Military Review

TVD Second Patriotic. 1915 year. Part of 4

25
December 14 1915 - January 6 1916 The southern armies of the Southwestern Front (7 and 9) tried to assist the dying Serbian army on the r. Strypa.


Poorly thought out tactically (narrow front of the offensive, lack of tactical surprise, unsystematic action) and improper artillery prepared operations did not allow the enemy to penetrate deeply defensive positions. The enemy of the Russian 7 Army is part of the Austro-Hungarian 7 and German Southern armies. Russian trophies were 5000 captives, 12 guns and more than 10 machine guns.

Events in the Galician theater of war ultimately had a key impact on the course and outcome of the 1915 campaign on the Eastern Front. It is on this theater that the enemy planned a major strategic breakthrough. As a result, despite the fact that the situation on the Russian North-Western Front was calm, after the enemy’s Gorlitsky breakthrough, a general retreat was necessary, the withdrawal of troops from the “Polish bag”. Thus, the Galician TVD influenced strategic stability in other theaters of operations. But he also played a crucial role in the stabilization of the Eastern Front after the Great Retreat in the summer of 1915.

Transnistria theater


In March-June, the troops of the South-Western Front conducted a series of operations on the Dniester, Prut and Bukovina.

In the course of the offensive First Khotyn operation 17 – 22 in March, the 9 th army group (2 and 3 th cavalry corps) [41] inflicted a convincing defeat on the strike force of the Austrian 7 army, parrying the enemy’s maneuver, capturing over 3 thousands of prisoners and 8 machine guns.


14 schema. Front on the Dniester. Episode of the German card. The positions of the Austro-Hungarian 7 and its main opponent, the Russian 9, are plotted. Reichsarchiv. Der Weltkrieg 1914 – 1918. Band 7. Berlin, 1931

Transnistrian battle [42] - offensive operation of the Russian 9 Army against the forces of the Austro-Hungarian 7 Army of April 26 - May 2. Despite the fact that there was no significant superiority in the forces required for an offensive operation with decisive targets, the strategic task that faced the 9 army in Zadnestrovsk battle - to divert the strategic reserves of the Austro-German command - was completed. The 9 thousands of prisoners, 25 guns, at least 20 machine guns, bombers became trophies of the victorious troops of the 33 th army. [43].

But, having made a successful breakthrough of the tactical and operational defense of the enemy, the General’s troops from the infantry P. A. Lechitsky, due to the general unfavorable operational-strategic situation in the center of the South-Western Front due to the development of the enemy’s Gorlitsky breakthrough, were forced to retreat frontiers. The real strategic result of this operation was that the communications of the Russian 8 Army were reliably ensured, which in the conditions prevailing in Galicia was extremely timely. Rejecting the Austro-Hungarian 7 th army far to the south, over the river. Prut, the Russian 9-I army reliably provided the withdrawal paths of the neighboring armies to the north.

At the end of May, the 9 Army conducted a successful Prut operation, taking 17 guns, 78 machine guns and more 16000 Austrian-German prisoners [44], and the Second Khotyn operation gave up to 8 thousands of prisoners, more than 20 machine guns, 1 bombers. Despite the tactical successes of the 9 Army in these operations, she was involved in the overall withdrawal of the front.

May 24 - June 2 defensive-offensive operation of the 11 Army took place at Zhuravno [45] - during the battle for the Dniester. The Zhuravlenskaya operation is not only a tactical and operational victory of the Russians, there are also elements of strategic success. The battle not only showed high activity of the Russian troops at the defensive stage of the 1915 campaign - it contributed to the transformation of enemy operational planning. The 11 army corps, having withstood the strongest onslaught of the Austrian and German troops, achieved a major success - they defeated the enemy, throwing him behind the Dniester. And this circumstance led to the collapse of the enemy’s strategic plan - crossing the Dniester, bypassing Lviv, going to the rear of the main grouping of the South-Western Front troops. Russian trophies in this operation are about 28000 prisoners, 29 guns, 110 machine guns. The actions of the Russian troops in the Dniester direction were an attempt to promptly respond to the results of the Gorlitsky breakthrough - this offensive led the enemy moving to Lviv. Only using additional forces, he managed to cope with the threat to his flank.


