Military Review

The City of Knights and Porcelain: A Date With Meissen (Part 2)

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Here it is necessary to recall a little about the genesis of the effigy itself and their exceptional importance for stories. Effigii are tombstones of the deceased, sometimes bulky, lying, sometimes bulky standing. The most famous effigiya is the figure of the “Black Prince” buried in the Canterbury Cathedral in England. Since a huge amount of armor has not been preserved, the effigy is the only thing that allows us to know exactly how the armor of this or that century looked and to trace their development in detail, since all the burials were dated. Over time, the figures ceased to do and replaced them with flat brass plates with engraving - breaststroke. But they were also refused in favor of flat carving on stone. Naturally, in addition to portrait resemblance to the departed, effigy very accurately conveys all the details of military equipment of those years, and they, in turn, are checked by samples that have come down to us. weapons and armor.



In this window we see one of the obvious reasons why knight armor became smooth. With such corsets, guizarmas, halberds, and “kolchuzhnik” glafs, it was easy to catch and throw off your horse! That is why, over time, if they used the chainmail with “white armor”, it was only as an additional protection: under the arms, cut out of it “underwear”, or used as a “skirt”.

For example, the memorial plaque of Sir Humphrey Stanley in Westminster Abbey 1505 of the year depicts him in a chain mail skirt, that is, at that time in England such armor was still worn! Moreover, on the “board” of Ralph Verni 1547, from Oldbury, Hertfordshire, we see on him the exact same “skirt” and the plate of Tassets suspended from the front, as well as the cloak - tabar worn over the armor. All this is very valuable historical evidence that the process of improving the armor, of course, was going, but it was rather slow, sometimes with unexpected jerks, but on the whole was not a quick matter!


Usually I do not put photos of my person in the described places, but in this case, it turned out that this can not be done, because the scale of these tombstones needs to be shown. With my height in 176, it is obvious that, firstly, the proportions of the figure of the figure and, in particular, the faces of the sculptor were violated, and, secondly, they did not stint on the slab of the deceased!


Here he is this handsome man in full growth! That is, it is obvious that somewhere around 1595, in Saxony, such armor existed. The codpiece is quite moderate in size, and there is no “skirt” here. Instead, lamellar thighs, covering the hips only in front. The armor on it is not cheap - chased with patterns both on the cuirass on the vertical stripes and on the armor plates on the hands. Since chasing increased the cost of armor at times, it is obvious that the deceased was a very wealthy man.


But his data: when he was born, when he died ...


This effigy was preserved worse, apparently, part of it was wet in the rain. But on the other hand, we see a boss in front of us, though not a big one (a scarf over his shoulder!), A camunker. Faceted gothic leggings. But the fly of the chain mail, and moreover, after a closer look, we will see that it is just wearing chain mail breeches. And if so, then they could not be on the bottom, and worn over the boss. Needless to say, the chamberkeeper cared about his father's inheritance, cared ... Under his arms he also sees chainmail, that is, the enemy cannot reach him! And two more interesting details. The first is that he has the exact same dagger as in the photo from the first part - with a crosshair ring! The second - on the fingers of the right hand two rings - on the ring and little finger. The helmet, decorated with feathers, was not very well preserved, but it is obvious that this arm is with a reinforced headrest.


A label with information about this effect.

However, effigiyami lucky, it can be said, only in England. In France during the years of the French Revolution they were smashed, in Germany a lot of effigy were destroyed during the bombing. That is why so well-preserved and, moreover, dated effigiy of the museum in Meissen, of course, impressed me. By the way, there is another reason why effigy becomes unusable. Time and weather. After all, not always these tombstones and sculptures were under the roof. Limestone is easily destroyed by rains containing sulfur, that is, the relatively good preservation of Maysen effigy I was very pleased.


This effigy from the Meissen Museum, which I would also like to show here, was the worst preserved, but it is interesting because the person on it is depicted armed with the same stamp as the one shown in the photo in the first material, and secondly, obviously not German, but Italian, Milanese, globular-type armor.


Signed to this effect.


