Military Review

Detachments of the First World War

18
Detachments of the First World War



Paraphrasing, and sometimes literally, this part of the order is used by so-called historians as evidence of the terrible cruelty of Stalin and the factions created during the war. In fact, this is an excerpt from an order from 15 June 1915 of the year. And it belongs to the famous and famous general of the Russian army, Brusilov. The name of which is called Brusilovsky breakthrough of the First World War.

And if much has been written about the real work of the detachments and the unparalleled courage of the NKVD officers, little is known about their predecessors. Although it is they who obviously serve as an example to describe the never-existing shootings of the times of the Great Patriotic War.

In general, very little is known about the cruelty of wars before the Second World War. The gallantry of military aristocrats is more often described, and not their own atrocities on the front. Few people think that it was they who forced in the 1907 year to sign the Hague Convention "On the laws and customs of war". Not from a good life wrote. And they did not add, if you remember the use of chemical weapons from the French Ypres to our Osovets.

And few people know that no Hague Convention stopped the howling armies - the invaders took civilians hostage and shot them. It is documented about similar executions of partisan families in Serbia occupied by Austro-Hungarian troops. And the commander of the 10 Army, General Sivers 27 (14) of November 1914, issued an order stating that during his stay in East Prussia, it was necessary to identify hostile Germans, and in every settlement it was necessary to take hostages. The truth about the executions of Russian troops of the civilian population is not known.

However, in the subsequent civil war, hostages were taken and shot by all. Here is an excerpt from the order of the governor of the Yenisei and part of the Irkutsk province, General Rozanov from 27 March 1919: "... 6. It is among the population to take hostages, in the event of the action of fellow villagers directed against government forces, to shoot the hostages mercilessly." By the way, Rozanov was the special representative of Admiral Kolchak (who tried to hang a memorial plaque in St. Petersburg).

Returning to the detachments. We know the written evidence of Vlasov, one of the Russian volunteers who fought against the Germans in France. In April, 1917, General Nevel ordered to place artillery pieces in the rear of the advancing Russian legionnaires, which were to open fire with shrapnel if the Russians tried to retreat. Then it cost.

In the Russian army, executions without trial were a desperate attempt to keep the collapse and demoralization of the army. Known order of Lieutenant-General KR. Dovbor-Musnitsky on the execution of the 13 of the lower ranks of the 55 of the 14 regiment of the Siberian division. On the order is the resolution of Emperor Nicholas II: “The Right Example” (RGVIA. F. 2262. Op. 1. D. 510. L. 26).

The February Revolution led to such anarchy at the front that against the 625 and 627 infantry regiments, ordered by Lieutenant General A.Ye. Gutora (commander of the Southwestern Front), I.G. Erdelyi (commander), Chekotilo and Kirilenko (army commissars) used artillery and armored cars.

On the Eastern Front mentioned above in France, the commander of the 2 Special Artillery Brigade, Major General M.A. Belyaev ordered "all along the village of La-Kurtin ... it is necessary to detain individuals and small groups, and on large masses, even unarmed, to open fire" (Quoted from: Chinyakov M.K. Mutiny in La-Kurtin. " Questions stories". 2004. No. 3. C. 67).
At the beginning of the 1917 of the year. even before the February Revolution, FA Stepun wrote home: “We have recently received an order to fire at our own brigade if the arrows retreat without orders” (Stepun F. From letters of ensign artillery. Tomsk, 2000. S. 172).

In his memoirs, General Wrangel frankly writes that in July 1917, they were ordered to open rapid artillery fire to kill the retreating Caucasian Infantry Regiment (Quoted from: Wrangel PN Notes. November 1916 - November 1920 g T. 1. Pl., 2003. C. 58).

The artillery was so often used in retreating units (the attitude of the infantry towards the gunners is understandable) that an order was given to the Supreme Commander from 18 in August 1917 of the year, which said: ... "(RGVIA. F. 2046. Op. 1. D. 1189. L. 275).