15 schema. The operation of the Russian 11 army in Zhuravno. German card (dates in a new style). Reichsarchiv. Der Weltkrieg 1914 – 1918. Band 8. Berlin, 1932

Despite the success of the Russian 9 and 11 armies that defeated the Austrian 7 and German Southern armies, the strategic position of the South-Western Front did not improve - the distance from the theater of operations from the most important operational areas affected. The overall defeat in the center of the South-Western Front forced the successful offensive to roll and retreat.

Transnistrian theater was of secondary importance and could not seriously affect the situation in the center of the Eastern Front, but it created positive prerequisites for subsequent operations and was very successful for the Russian weapons.

Baltic


The Russian command, focusing on the Polish-Carpathian sector of the Eastern Front in the spring of 1915, underestimated the Baltic strategic direction - its strength and resources in this theater were mainly represented by scattered pieces of weak composition. In May-June, the troops of the Russian 5 Army fought local battles with the German Neman Army. And during this period, the Rigo-Shavelsky region, through which the bypass of the extreme right flank of the strategic building of the Russian troops of the Eastern Front was possible, acquired enormous significance.

In the Shavel battle of the Mitavo-Shavel operation [46] the Germans planned to surround the central divisions of the Russian 5-th army, closing the ring east of the city Shchadova.


16 schema. Deployment of Russian and German troops before the start of the Shavel battle. Korolkov G. K. The Battle of Shavli. M.-L., 1926

In this operation, the Russian command was actively maneuvering the available forces, causing counterattacks (for example, the city of Mitava repeatedly passed from hand to hand), but the enemy’s advantage decided the matter. 5-I army retreated to the Western Dvina - on Yakobshtadt, Riga, and Dvinsk. The operation cost the Germans about 10000 people, the troops of the 5 army lost up to 50000 people, and the Germans reported captured 27000 prisoners, 40 machine guns and Russian 25 guns [47].

By concentrating the strike fist at Kovno-Vilna, the Russian command planned to strike the flank of the advancing enemy. But he was ahead - and on July 26, the German 10 Army launched an offensive. The main blow was struck 21-m army and 40-m reserve corps at the Kovno fortress. Since July 28 began the assault on the Koven fortifications. And although the first onslaught was repulsed, due to the lack of cooperation between the fortress and the field forces, the line of 3 August forts was broken. The garrison held on, fierce battles at the fortress often turned into bayonet fights. But the loss of control (the commandant fled) led to the inefficiency of the unorganized Russian counterattacks, and on August 9, the fortress of Kovno fell.

In the Vilna operation [48] The actions at the junctions of the Russian armies of the Northern and Western fronts gained special significance.

TVD Second Patriotic. 1915 year. Part of 4

17 schema. Russian fronts and their demarcation lines to the beginning of the Vilna operation. Evseev N. Sventsyansky breakthrough 1915 M., 1936

August 27 The Germans struck the junction between the 5 Army of the Northern and 10 Army of the Western Front. Being at the junction of only the Russian horse veil greatly facilitated the enemy’s task. The Russian 10 Army showed sufficient stability, its corps, holding the northern sector of the front of the army, delayed a good half of the divisions of the shock groups of the German 10 Army. But the German 10 Army of August 28 broke through the front of Novosventsyan. The 50-kilometer gap appeared between the left flank of the 5 and the right flank of the 10 of the Russian armies. 10-I army of the Germans moved to Smorgon and Vilna, and Nemansky - to Dvinsk. The cavalry of the armies (5 divisions) under the general command of the cavalry general O. von Garnier was to break through the junction between the Russian 5 and 10 armies, striking them in the rear.

The equestrian group, breaking through the Russian battle formations, advanced to the rear of the 10 Army - it carried out the Sventsian breakthrough. With energetic actions of the Russian command (which, in turn, carried out the counter-maneuver by a maneuverable group), the breakthrough was localized and closed.


