Military Review

10 Facts about Attack of the Dead

52
An article about some of the most important facts that occurred during the repulse of the German gas attack by the garrison of the Osovets fortress on July 24 1915. Named after the famous counterattack of the parts of the 226 Infantry Regiment of the Zemlyansky when repelling the gas attack of the enemy.


During the First World War, the Russian fortress Osovets became famous, successfully holding out against the German troops in 1914 - 1915. For almost a year, the fortress performed the most important tasks. And in February - August, 1915, the city of Osovets, withstood the advance of the German troops, resisting for more than half a year the superior forces and means of the enemy. The fortress did not fall under the onslaught of the enemy, but was evacuated due to the implementation of the strategic rollback of the Russian army in the field (the Great Retreat). The heroic Osovets (after the explosion of the fortifications) was abandoned by the August 9 garrison, and the Germans occupied its 12 ruins in August 1915.

The reflection of the gas attack of the 24 Germans on July 1915 by the Germans became especially famous. These events were connected with the following facts.

1) Perhaps the first time in a world war, the enemy failed to assault the fortress, using his famous 420-mm mortars. It was under the impression of this failure that the Germans decided to take the fortress by storm, using chemical weapon.

10 Facts about Attack of the Dead

420-mm Krupp howitzer.


Hit a 420-mm projectile into a brick shed. Khmelkov S. Fight for Osovets. M., 1939.


Types of shells German siege artillery. Ibid.

2) The Germans had an overwhelming superiority in manpower. By the time of the attack in question, the forward position of the fortress on the front of Bialogronda-Sosnya was occupied by 8 Russian companies, including 3 militia companies; in the general reserve of positions there was a company of militias. Against our two battalions, the Germans had about 12-ti battalions.


Chronicle of the war 1914-15 No. 23.

3) Chemical reinforcement was unprecedented: more than 30 gas batteries with several thousand cylinders were installed to prepare for the assault.


German gas battery.

4) Measures to combat chemical weapons, used by Russian troops, did not produce any special results. So, in 4 hours of July 24, the gas attack was carried out on the 20-kilometer front — and a thick cloud, 10-12 meters in height, was overflowing Russian trenches in 5 minutes — 10 minutes. Antigas dressings did not perform well; burning straw and tow in front of the trenches, pouring and spraying lime mortar also did not give a noticeable result. The first victims fell intelligence groups and secrets. Almost all the defenders of the 1, 2, 4, and partially 3 sections of the Sosnenskaya position were fatally poisoned, as well as much of the reserve company. The vegetation was burned within a radius of more than 12 kilometers, and the poisonous gas struck the garrison of the fortress itself, penetrating even into tightly closed rooms.

5) But the effect of gases partially reduced local soil conditions and air condition: the morning was foggy, cold and damp, and the gas, partially passing over the river, marsh and water ditches, was largely neutralized, which saved the garrison from catastrophic losses. The enemy attempted to compensate for this by using chemical projectiles — under his cover, the advance of his infantry began. Ahead went the scouts in the number of 200 people from each regiment; followed by two thick lines of chains, the assault units were moving.

6) Russian shooters and machine gunners played an important role in successfully repelling the German attack. On the 1 site, only the 2 machine gunner remained alive - but they were so weak from gas that they did not have the strength to open fire and died right there in the machine gun nest. When the Germans, quickly cutting passages in three lanes of a wire fence, occupied the positions of the 1 section and penetrated from the flank to the 2 section, which also lost almost all defenders, the only surviving machine gunner managed to release two ribbons at an emphasis and fell on the machine gun, not having time to put the 3 tape into it.


Chronicle of the war 1914-15 No. 65.

But at the position south of der. Leonov, in the 3 area, surrounded by Russian fighters from all sides, continued to fight back. The advance units of the Germans, advancing along the railway, appeared already in front of the reserve trenches. The area of ​​Bialogronda, where 20 people survived with 2 machine guns, repelled all enemy attacks, and the Germans attempted to cover Russian positions from the north, were parried by a team of scouts sent from a neighboring regiment.


24 July. Attack the advanced positions of Bialogronda-Sosnya. Khmelkov S. Decree. cit.


Fort No. 1 (central). Ibid.

7) German infantry seriously suffered from its own gases. So, taking der. Pine, she lost for this reason about 1 thousand people.

8) The serf artillery played a more than significant role - it opened a strong barrage, which dispersed the rearguard lines of the attackers and cut off enemy units that broke into the Russian position from support from the rear.