It was not for nothing that I paid more attention to examples from the Russian army in the First World War. As you can see, attempts to create detachments worn a chaotic order and were often created on the ground, without a single management, subordination and, accordingly, acted without much success.

In the Great Patriotic lesson was learned and already 27 June 1941, the order was given on the formation of fences. At the same time, they de jure and de facto did not perform punitive functions. Formed in the framework of the NKVD, they performed the same role that in World War I in Russia was assigned to gendarme squadrons - guarding the rear of the front, catching deserters, guarding roads and railway junctions.

Not referring to the well-known figures of the Great Patriotic War, I note that neither the great-uncle who fought in SMERSH, nor other relatives who had survived the war, never mentioned any executions by detachments of retreating units. On the other hand, they repeatedly described executions from standard weapons and even machine guns retreating to the battlefield by their own comrades and junior commanders. What has been repeatedly described in Soviet literature is enough to read the book of Captain Nekrasov, awarded by Stalin Prize and prohibited by Khrushchev, “In the Trenches of Stalingrad”.

Still, the Red Army, NKVD and SMERSH fighters had a completely different motivation than the Russian soldiers in the First World War. And finally, the average service life of the SMERSH fighter was three months. After which he dropped out of the lists of parts of the death or injury. Mortality in the NKVD was also higher than in the military units.
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  1. Same lech
    Same lech 28 November 2017 15: 59 New
    +5
    10th Army Commander General Sievers November 27 (14) 2014 years issued an order stating that during his stay in East Prussia it is required to identify hostile Germans


    Michael what is it what
    1. your1970
      your1970 28 November 2017 17: 35 New
      +3
      Quote: The same Lech
      10th Army Commander General Sievers 27 (14) November 2014 years issued an order stating that during his stay in East Prussia it is required to identify hostile Germans

      Michael what is it what

      yes everything is ok to Prussia today went to war and identify hostile Germans fellow fellow fellow
    2. Vend
      Vend 28 November 2017 18: 13 New
      +3
      What was repeatedly described in Soviet literature is enough to read the book of Captain Nekrasov awarded in the trenches of Stalingrad, which was awarded the Stalin Prize and forbidden by Khrushchev.
      There are many similar references in fiction and Soviet-era cinema. Then it was not considered something out of the ordinary. In the epic of Ozerov, there is an episode with the NKVD detachment, but you should remember how it ends.
  2. parusnik
    parusnik 28 November 2017 17: 12 New
    +3
    "In the trenches of Stalingrad" is a strong thing
  3. ImPerts
    ImPerts 28 November 2017 17: 27 New
    +6
    this part of the order is used by so-called historians as evidence of the terrifying brutality of Stalin and the detachments created during the war.

    No no and one more time no!
    Where to put 150.000 millions of repressed and a billion shot personally by Stalin?
  4. Curious
    Curious 28 November 2017 17: 30 New
    11
    If the author, instead of leaflets, undertook to write a normal article on the subject “Fighting spirit as a set of moral and psychological qualities of a warrior, which determines the basis of combat readiness,” then it would become clear that detachments are just one of the many ways of influencing this very fighting spirit by an incentive incentive for the faint-hearted
    And you need to start not with the First World War, but with Machiavelli's book "On the Art of War", which mentions equestrian barrage detachments of antiquity.
    According to the Statutes of Peter the Great, those fleeing the battlefield could be subjected to “defamation” and even decimation.
    In the army of Frederick II there were rear castle ranks from non-commissioned officers.
    And so in history - step by step. Then the "liberals" about the "bloody gebnya" will have nothing to tell.
    1. Some kind of compote
      Some kind of compote 28 November 2017 18: 28 New
      17
      I agree with Curious
      drinks
      good
    2. The centurion
      The centurion 28 November 2017 18: 44 New
      +2
      Quote: Curious
      And we must not start with the First World War.