18 schema. Vilna strategic operation and its scope in the context of other operations on the Eastern Front. 31 August - 11 September 1915 d. Washburn S. Victory in Defeat. London, 1916

The Vilensk operation consisted of different in form operations of armies and army groups, very complex not only by their nature, but also by the marginal degree of tension that troops of both sides were subjected to. Stabilization of the front after the retreat — this strategic success of the Russian army was one of the most important consequences of this operation. In operations in the Baltics, only the German 12 army lost in July - August 1800 officers and 80000 soldiers, in October the losses of the Neman army amounted to 15000 people [49]. The essence of the hostilities in the Baltic States was again reduced to the frontal ousting of Russian troops - as well as in the south-western direction, the enemy was unable to carry out operational coverage and rounds in the Cannes style. E. von Falkengine noted in this connection that the Russians had achieved withdrawal in the desired direction. [50].

Given the importance of the Baltic theater of operations for the fate of the Baltic fleet and the operational direction to Petrograd, the military-political leadership of Russia attached special importance to it. It is no accident that the successful outcome of the Vilna operation heralded the beginning of stabilization of the Eastern Front.

Notes

41. 2 (Acting Lieutenant General A.M. Kaledin) and 3 (Acting Lieutenant General FA Keller) cavalry corps (6 cavalry divisions - up to 30 thousand people, 70 guns) defeated 3-m infantry and 3 cavalry divisions of the enemy (50000 man, 250 guns). See: Strategic Essay. H. 4; Österreich-Ungarns Letzter Krieg 1914 -1918. B. II; Reichsarchiv. Der Weltkrieg 1914 – 1918. B. 7; Reichsarchiv. Der Weltkrieg 1914-1918. B. 8.
42. The ratio of enemy forces: 9 infantry and 6 cavalry divisions, 5 militia teams of the 9 Army (General of Infantry P.L. Lechitsky; 180000 man, 500 guns) against 8 infantry and 5 cavalry divisions against the XYNXX infantry units 120000 infantry and 600 cavalry divisions . See: Ibid.
43. Oleynikov A.V. Captured in battle. C. 317.
44. Great War 1915 year. Essay on the main operations of the Russian Western Front. PG.1916. C. 25.
45. The 11 units of the Southwestern Front (General of Infantry DG Shcherbachev; 6 Infantry Divisions; 70000 Man, to 300 Guns) were opposed by units of the German Southern Army (Infantry General F. Von Botmer; to 6 Infantry Division; 70000 Man , over 400 guns). See: RGVIA. F. 2190. Op. 1. D. 65, 69; Strategic sketch of the 1914-1918 war. H. 4; Österreich-Ungarns Letzter Krieg 1914 -1918. B. II; Reichsarchiv. Der Weltkrieg 1914 – 1918. Band 8.
46. Defensive operation 1 July - 7 August 1915, the Shavelly battle proceeded 1 - 12 July. 5 Army (cavalry general P.A. Plehve; 7,5 infantry and 7,5 cavalry divisions) - 128500 people (of which 20900 are unarmed) with 365-ti guns) of the North-Western Front opposed the Neman Army (general of infantry O. von Belov ; 7,5 infantry and 5,5 cavalry divisions - about 120000 people with 600 guns) of the German Eastern Front. The main battles took place in the area of ​​the town of Shavli, northern Lithuania. See: RGVIA. F. 2122. Op. 1. D. 14 – 22; F. 2216. Op. 1. D. 36; Strategic sketch of the war. H. 4; Korolkov G. K. The Battle of Shavli; He is. Unfulfilled Cannes; Reichsarchiv. Der Weltkrieg 1914 – 1918. B. 8.
47. Reichsarchiv. Der Weltkrieg 1914 – 1918. B. 8. S. 471.
48. Strategic defensive offensive operation of the Russian Western (General of Infantry A.Ye. Evert) and Northern (General of Infantry N. V. Ruzsky) of the fronts (1-I, 2-I, 5-I, 10-I armies - 53 infantry 8,5 cavalry divisions - 310000 man, up to 2500 guns) against the German army group of General-Field Marshal P. von Hindenburg (Neman, 8-I, 10-I, 12-I-Army - 41 Infantry, 6 Cavalry-of-a-off-martial brahim, 450000-XnUMX-X-Army, 3000-Infantry, 9-Cn. before 19 guns) August 1915 - September 2067 2. See: RGVIA. F. 968. Op. 4. D. 1914; Strategic essay. H. 1918; Österreich-Ungarns Letzter Krieg 1914-1918. B. III; Reichsarchiv. Der Weltkrieg 8 – XNUMX. B. XNUMX; Evseev N. Sventsyansky breakthrough.
49. Reichsarchiv. Der Weltkrieg 1914 – 1918. B. 8. S. 509, 546.
50. Falkengayn E. background. Decree. cit. C. 121.