Well, in this case, the changes in the armor are noticeable even to the unprepared look. And it's understandable, because a man died in 1621 year. Legguards are clearly not Gothic, and under them are lush, with puffs and slits pants. And he is armed no longer with a sword, but with a cavalry sword with a developed crosshair. And nevertheless, if you look closely, you will notice that under the armor he is wearing the same chainmail with teeth on the hem and this is it, and not the tapule, is visible in the slot between the front tasets. By the way, look at the collar over the armor. It is simple, not laced, so there is clearly a severe Lutheran before us.


Signed to this effect.

“How to get to the castle?” We asked the hospitable Pole and received the answer: - “Go higher and higher and you will not be mistaken!” And we went, and neither the castle nor the cathedral were practically visible from below. Houses are high! And the no further up, the higher they are. This area of ​​Meissen, by the way, is called “Freiheit”, which means “free from taxes”.


So from one of the streets you can see the spiers of the Maysen Cathedral!


And these are the stairs leading to it and the castle.

Here, on the top of a hill, in the Middle Ages, the local nobility and clergymen lived, and he did not bear all the duties, and did not pay taxes. Houses here are more like fortresses and why this is understandable. Here, for example, the half-timbered house 1564 of the year, the house with the lions 1610 of the year, and the thousand-year-old yew are growing nearby. So the story here is literally before your eyes.


This is the Schlossbrücke bridge, which offers a beautiful view of the fields, vineyards and private houses of Meissen, which leads to the castle and the cathedral.

[Center]

From the top there is a beautiful view of the red tiled roofs of the houses in the lower part of the city. By the way, the highest roof in this picture is just the roof of the museum with effigiy. Everything is close, literally within reach.


And this is a view of the bridges over the Elbe.

It remains only to pass under the beautiful Gateway House of the Tohaus Museum to get to the Cathedral Square or Domplats. In the middle of the square rises the Gothic Maysen Cathedral, which is commonly called the House (Dom in German - the cathedral). It was built in honor of St. John the Divine and Bishop Donat, and it was built over 500 years. For example, both towers (height 81 m) were completed only by the 1909 year, although construction itself was begun as early as the 1250 year. Inside the cathedral is decorated with sculptures of John and Donat, as well as the founders of the German Empire - Emperor Otto I and his wife Adelgeida. More information about the cathedral, by the way, you can read here. I am very sorry that I did not find this material before the trip. https://www.mishanita.ru/data/images/Germany_2011/Meissen/Meissen_Map.jpg


That's how it looks outside!

The City of Knights and Porcelain: A Date With Meissen (Part 2)

And so this cathedral looks from the inside.


The chapel.

Unfortunately, the cathedral itself was closed, so we did not manage to get into it and had to be content to look around outside, although there is something to look at inside, including the same beautifully preserved images, and there is no charge for filming there! However, several effigy were displayed in a small garden behind the cathedral. But ... all belonging to the monks, and the knight only one (steam room), and it is poorly preserved.


Effigiya from Maysensky Cathedral.


Pair effigiya from Meissensky cathedral.

Next to the cathedral is the Albrechtsburg castle and the bishop's palace, which together create a unique monumental silhouette of Meissen, if you look at them from the side of the river. By the way, here is the zone of Saxon winemaking. Because of its particularly mild climate in the Elbe Valley, grapes provide excellent dry wine, which is revered by both tourists and locals. We were convinced of this literally right there, when they began to descend into the city from the castle along the stairs that lay along the hill slope. He is full of grapes! Vineyard right in the city center. And the announcement: "Whoever comes down this ladder, to the right is wine tasting from this vineyard for 50 euros!" We went down and found a shop. Tasting did not, but they took a bottle of local wine. We drank at home. Wine is good, although it grew in the center of the city.


Here it is, this slope and grapes grow right under the castle.


There are few tourists in the city, and there were no visible people at all. There are people in cafes, but no one is surprised, which was especially pleasant. You can just sit "like this" and drink coffee and cakes.

We also ended up in one such cafe: the housewife did not know English (!), And we were German, but explained ourselves on our fingers. Then we went to a meeting with the bus. On the way, we decided to drink beer again and have a snack. Found ... well, a typical German pub. And in it ... an old man who considered the revenue on the accounts !!! I asked to be served, and he barked: “Gretchen!” And Gretchen came out, as if from the movie: striped red and white knee socks, black flared skirt with laces, a blouse with piercing and sleeves with a flashlight, and in a lace-up corset. We explained to her that we are in a hurry. “EU! - She replied with a terrible accent. “Five minutes is coming?” - “EU!”. It was very interesting what can be cooked in such a hurry, but exactly five minutes later we were served fried cheese in batter with stewed sauerkraut and lingonberries. With beer it was very tasty.