Armored battery on Skobel's mountain. Ibid.

9) Throughout the war, the active Russian infantry showed its impulse: using the success of the barrage fire, the bloodless 13, 14 and 8 companies of the 226 Zemlyansky Infantry Regiment carried out their immortal counterattack - so on. "Attack of the Dead". The first of them, having arisen from the clubs of the chemical cloud, attacked along the railway, knocked the Germans with a bayonet and, with the support of the 8-th company, captured the lost 1-m and 2-m combat sections. In the hands of the enemy, Leonov remained the stronghold, whose counterattack was hampered by his own wire obstacles. I had to attack in the course of the message, resorting to trench combat with hand grenades. In order to speed things up, the fire of nine heavy and two light batteries was concentrated in the yard of Leonov, and from the Bialogrond position and from the 1 section, machine-gun fire was opened in the rear of the enemy. As a result, the Germans who occupied the trenches were killed and the entire position again passed into the hands of the Russians. At the same time, the 14 Company took possession of the der. Pine.

T. o. by 11 hours, 7 hours after the start of the gas attack, the assault was repulsed, and the position was restored.


10. "Attack of the Dead". Artist E. Ponomarev.

10) It is a fact that, in addition to the courage of the garrison, the main reasons for a successful reflection of the assault were: 1) the hardness of the defenders of the 3 battlefield, continuing defense, despite being surrounded by the enemy, cutting the front of the attackers into two isolated groups, easing the counterattack; 2) reflected attacks on Bialogronda, which was largely due to the support of a neighboring regiment from Buda, which paralyzed the coverage of the position; 3) timely opening of barrage of artillery fire, which deprived the enemy of the support of reserves per minute of the Russian counterattack; 4) skillful use of artillery fire to capture the stronghold at the yard of Leonov.

24 July 1915 - the apogee of the heroic defense of Osovets - “Brest Fortress of the First World War”, is an example not only of courage and heroism, but also the effectiveness of the actions of the Russian Imperial Army.


Chronicle of the war 1914-15 No. 23.
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  1. XII Legion
    XII Legion 27 November 2017 07: 04 New
    41
    The author drew attention to the most important facts revealed by the chemical attack of the Germans against the Osovets fortress on July 24 (August 6), 1915.
    Not only the courage of the Russian troops, but also their skillful actions made it possible to repel the onslaught of the many times the strongest enemy.
    But the fortress did not fall - neither under the blow of artillery, nor under the blow of the chemical weapons of the enemy, but was abandoned - due to strategic necessity.
    Thank you!
    1. svp67
      svp67 27 November 2017 13: 45 New
      22
      Quote: XII legion
      Thank you!

      Join.
      The defense of Osovets, if there weren’t for the Revolutions of 1917 and the Civil War, with the victory of the “red” side in it, would be the example on which it would be necessary to learn to win, in the most difficult conditions. And it is good that they did not forget about that feat. Eternal memory to the Heroes of the Fallen for the Fatherland and to those who died in difficult conditions, but WINS !!!!!
  2. Russian jacket
    Russian jacket 27 November 2017 07: 27 New
    20
    Great article. Thank. hi
  3. parusnik
    parusnik 27 November 2017 07: 40 New
    29
    The defenders of Osovets in the First World War managed to survive in almost the same conditions in which in 1914 almost all the Belgian and French fortresses on the Western Front fell pretty quickly.
  4. igordok
    igordok 27 November 2017 08: 35 New
    22
    Two more legends about Osovets.
    In a snap, the Germans could not take the fortress. And, paused, they sent parliamentarians to the citadel. Like, open the way for us, and we will give you half a million marks. Allegedly, the shells needed to destroy the Osovts could cost so much. In addition, they scared me: if you refuse, after 48 hours you will be razed to the ground. In response, the negotiators were invited to stay for two days in Osovce. “If the fortress stands, I will hang you, and if it falls, hang me,” said headquarters officer Mikhail Svechnikov. The Germans chose to retreat and did the right thing.

    And the legend of the watch standing at the post 9 years.

    It looks like some elements of the fortress now.

  5. gafarovsafar
    gafarovsafar 27 November 2017 09: 40 New
    18
    Yes, people lived in our time
    Not like the current tribe.
    1. Nikolaevich I
      Nikolaevich I 27 November 2017 10: 52 New
      20
      Quote: gafarovsafar
      Yes, people lived in our time
      Not like the current tribe.