The soldiers are having lunch. Gaso

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  1. XII Legion
    XII Legion 2 November 2017 07: 11 New
    17
    Yes, operations on the flanks of the Russian Front were very important for the outcome of the 1915 campaign.
    The battles on the Dniester front are poorly studied and covered.
    Need to fix
    Thank you!
  2. parusnik
    parusnik 2 November 2017 07: 30 New
    12
    Good review ..
  3. Olgovich
    Olgovich 2 November 2017 07: 45 New
    14
    Well, with dignity and quite competently fought (for those conditions and with those means): enemy breakthroughs were localized, the environment was not allowed.

    Thanks to the author for the return of knowledge about our glorious ancestors who saved the Fatherland from the invaders.
  4. Cartalon
    Cartalon 2 November 2017 08: 14 New
    0
    A successful outcome of the Vilna operation is too much, the Russians were knocked off the last railroad line of the railway and deprived of the opportunity to quickly deploy troops.
    1. Rotmistr
      Rotmistr 2 November 2017 08: 30 New
      17
      It's about stabilizing the front.
      On the counter-maneuver of the Russian command, which eliminated the Sventsyansky breakthrough.
      E. Ludendorf wrote about the counter-maneuver: “(of a new style) on September 19, despite stubborn defense, the 1st Cavalry Division was knocked out of Smorgon by an enemy approaching from Vilna. The Russians sent reinforcements by rail to the area east of Dvinsk; these forces were soon felt in the area south of Dvinsk .... from the Lida-Slonim front, the Russians were able to advance infantry divisions to Molodechno, and the cavalry divisions to Dokshitsy. ”
      The operation ended with a counterattack of Russian troops.
      And the rockades were lost in Poland
  5. Lieutenant Teterin
    Lieutenant Teterin 2 November 2017 09: 33 New
    14
    A wonderful and objective article, arguably refuting the myth that supposedly "the Germans completely defeated the backward tsarist army in 1915." The Russian command showed a high level of operational and tactical thinking, being able in difficult conditions to organize, if not a complete reflection of the enemy’s attack, but disruption of its strategic plan by conducting a series of competent and sensitive counterattacks, as well as an organized withdrawal of the army to new defensive positions.
    The author - my sincere gratitude for the work done! hi
    1. Cartalon
      Cartalon 2 November 2017 13: 12 New
      +2
      Where is the high level of operational thinking? The Russian command constantly did not have time to suppress the enemy’s actions, but there was no question of imposing their will and monstrous failure as an achievement.
      1. Rotmistr
        Rotmistr 2 November 2017 13: 55 New
        18
        I will allow a replica. Lieutenant Teterin I hope forgive.
        We are talking about two theater of operations - the Baltic States and the Dniester Front.
        In the Baltic, the 5th Army P.A. Pleve acted. Given the superiority of the enemy, she was very active in maneuvering in the Mitavo-Shavel operation and did not allow herself to be surrounded. The Germans themselves write that Pleve is a worthy opponent of Belov. Found a scythe on a stone. But the factor of large battalions has not been canceled - I had to retreat. And in the Vilna operation - again the Germans themselves admit that the Russian command ACTED MORE EFFECTIVELY. What is one Evert march-maneuver https://topwar.ru/105086-general-ot-infanterii-al
        eksey-ermolaevich-evert-i-sudba-vilenskoy-strateg
        icheskoy-operacii-1915-goda.html
        And how did the armies of Lechitsky and Shcherbachev act on the Dniester front.
        In March 2 horse corps defeated (!) The combined arms army. In the Battle of Zhuravnensky, an enemy attempt was foiled
        after crossing the Dniester, go around Lviv, leaving behind the rear of the main group of forces of the South-Western Front.
        Is it not the solution of important tasks and the imposition of one’s will on the adversary - and in conditions of a lack of resources
        1. Lieutenant Teterin
          Lieutenant Teterin 2 November 2017 15: 00 New
          14
          Mr. Rotmister, I’m only glad that you joined the discussion, and I want to sincerely thank you for the competent commentary and timely links to research confirming my words! hi
          1. Rotmistr
            Rotmistr 2 November 2017 15: 45 New
            17
            Thanks Mr. Poruchik!
            hi
            By the way, I also want to say that the commanders also acted competently. For example, the commander of the 4th Army A.E. Evert. Victories near Opatov and Lublin, a march-maneuver during the Vilna operation - its achievements.
            The commander of the 10th army Radkevich - his army worked perfectly in the Vilna operation.
            About the commander-5 P. A. Pleve already said - Second Prasnysh, Baltic.
            The commandos Shcherbachev and Lechitsky showed themselves perfectly on the Dniester. Then both proved themselves in the Brusilovsky breakthrough.
            The 9th army of Lechitsky in 1914-17. generally did not know the defeat.
            And the commander - 8 A. A. Brusilov? It’s unnecessary to talk about him.
            And the generals Gorbatovsky and Olokhov?
            Speaking of the latter, there was an article https://vpk-news.ru/articles/35606
            Some actions of Commander-3 Radko-Dmitriev and the command of the South-Western Front during the Gorlitsky operation raise questions. But you must always remember the balance of power - the overwhelming superiority of the enemy in the area of ​​breakthrough. The commander of the South-Western Front Ivanov was confused, but Alekseev, the chief of staff, showed himself and led the troops out of the "Polish balcony". Radko-Dmitriev also proved himself later - in the December Mitava operation of 1916, breaking through the layered defense of the Germans.
            1. zoolu350
              zoolu350 3 November 2017 15: 20 New
              +1
              To listen to you, so are all the tsarist generals of genius, but managed to fool through the army entrusted to them and overthrew their Commander-in-Chief. But the mediocre Soviet marshals took Berlin and won the victory.
              1. Rotmistr
                Rotmistr 3 November 2017 15: 45 New
                15
                all the royal genius generals