      Only very illiterate and naive people can assume that the detachments invented either Stalin or Trotsky. Detachments always existed in all the victorious armies, they did not exist only in the defeatist armies, why should they. Drapat easier and safer without detachments. They were called only in different ways.
      1. Alexey RA
        Alexey RA 28 November 2017 19: 24 New
        +3
        So you still recall that the commissars, whose task was to control the loyalty and general political morsosos troops, appeared already in the XVI century. No commissars were dispensed with either in the army of post-revolutionary France or in the American army during the War of Independence. smile
        1. Curious
          Curious 28 November 2017 20: 46 New
          +1
          In the Petrine era, commissars were generally commonplace.
          For example - the general-captivity-kriegs-commissioner. The truth was known not by the souls of soldiers, but by clothing, money and provisions.
  5. Gopnik
    Gopnik 28 November 2017 18: 52 New
    +5
    An extremely weak article. A sonorous name, a lot of pathos, a lot of letters, but not a single fact itself about the real "war detachments of the First World War" - where did they form (and did they form in principle), who were equipped, to whom they obeyed, where and when were used, etc. Instead: "And if much has been written about the real work of the detachment detachments and the unprecedented courage of the NKVD officers, little is known about their predecessors. " Well, make up for the gap, if you have taken it, but no ... Instead, an unsubstantiated conclusion: "Although they obviously serve as an example to describe the never-existent executions of the Great Patriotic War." This from which, interestingly, follows ??? And how is it that "never existed executions of the times of the Second World War" if the document "Information from the NKVD STF in the UOO NKVD of the USSR on the activities of the detachments of the Stalingrad and Don Fronts" [Not earlier than October 15], 1942, in particular from with the following text: “From the beginning of their formation (from August 1 to October 15 this year) 140755 servicemen who fled from the front line of the front were detained by defensive detachments.
    From the number of detainees: 3980 people were arrested, 1189 people were executed, 2776 people were sent to penal companies, 185 people were sent to penal battalions, 131094 people were returned to their units and transfer points. "
    1. Alexey RA
      Alexey RA 28 November 2017 19: 09 New
      +2
      Still very good "Information on the progress of the inspection of b / encircled and b / prisoners of war as of October 1, 1944"
      1. To check the former soldiers of the Red Army who are in captivity or around the enemy, special NKVD special camps were created by decision of the GOKO No. XXUMXss from 1069.XII-27.
      The verification of the Red Army servicemen who are in special camps is carried out by the Smersh counterintelligence departments of the NPO under the NKVD special camps (at the time of the decision these were Special Divisions).
      In total, 354 592 people, including officers of 50 441 people, went through special camps of former Red Army soldiers who left the encirclement and were released from captivity.
      2. From this number checked and transmitted:
      a) 249 people in the Red Army. including:
      to military units through military registration and enlistment offices 231 034
      of which - officers 27042
      for the formation of assault battalions 18 382
      of them - officers 16 163
      b) in industry according to the regulations of the GKOKO 30 749
      including 29 officers
      c) for the formation of escort troops and the protection of special camps 5924
      3. Arrested by Smersh 11
      of them - intelligence agents and counterintelligence of the enemy 2083
      of them - officers (for various crimes) 1284
      4. Departed for various reasons all the time - in hospitals, hospitals and 5347 died
      5. Are in the special camps of the NKVD of the USSR in verification 51 601
      including 5657 officers
      Of the number of officers remaining in the camps of the NKVD of the USSR in October, 4 assault battalions of 920 people each are formed