      Yes, sir .... you’ve gotten it, you once saw a lot of paraffin ... like a cat Matroskin with shoe polish ... and you’ve paraffinized the review of the district itself ... You don’t "neither the feat of Soviet soldiers in Badaber near Peshawar in 1985 ...; neither the feat of the 9 company of the 345 airborne regiment in" Afghanistan "in 1988; nor the feat of the 6 company of the Pskov paratroopers 104 regiment in Chechnya in 2000. ; no feat of the military police in Syria 19 September ...
  6. SCHWERIN
    SCHWERIN 27 November 2017 10: 56 New
    0
    It’s interesting, what would these people do if they knew that the king would betray them soon, leaving the country in the abyss of revolution and civil war? That the officers-heroes will be killed by their own Russian people, and the survivors will leave their own country and will be taxi drivers in foreign countries, that soldiers-heroes will hide their own St. George's crosses .... Tragedy
    1. Sling cutter
      Sling cutter 27 November 2017 11: 07 New
      11
      Quote: SCHWERIN
      that soldiers - heroes will hide their own crosses of St. George ...

      I won’t “lay out” all your koment, I’ll just remind you, Zhukov, Budyonny and many Bolsheviks were St. George Knights!
      1. avva2012
        avva2012 27 November 2017 11: 49 New
        20
        Budyonny’s awards looked like this:
        1. Sling cutter
          Sling cutter 27 November 2017 11: 53 New
          +8
          Quote: avva2012
          Budyonny’s awards looked like this:

          Thanks Colleague! hi drinks
          Only I don’t observe the Order of Victory ... what
          Or was he not awarded?
          1. avva2012
            avva2012 27 November 2017 12: 45 New
            10
            drinks laughing In my opinion, no. King Mihai, yes, and Semyon Mikhailovich bypassed angry laughing
            1. Sling cutter
              Sling cutter 27 November 2017 13: 01 New
              +6
              Quote: avva2012
              In my opinion, no. King Mihai, yes, and Semyon Mikhailovich bypassed

              So there! belay
              Colleague, I’m sad ...., the school was never asked this topic, I only recall that L.I. Brezhnev was awarded on the 30th anniversary of the Victory, if not mistaken.
              But how could Budyon Semyonny get around? I do not understand. request laughing
              And this Romanian figurine Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen was honored, how so?
              1. avva2012
                avva2012 27 November 2017 13: 16 New
                +9
                Do not believe it, for the victory over Germany wassat laughing
                1. Sling cutter
                  Sling cutter 27 November 2017 13: 43 New
                  10
                  Quote: avva2012
                  Do not believe it, for the victory over Germany wassat laughing

                  It's like, about the custodians, "And did they also win?" belay
                  1. avva2012
                    avva2012 27 November 2017 14: 08 New
                    +5
                    Apparently. I heard that the Britons and Poles tried to introduce wassat in the composition of the winners.
                    1. Sling cutter
                      Sling cutter 27 November 2017 14: 13 New
                      +7
                      Historical conflicts, however.
                      In vain, Stalin agreed to share Berlin, and with the custodians, as it didn’t come out, although there were most likely projects on the topic of Sovietization of storage.
                      1. avva2012
                        avva2012 27 November 2017 14: 22 New
                        +6
                        And, in general, he was kind by nature, Comrade Stalin. Human, despite the severity, apparently. This is already a symptom, however, if the liberals, who are called a tyrant, a villain, then we must, without fear, search for the antonym and that person will have the correct definition.
    2. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 27 November 2017 14: 11 New
      +3
      Tragedy is when those in power sell the country. Imagine the situation: tomorrow is war. It’s a priori clear that the “golden million” will merge us, like serfs, together with the territories. This is not even discussed, it is a constant! And what, for you, this is an occasion not to defend the Motherland ?!
      1. avva2012
        avva2012 27 November 2017 14: 28 New
        +3
        It’s necessary to protect, Anton, yes, now times are not like in the Second World War, it will be more difficult. Unmanned aerial vehicles, infrared sensors, and even the dog knows what (the same OBs, for example, who will they be shy of then?). It will be harder in the forests. Well, it’s better not to let that happen.
        1. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave 27 November 2017 15: 25 New
          +1
          Alexander, to prevent - this is a global nuclear dyets. Because this country will never become socialist, at least, as you imagine it. There are two ways left: to degrade in the mainstream of the universal human paradigm or to try to create your own vector of social development, subject to constant pressure from the outside and rotting inside. And one of the finals of this path is that same nuclear dyets.
          My previous post, in general, was not about that, but about the "degree of hopelessness", which in the 1915th was much lower than the current one. At the time to create the doomed regiment social movement.
          1. avva2012
            avva2012 27 November 2017 16: 01 New
            +1
            I did not understand a bit, times are somewhat similar. World War, yet, no.
            How, I represent it, you do not know.
            In the 1990 year, I also had no idea. And then the country was somewhat different.
            1. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave 27 November 2017 16: 18 New
              +1
              At least I am aware of your political views.
              1. avva2012
                avva2012 27 November 2017 16: 34 New
                +2
                At least I lived in the late 80's. Feels like a lot of similarities. Personal. I don’t know how anyone.
                1. 3x3zsave
                  3x3zsave 27 November 2017 17: 28 New
                  +2
                  I also lived there, though I’m younger, maybe the impressions of it are different.
                  1. avva2012
                    avva2012 27 November 2017 17: 38 New
                    +1
                    Each one has their own, these sensations, regardless of their conscious age. Only the USSR was more powerful and until August 1991, no one could imagine what would happen, and even after that. Wait and see. hi
    3. Dart2027
      Dart2027 27 November 2017 19: 32 New
      +2
      Quote: SCHWERIN
      that the king will betray them soon, leaving the country