                I did not say that
                mediocre Soviet marshals took Berlin and won the victory.

                And even more so did not say these sacrilegious words. It is YOU SAID such a POLEPLE on the Soviet marshals - Marshals of the VICTORY.
                And you should be ashamed of such thoughts, and even more so - the words
                1. zoolu350
                  zoolu350 3 November 2017 16: 04 New
                  0
                  Quote: Rotmistr
                  It is YOU SAID such a POLEPLE on the Soviet marshals - Marshals of the VICTORY.
                  And you should be ashamed of such thoughts, and even more so - the words

                  If it didn’t, then it was irony. All tsarist generals to the level of Zhukov, Konev, Vasilevsky and Rokossovsky, as before Beijing cancer. In the Civil War, simple non-commissioned officers and ensigns beat the tsarist generals in the tail and mane.
                  1. Rotmistr
                    Rotmistr 3 November 2017 16: 15 New
                    15
                    In the Civil War, there were generals, officers, and non-commissioners of the former imperial army on both sides.
                    Regarding the level, Brusilov and Pleve are no worse than that (a classic of the strategic genre, but the first did not live up to the Second World War, and the second before the revolution).
                    And speaking of the marshals, it is worth recalling the “non-non-non” - Shaposhnikov (RIA colonel), Vasilevsky (RIA headquarters captain) and Govorov (second lieutenant produced by the Provisional Government).
                    In general, it has long been good to contrast and split
                    1. zoolu350
                      zoolu350 4 November 2017 03: 34 New
                      +1
                      Don’t glorify the oligarchy of the Russian Federation and nobody will butt with crunch rolls.
                      One more question. How did these, in your words, literate, commanders of Evert, Pleve, Radkevich, Lechitsky manage to lose their armies and overthrow their Commander-in-Chief?
                      1. Rotmistr
                        Rotmistr 4 November 2017 08: 34 New
                        15
                        zoolu350
                        [quote] Do not praise the oligarchy [/ quote]
                        What I can not stand is the oligarchy, especially the Russian one. And we are talking about the military history of the Fatherland. There is nothing to associate a watchdog with a steam locomotive.
                        [quote] crunching rolls / quote]
                        Why such a stupid phrase - I do not understand. You can crunch buns and rotate loaves - your business. So there is nothing to ascribe to others.
                        [quote] literate, commanders Evert, Pleve, Radkevich, Lechitsky managed to lose their armies [/ quote]
                        Military literacy does not always mean political loyalty.
                        BUT
                        If you don’t know how to read and listen, then I repeat for ESPECIALLY GIFTED:
                        P. A. Pleve, one of the best generals of the World War, DIED BEFORE REVOLUTION - March 28, 1916 from cerebral hemorrhage. The general’s departure from military service and his untimely death coincided with the preparation of large-scale Russian offensive operations in 1916.