In one of the local courtyards I accidentally found such a dry fountain. Clean, nothing repulsed, no inscriptions painted. It was nice to see this ... In the courtyard. Not in the square under the cameras.

And then a bus appeared, and our stay in Meissen ended there!
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  1. Amurets
    Amurets 28 December 2017 06: 45 New
    +6
    The Meissen series is beautiful, so do not look closely at the stove in the first photo. You are interesting to us alive.
    1. XII Legion
      XII Legion 28 December 2017 07: 46 New
      17
      do not look closely at the stove in the first photo.

      We look at all the interesting photos.
      Although the resemblance is certainly present
      The Meissen series is beautiful

      Agree
  2. parusnik
    parusnik 28 December 2017 07: 51 New
    +6
    During World War II, the funds of the State Art Collections of Dresden, the Surmond-Ludwig Museum in Aachen and the Meissen Porcelain Manufactory were kept in the Albrechtsburg Castle. In April-May 1945, Albrechtsburg was used by the Wehrmacht, and on May 6, 1945, Castle Hill was occupied by the Red Army. The works of art stored in the castle were partially returned to the appropriate collections, and partially exported to the Soviet Union.
    1. kalibr
      28 December 2017 08: 10 New
      +4
      Yes, he burst out quite stupidly - everywhere where tapul is written, you must write a codpiece. But late, a good man drew my attention to this. Well, it happens ... Blame it!

      However, everything has already been fixed.
      1. parusnik
        parusnik 28 December 2017 08: 20 New
        +3
        It’s very interestingly written about the effigies, narrow streets and cafes of Meissen .. When I was “visiting” and visited places with a fool I went to the local porcelain museum, I didn’t like to look at the organ .. I didn’t like the local wine .. The beer is “good” ...
        1. kalibr
          28 December 2017 08: 24 New
          +3
          There will still be about china.
          1. XII Legion
            XII Legion 28 December 2017 08: 44 New
            18
            Did Saxon knights seem to be considered among the best in Germany?
            I don’t remember where and when I read
  3. soldier
    soldier 28 December 2017 08: 11 New
    18
    Nice places
    Interesting photos and comments
    Good luck to the author!
  4. 3x3zsave
    3x3zsave 28 December 2017 08: 48 New
    +6
    The last photo is a pair of hobbits! laughing
  5. voyaka uh
    voyaka uh 28 December 2017 11: 20 New
    +4
    Good article. I never had the patience to consider
    in cathedrals and museums, these "effigies" in detail. And here everything is in detail.
    1. kalibr
      28 December 2017 12: 18 New
      +4
      So after all, you considered them differently, and not like me, so why be surprised. Simply sketched immediately notes the details that others do not pay attention to. This is normal.
      1. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 28 December 2017 17: 06 New
        +2
        But this is a positive feature of "professional deformation." Although on the other hand - how do your women endure you on trips ?! Well, purely angels! smile
        1. kalibr
          28 December 2017 17: 13 New
          +3
          They tolerate this: until a certain time we walk together, but at times we disagree. They speak to me about effigy themselves and do not allow me to look at them for a long time. You have to take pictures very quickly. To all four. Then we share the photo.
          1. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave 28 December 2017 18: 19 New
            +2
            Hm! As my dear says: "Rest is hard work." I’ll add from myself: “And who promised that it would be easy and profitable?”
  6. Curious
    Curious 28 December 2017 12: 19 New
    +5
    In Meissen there is another place that many have seen, more than once, and even those who have never been to Germany once - Schlossbrücke Street.
    Remember Professor Pleischner, intoxicated by the spirit of freedom?
    1. Curious
      Curious 28 December 2017 12: 26 New
      +5