      I wonder how many times it was written that Nicholas II was overthrown by the conspirators, among whom was the command of the army?
      1. SCHWERIN
        SCHWERIN 27 November 2017 21: 48 New
        +2
        What does it mean toppled? Was he imprisoned? Nicholas II did not have the legal right to leave his royal post! I did not have the right to sign the renunciation. He betrayed his people, not ready for war. The people who, through his fault, tens of thousands mowed heavy German artillery. Soldiers and officers, all who died under German shells.
        It can be compared with Mikhail G., who brought the country to the edge of the abyss, and renounced his post.
        Imagine I.V. Stalin, when the Germans were approaching Moscow, under pressure from the military, would relinquish the authority of the VGK or transfer them to Bulganin? I can’t imagine it. Although the position of 41 was 1000 times worse than then!
        The leader of the country is not just a person, it is a symbol of the country.
        1. Dart2027
          Dart2027 28 November 2017 19: 36 New
          +2
          Quote: SCHWERIN
          What does it mean toppled? Was he imprisoned?

          In fact, yes. Trying to return to the capital to take charge of restoring order, he was in the hands of the conspirators, and his orders were canceled.
          Quote: SCHWERIN
          It can be compared with Mikhail G.

          Gorbachev deliberately destroyed the country, and this is a little different.
          Quote: SCHWERIN
          Imagine I.V. Stalin with the Germans approaching Moscow under military pressure

          This did not happen because a few years before the war a group of high-ranking military personnel were shot.
    4. andrew42
      andrew42 22 February 2018 10: 01 New
      0
      Would do the same. Times do not choose, they live and die in them. Do what you must, and whatever happens.
  7. burigaz2010
    burigaz2010 27 November 2017 11: 41 New
    +1
    But the vile little article came out! The fact that the Osovts fighters destroyed several German large-caliber guns, the author forgot to add! Did he forget the answer of the commandant of the Osovts to the Germans too?
    1. soldier
      soldier 27 November 2017 12: 18 New
      19
      But the vile little article came out!

      Often we judge others by ourselves.
      Unfortunately.
      This is me about burigaz2010
      Of course, you won’t tell about the whole article - by the way, there are large works by Bunyakovsky and Khmelkov. For those who are interested in the subject in detail.
      And we ask burigaz2010 to write a not-mean article about how the Osovets fighters destroyed several German large-caliber guns and that the Osovts commandant answered the Germans.
      And we are very pleased to read
      1. Serge72
        Serge72 27 November 2017 12: 25 New
        16
        Keep
        Will wait
        1. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave 27 November 2017 13: 18 New
          10
          Useless, the character specializes in criticism.
          1. soldier
            soldier 27 November 2017 15: 34 New
            18
            This is clear. And I mean his puppeteer
            1. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave 27 November 2017 15: 53 New
              +9
              Yes, the Lord is with you! The character is omnivorous (from the word "poison"). Among his "favorites" are Oleynikov, Shpakovsky, Polonsky, Skomorokhov with Staver. But Samsonova is afraid, understands what an administrative resource is. What kind of puppeteer is it? request
              1. soldier
                soldier 27 November 2017 16: 17 New
                17
                All clear
                hi
              2. burigaz2010
                burigaz2010 28 November 2017 00: 17 New
                0
                Quote: 3x3zsave
                Yes, the Lord is with you! The character is omnivorous (from the word "poison"). Among his "favorites" are Oleynikov, Shpakovsky, Polonsky, Skomorokhov with Staver. But Samsonova is afraid, understands what an administrative resource is. What kind of puppeteer is it? request