      Clause 2c) is especially good. smile
    2. bnm.99
      bnm.99 28 November 2017 23: 23 New
      -1
      There are a lot of things on the Internet. But nowhere is it written that it was the detachments that engaged in the executions. By the way, "In the Trenches of Stalingrad," written and published in hot pursuit in 1946, was banned under Brezhnev. And under Khrushchev, the film shot from the book was banned, and Nekrasov himself assured that this happened at the instigation of Zhukov, who at that moment was just in force.
  6. Alexey RA
    Alexey RA 28 November 2017 19: 04 New
    +2
    Heh heh heh ... Sivers generally distinguished famous philanthropy. smile
    Already in mid-November 1914, the commander-10 gene. F. V. Sivers suggested the following repression as a measure to reduce the number of surrenders: "Prisoners, with the exception of seriously wounded, are deprived of the right to return back after the war." Reporting this project to Headquarters, the commander-in-chief of the armies of the Northwest Front gene. N.V. Ruzsky added: “General Sievers considers it necessary to take special measures to reduce the number of surrenders. Among these measures, General Sievers is planning the publication of a lawful order stating that prisoners, with the exception of seriously wounded, are deprived of the right to return back after the war. ” Developing the thought of a subordinate (the 10th Army was part of the North-Western Front), the Central High Command added: “It could be announced to everyone that such prisoners would be brought to justice at the end of the war as having escaped, which should have been established by law. “General Sievers, for his part, is taking steps to ensure that the surrendering unit is destroyed by his fire in a merciless manner, but this measure can be valid only during the day and not even under all conditions.” Resolution Chief of Staff of the Supreme Commander-in-Chief gene. N. N. Yanushkevich on this report read: “This is the beginning of propaganda about ending the war by surrender. "I would consider depriving the family of rations and allowances - this is urgent, having raged with the minister."
  7. moskowit
    moskowit 28 November 2017 19: 55 New
    +1
    Cekotilo and Kirilenko (army commissars)

    The army commissars in the army of the Provisional Government are representatives of political parties of various kinds who came to power in Russia ....
    But Chikatilo is not the great-grandfather or grandfather of a famous criminal monster from the late USSR ???
  8. polpot
    polpot 28 November 2017 21: 25 New
    0
    Any warring army needs strict discipline. This is an axiom.
  9. German Titov
    German Titov 28 November 2017 22: 04 New
    0
    Quote: Gopnik
    An extremely weak article. A sonorous name, a lot of pathos, a lot of letters, but not a single fact itself about the real "war detachments of the First World War" - where did they form (and did they form in principle), who were equipped, to whom they obeyed, where and when were used, etc. Instead: "And if much has been written about the real work of the detachment detachments and the unprecedented courage of the NKVD officers, little is known about their predecessors. " Well, make up for the gap, if you have taken it, but no ... Instead, an unsubstantiated conclusion: "Although they obviously serve as an example to describe the never-existent executions of the Great Patriotic War." This from which, interestingly, follows ??? And how is it that "never existed executions of the times of the Second World War" if the document "Information from the NKVD STF in the UOO NKVD of the USSR on the activities of the detachments of the Stalingrad and Don Fronts" [Not earlier than October 15], 1942, in particular from with the following text: “From the beginning of their formation (from August 1 to October 15 this year) 140755 servicemen who fled from the front line of the front were detained by defensive detachments.
    From the number of detainees: 3980 people were arrested, 1189 people were executed, 2776 people were sent to penal companies, 185 people were sent to penal battalions, 131094 people were returned to their units and transfer points. "

    About 10 years ago, I came across an article "The truth about detachments" (If you did not make a mistake in the name). By order of the Supreme, in the "detachments" formed the cadres of the most "experienced and trained soldiers of the Red Army .., the purpose of the" detachments "was" to prevent the breakthrough of enemy troops, the suppression of panic and sabotage ... "On the troops of the" detachments "only the NKVD (with such faces), you can see in the "Fine" (as for me, wound "shit").
  10. Nagaibak
    Nagaibak 29 November 2017 21: 57 New
    +1
    Why did they kiss in the German or Austro-Hungarian army for retreats forehead?))) Or, say, the Allies?))) For them, the value of human life during the WWII was important?)))