                        Obviously, the presence of an energetic leader at the head of the Northern or Western Fronts during the Brusilov breakthrough would at least not allow the Germans to draw units from other sections of the Russian-German front, and those transferred from France to divide between zones of Russian activity. If the tactics of several attacks within the framework of one front in 1916 brought such success to the Russian army, then simultaneous offensives along the same lines of several fronts could lead to the collapse of the entire Eastern Front. This time.
                        It is difficult to say how the fate of Russia would have developed if the Northern Front on March 2, 1917, instead of the defeatist N.V. Ruzsky, were led by P. A. Pleve. The person is decisive, firm and decent - he would not extort from the emperor, who found himself in constrained circumstances, renunciation, on the contrary, would become for him a moral and power support. These are two.
                        Lechitsky was in March 1917 the commander of the army - and no one asked his opinion on the question of the abdication of the emperor. The interim government kicked him out of service, and under Soviet rule was arrested and starved in prison.
                        Radkevich was also the commander - and no one asked his opinions on the issue of the abdication of the emperor. 25.04.1917/29.04.1917/06.05.1917 he was appointed assistant commander of the troops of the Petrograd Military District. After the departure of Kornilov 21.03.1918/11.1918/1918 R. actually began to act as commander in chief. But Radkevich, who was not involved in politics, could not arrange a Provisional Government and was already returned to the Military Council on 20/1923/50. Dismissed from service on XNUMX/XNUMX/XNUMX. Since XNUMX - retired. In XNUMX he was mobilized in the Red Army. In the XNUMXs. taught at the Kiev Infantry School named after Workers of the Red Zamoskvorechye. In XNUMX he was demobilized "for old age." Received a personal pension (XNUMX rubles).
                        Given the apparent legality of the abdication, the generals remained in the army - to be useful to the homeland. But such as Keller and Khan of Nakhichevan left immediately, without becoming an oath to the Provisional Government.
                        Only Evert, as commander of the Western Front, spoke out in favor of abdication. But his further destiny - paid for this act.
      2. Lieutenant Teterin
        Lieutenant Teterin 2 November 2017 14: 29 New
        14
        Where is the high level of operational thinking? Yes, even here:
        . On May 24 - June 2, the defensive-offensive operation of the 11th army near Zhuravno [45] took place during the battle for the Dniester. The Zhuravnensky operation is not only a tactical and operational victory for the Russians, there are also elements of strategic success. The battle not only showed the high activity of the Russian troops at the defensive stage of the 1915 campaign - it contributed to the transformation of enemy operational planning. The 11th Army Corps, having withstood the strongest onslaught of the Austrian and German troops, achieved great success - they defeated the enemy, dropping him beyond the Dniester. And this circumstance led to the collapse of the enemy’s strategic plan - after crossing the Dniester, bypass Lviv, reaching the rear of the main group of forces of the South-Western Front. Russian trophies in this operation - about 28000 prisoners, 29 guns, 110 machine guns. The actions of the Russian troops in the Dniester direction were an attempt to promptly respond to the results of the Gorlitsky breakthrough - this attack led the enemy moving to Lvov on the flank. Only by using additional forces did he manage to cope with the threat to his flank.