                Mr. with the nickname 3 * 3save you have something against me? Or is it a verbal outburst?
      2. burigaz2010
        burigaz2010 27 November 2017 14: 01 New
        0
        Mr. Oleinikov, did I miss something?
        1. soldier
          soldier 27 November 2017 15: 41 New
          22
          I do not know what Mr. Oleinikov or you missed.
          And so as not to scratch your tongue - burigaz2010, I repeat - write a "not vile" article about how the Osovts fighters destroyed several German large-caliber guns and what the commandant replied to the Germans.
          This
          An article about some key facts
          , and you already inform about the others.
          It was the level of such types of “commentators” that led to the disconnection of comments on many sites.
          The level of such burigasov is lower than the plinth, but the aplomb rolls over and boorish statements spew.
          What to say. The character however ...
  8. igordok
    igordok 27 November 2017 13: 30 New
    13
    The article presents the plan of only fort No.1 of the Osovets fortress. For some reason, it’s not possible to insert a plan diagram of the fortress. Even the copied image.
    In engineering terms, the Osovec fortress was weak.
    The main disadvantages of fortification preparation of the fortress
    Based on all of the above, we can conclude that the fortification preparation of the Osovetskaya fortress in peacetime did not differ in the completeness, power and modernity of ideas and forms.
    She lagged behind the preparation of such large fortresses as Verdun, Novogeorgievsk, Antwerp, Grodno and others, for many years and suffered from such significant shortcomings, which can not be stopped. The most important of them are as follows:
    1. Unmasking the fortress.
    2. Weakness of Forts No. 2, 3 and 4
    3. The weakness of the gaps.
    4. Weak equipment artillery positions.
    5. Insecurity of long-term obstacles.

    Osovets was weaker than the aforementioned Novogeorgievsk. But how long Novogeorgievsk lasted (10 days), and how much Osovets. How many times have already been mentioned: Not fighting Tanks fortresses, people are fighting.
    The fight for Osovets-http: //rubooks.org/book.php? Book = 52 & pa
    ge = 1
    1. soldier
      soldier 27 November 2017 15: 43 New
      21
      Fortress scheme

      hi
      1. igordok
        igordok 27 November 2017 15: 49 New
        13
        Thank. Here I am, and although I put it, but something did not go.
  9. burigaz2010
    burigaz2010 27 November 2017 14: 03 New
    0
    Quote: burigaz2010
    Mr. Oleinikov, did I miss something?
  10. burigaz2010
    burigaz2010 27 November 2017 14: 13 New
    0
    Quote: igordok
    Two more legends about Osovets.
    In a snap, the Germans could not take the fortress. And, paused, they sent parliamentarians to the citadel. Like, open the way for us, and we will give you half a million marks. Allegedly, the shells needed to destroy the Osovts could cost so much. In addition, they scared me: if you refuse, after 48 hours you will be razed to the ground. In response, the negotiators were invited to stay for two days in Osovce. “If the fortress stands, I will hang you, and if it falls, hang me,” said headquarters officer Mikhail Svechnikov. The Germans chose to retreat and did the right thing.

    And the legend of the watch standing at the post 9 years.

    It looks like some elements of the fortress now.


    Yandex to help you !! At
    1. losevo36
      losevo36 27 November 2017 15: 17 New
      13
      My fellow countrymen fought there - the Zemlyansky regiment - ETERNAL MEMORY !!!!!
  11. Nikitin
    Nikitin 27 November 2017 15: 24 New
    13
    Thanks to the author for the details of the feat.
  12. Ryazan87
    Ryazan87 27 November 2017 15: 36 New
    19
    Legends (but rather stories from Pikul) is not what Osovts’ defenders deserve. Let's remember the real heroes. More precisely, the officers who led the famous attack.
    "... Having entered the general reserve line, Lieutenant Kotlinsky personally carried out a reconnaissance and, having correctly assessed the situation, with 500 steps rushed at the head of his company to attack the advancing German chains. The Germans opened strong rifle and machine-gun fire at 13 companies, but this is not stopped the rapid attack, despite the fact that at this time the second lieutenant Kotlinsky was mortally wounded, having transferred command of the company to the sapper officer, second lieutenant Strzheminsky ... "
    1. Second Lieutenant Vladimir Karpovich Kotlinsky, graduate of the Military Topographic School. From the peasants of the Minsk province. At the time of the feat and death, he was 21 years old.