      "Seventeen Moments of Spring. 25 years later. ” Lioznova and Parfyonov in the same place. And now everything is still there.
      1. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 28 December 2017 17: 11 New
        +3
        Either the quality of the photographs has improved, or the "cursed capitalism" has favorably influenced the urban environment.
        1. Mikado
          Mikado 28 December 2017 20: 27 New
          +1
          with a professional look, note how the attic was rebuilt on the building on the right! drinks there now only the MG-42 barrel is left to set, and the Hitler Youth to plant it! laughing
          1. Curious
            Curious 28 December 2017 22: 25 New
            +3
            Hitler Youth with MG-42 can not cope. And who is hiding behind a tile with a machine gun. For such a choice of position, I would immediately put in a corner.
        2. kalibr
          28 December 2017 20: 48 New
          +2
          Last thing! I was told that a good repair began only after the 1991 year. And before that there was not enough money!
          1. Mikado
            Mikado 28 December 2017 21: 15 New
            +2
            Koporye was in disrepair about twelve years ago. As of now, I don’t know, but they didn’t restore it for sure, in the 14th year during the holiday, all difficult areas were blocked off, the police were on duty (I say that in the old way). It seems that some work is underway. That is, it all comes down to financing. And what kind of financing can an old fortress lie away from large highways? Our Lomonosov Park "survived" as best we could until it was joined to the Peterhof Museum! request
  7. polpot
    polpot 28 December 2017 14: 28 New
    +5
    Thank you wonderful article and photos
  8. NF68
    NF68 28 December 2017 16: 34 New
    +6
    +++++++++++
  9. Some kind of compote
    Some kind of compote 28 December 2017 17: 52 New
    18
    Meet Meissen
    A lot of amazing moments - from the phenomenal similarities between the author and the baron on the statue, and to museum and cathedral rarities
    Fine good
    1. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 28 December 2017 18: 22 New
      +3
      Yes, I was also interested in this moment.
  10. 3x3zsave
    3x3zsave 28 December 2017 18: 29 New
    +2
    Here, by the way, Vyacheslav Olegovich, about the proportions. Do not you find that at some point (historical), the artists began to fight for the portrait similarity of the image with the deceased?
    1. Mikado
      Mikado 28 December 2017 20: 23 New
      +3
      for portrait resemblance to the deceased

      and then artists began to fight for a portrait resemblance to alive. And the picture of the middle of the 19th century began to surpass the quality of photography of that time! drinks (we have a couple of lectures, I don’t remember what subject, they read at the Hermitage — clearly, with a show) wink
      The author - Vyacheslav Olegovich, thanks for the informative tour. You know how. yes I bow! hi
      1. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 28 December 2017 21: 16 New
        +2
        There is a historical tale (quoted by TM) that I.E. Repin, tired of setting up a new-fangled photographic, wrote in 40 minutes, a group portrait with friends
        1. Mikado
          Mikado 28 December 2017 21: 19 New
          +3
          given the fact that for "writing obscene letters to the Cossacks" Dragomirov and Gilyarovsky posed for him .. why not! good By the way, you prompted me a new topic for the article. drinks It remains to find Maria Louise, who will go with me there wink
      2. kalibr
        28 December 2017 22: 48 New
        +2
        Glad you liked it. But in fact, there is not much to do. It is necessary A - to be, B - to look around (that is, to turn your head all the time like a “Newport” pilot in the 1917 year), C - to quickly find points for shooting, D - do not forget to always photograph the signatures after objects, D - in advance to know what you see, E - tune in to the fact that you describe everything you see in VO, Z - then wait for the mood, sit down and write. That's all!
        1. Mikado
          Mikado 29 December 2017 00: 45 New
          +3
          DZ points were in Polotsk. Yes, that's right! And then the mood lasted two days, he wrote "in hot pursuit", on emotions. good
        2. Amurets
          Amurets 29 December 2017 04: 31 New
          +1
          Quote: kalibr
          But in fact, there is not much to do.

          As Rodin said, you just need to cut off everything unnecessary from a block of marble.
    2. kalibr
      28 December 2017 20: 50 New
      +2
      It has always been present at effigies, long since, that is, from the moment they appeared. Usually a plaster mask was removed from the deceased and a face was sculpted on it. So this is not surprising.
  11. burigaz2010
    burigaz2010 29 December 2017 20: 18 New
    +5
    Mr. Shpakovsky thank you for this series of articles!