are an oath first of all to God ... "I promise and swear by Almighty God, before the Holy One With his Gospel "... and only then to the king ... and the words" and to correct everything according to his conscience "... I, for example, interpret exactly how the order to act according to his conscience ... By his renunciation of power, the tsar gave first of all, Russia ... Well, what kind of loyalty to a traitor can be ... but conscience is either there ... or it is not ... plus ..
    2. Dobrokhod Sergey
      Dobrokhod Sergey April 12 2012 17: 03
      +1
      “I spent two years in the army of General Denikin, I myself belonged to these“ gangs ”, remained at the head of these“ gangs ”in the Crimea, and I owe them everything that we have done.” (General P.N. Wrangel)
  6. Amur
    Amur April 12 2012 15: 38
    +2
    thoughts aloud: It would probably be nice to have a king who doesn’t care about minute incomes, but only Russia. But not only everything depends on the tsar, but also on people like Denikin and others and on you and me. I swore allegiance to the USSR, but now I understand that Russia.
    1. Ascetic
      Ascetic April 12 2012 18: 06
      +3
      The USSR was essentially the Russian Empire, it was no accident that all the citizens of the USSR were called Russians abroad. Russia is a splinter of this empire
  7. vezunchik
    vezunchik April 12 2012 19: 05
    0
    Just fight against the people is pointless! Moreover, the peasants were given land. It is no coincidence that in the 90s everyone began to be given plots and the people together went to hacienda, and when I had accumulated plenty, it turned out that I had lost my pants. In the photo, my great-grandfather is the Life Guards Semenovsky Regiment. In 1918, like most of his fellow soldiers, he remained in the Red Army. Passed all civilian, not repressed, died his death.
  8. Vlaleks48
    Vlaleks48 April 12 2012 21: 03
    +2
    Glory to the Russian army!
    Anton Ivanovich Denikin was from the bottom to the top.
    This is a man of duty and loyalty to the motherland! I recommend that you familiarize yourself with his memoirs., It is intelligently and truthfully written. Without hypocrisy and self-praise.
    It is written by a person clearly representing what awaits him and what awaits his homeland.
    Glory to the RUSSIAN OFFICER who has not changed his oath!
    HE SERVED RUSSIA OWNING HER TO THE EMPEROR!
  9. Strabo
    Strabo April 12 2012 22: 31
    0
    . One could simply write Denikin and a discussion would also begin. Not disclosed and the hundredth share of the merits of this man. Denikin is the personality of a highly educated person who has risen from the bottom. 80 percent of the officers of that time are the middle class, devoted to their homeland and well educated. The railway revolution of 1917 destroyed him as a class. Cut down to the root and only because they loved Russia. That did not kneel. Such people as Denikin Wrangel, ataman Tolstoy and others are tedious to erect monuments. There are monuments to the red, it is time to give tribute to the white. The civil war was divided and one was forgotten by all.
  10. darkman70
    darkman70 April 13 2012 11: 11
    +1
    The Whites, like the Reds, had wonderful leaders and patriots (and crooks too). One can recall Kappel, Denikin, Markov, Drozdovsky, etc. But the whites, even when they were in exile, did not understand the main thing - it was impossible to win the civil war without the support of the people, without a simple and easily understandable program of action in peacetime., which was at the Bolsheviks. ("Land - to the peasants", "Factories - to the workers") Moreover, if it were not for the Red Terror in the Cossack regions, after which the Cossacks in the mass supported the White movement, everything would have been resolved much faster. The volunteer army at the initial stage, which with difficulty recruited 3000 thousand bayonets, mainly from officers and junkers, would be very quickly defeated