    The fate of his siblings is also interesting:
    Vasily Karpovich Kotlinsky - a participant in the Great War (lieutenant). Further in the White Movement, captain, chief, head of the team of horse reconnaissance (Northwest Army). In exile. After 1953 he came to the USSR, lived in Lithuania.
    Yevgeny Karpovich Kotlinsky is a surveyor. In 1935, for “communication with whites” and “overseas relatives,” he was evicted for special settlement with his wife to the Nyrob district of the Molotov Region, where one of his daughters died. The younger 3-year-old daughter was left secretly under a different surname and with a different patronymic to relatives. That is why she is buried in a cemetery in Pskov not under her real name. E.K. returned Kotlinsky from exile in Pskov as early as the 1950s.

    2. Second Lieutenant Vladislav Maksimilianovich Strzheminsky, a graduate of the Nikolaev Engineering School. From the Polish nobles. Disabled person of the Great War (In a field hospital, he was forced to amputate his right leg as a whole and his left arm to the elbow. His eyes were also affected, the right one later did not fully recover.) George. Later, the avant-garde artist, the theorist of unity in abstract art, was known. One of the seven Polish academies of fine arts bears his name.


    I note that the identity of Kotlinsky was established thanks to the work of the St. Petersburg Institute of History of Mikhail Yuryevich Nakonechny. He also found the descendants of the Kotlinsky family and photographic materials.
  13. 1536
    1536 27 November 2017 16: 29 New
    15
    Eternal Glory to the Fallen Heroes!
    How little we know about the First World War and the exploits of the soldiers of the Russian Army on the fields of Europe. That’s how they once called the war “imperialist”, converted it into civil war, and called the “poor” Germans the usual “hard workers” who didn’t want to fight at all, because it suddenly became profitable. And so it has been since then ... Profit is more important than conscience.
    Only for some reason the Germans are not at all poor. They all have the same gases and gas masks. And ours are with handkerchiefs on their faces, but everyone’s faces are different, because there are no identical heroes. Only gangsters and murderers, eager for someone else's, are alike.
  14. Barcid
    Barcid 27 November 2017 18: 14 New
    16
    You can’t forget about this. Thanks to the author.
  15. Lieutenant Teterin
    Lieutenant Teterin 27 November 2017 20: 49 New
    10
    Great article! The battles near Osovets are surrounded by a galaxy of myths, often of a negative nature, so the objective coverage of these events is truly priceless. The Osovets position, as was noted back in the years of the Second Patriotic War by both Russian and foreign experts, was a rare example of a competent combination of long-term and field fortification. However, as it was once correctly said: "the strength of the walls is determined primarily by the courage of their defenders." The Osovets lasted so long, first of all, thanks to the unparalleled courage and stamina of the Russian soldier.
    The author - my sincere gratitude for the work done and the restoration of the memory of Russian heroes! hi
  16. Seal
    Seal 28 November 2017 13: 58 New
    +1
    Quote: SCHWERIN
    I did not have the right to sign the renunciation.

    Perhaps betrayed. But he had the right. For he was an autocrat.
    The Federation Council said that the abdication of the emperor Nicholas II has legal force, according to RIA Novosti. Thus, Konstantin Dobrynin, Deputy Chairman of the Federation Council Committee on Constitutional Legislation, commented on the statement of the Crimean Prosecutor Natalya Poklonskaya, who claimed that the abdication of the last Russian emperor had no legal force.

    “The original abdication of Nicholas II is stored in the State Archives in Moscow. The autocrat possessed at that time all power, including the possibility of his own renunciation in the very form in which the anointed of God would consider possible, and the pen that he considered suitable. Though a nail on a sheet of iron. And this will have absolute legal force, ”said Dobrynin.

    He added that the act of abdication of Nicholas II was published in all the newspapers of Tsarist Russia and was not questioned. To exclude "doubts and misinterpretations," the document was confirmed by the Minister of the Imperial Court, Baron Fredericks. Dobrynin added that after March 2, 1917, for almost a year and a half, Nicholas did not declare coercion to renounce.

    Well, the fact that he had a legal, not moral right is another story.
    Nikolai’s biggest mistake was that he decided to marry a princess who was known to be a 50/50 carrier of the hemophilia gene. He took a chance and ... lost. So you can take risks with some small king or duke. But not the heir to the Russian Empire.
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