        For the most part, Russian commanders of the corps adequately responded to threats from the enemy, taking into account superior firepower (and, in some cases, numerical superiority), which allowed disrupting the Germans strategic plan. The Russian army was squeezed out of its position, but not destroyed. The Germans did not succeed in a strategic environment, like Sedan-1870 or Kiev-1941. They failed to punch a huge hole in the Russian front. Yes there were environments, but surrounded parts, albeit with losses, but made their way back. So this is not a "monstrous failure", but competent work, not perfect, but not a failure.
        And yes, I’m interested in this: why, ignoring the facts and documents, constantly speak so dismissively of the Russian Imperial Army and its leadership? Do you really like to call your homeland humiliated and scolded? I will not believe.
        1. zoolu350
          zoolu350 4 November 2017 03: 40 New
          +1
          My Motherland is the USSR and because of people like you it is temporarily not on the political map of the world. And I speak objectively about the leadership of the Republic of Ingushetia and its army, since fighting in conditions much more comfortable than the USSR, they managed to lose the country and the army.
          1. Rotmistr
            Rotmistr 4 November 2017 08: 41 New
            15
            My Homeland - USSR

            Our common homeland is the USSR.
            about the leadership of RI and its army, I speak objectively

            Well, of course. Even if you remove your ideological blinders - the opinion of any person is subjective.
            fighting in conditions far more comfortable than the USSR

            State criminals brought our country from the First World War - not allowing to reap the fruits of the common victory of the Entente.
            Our homeland in a difficult situation won the Great Patriotic War - honor and praise.
            But our Motherland lost the Cold War (acting in fairly comfortable conditions) - and you and I are now paying for the consequences of this.
            Their destinies
            1. zoolu350
              zoolu350 4 November 2017 09: 40 New
              0
              Quote: Rotmistr
              State criminals brought our country from the First World War - not allowing to reap the fruits of the common victory of the Entente.
              But our Motherland lost the Cold War (acting in fairly comfortable conditions) - and you and I are now paying for the consequences of this.
              Their destinies

              And who are these state criminals in your opinion?
              My Motherland did not lose the war, it was betrayed by the Neovlasians and the Bulk-crunches, only the battle was lost, the war goes on.
              1. Rotmistr
                Rotmistr 4 November 2017 11: 20 New
                16
                zoolu350
                And who are these state criminals in your opinion?

                They are famous - political parties and rulers of Russia in 1917. Some - ruined the army and undermined its combat effectiveness. Others then made a separate peace.
                My Motherland did not lose the war, it was betrayed by neovlasovtsi and bulkohrusty

                With your mouth - yes drink honey. Itself would be glad to think so.
                May the leadership of our Party and Government lose the Cold War. It LOSED - after all, not only the state collapsed and the USSR disappeared from the world map (one of the consequences of the loss of the Cold War, which torn our economy), but also the socio-economic formation changed. Under socialism we no longer live.
                Unfortunately.
                only the battle is lost, the war goes on.

                The Cold War is lost, and the USSR is no more. Unfortunately.
                Now another war (3rd or 4th world war, or hybrid - I do not know) is being waged by another state - the Russian Federation. Although with the old enemy, but a different state and in different conditions. Understand this on pages of more relevant articles.
          2. Blue cop
            Blue cop 4 November 2017 15: 06 New
            15
            zoolu350
            USSR is not on the political map of the world

            The organs of the GB and the Ministry of Internal Affairs had to work better in 1985-91.
            As well as in the years 1914-1917.
            Then they would have lived in another state (if not in the second then in the first) - both of these states are clearly better than the current one.
            And if they didn’t live themselves, then the normul is different
  6. Some kind of compote
    Some kind of compote 2 November 2017 14: 18 New
    17
    In the Baltic states and on the Dniester, large horse masses acted.
    On the Dniester, the Keller’s Golden Drafts Corps was a mounted army in composition.
    Fine
  7. Head Physician
    Head Physician 2 November 2017 20: 21 New
    17
    The topic is very interesting.
    And disclosed professionally
    The author’s integrated approach to him is a big plus
    Information about the First World War has always been mosaic - and here is an almost complete picture. Just saturate with information
    1. Horseman without a head
      Horseman without a head 4 November 2017 16: 29 New
      15
      Support.
      Great set of articles
      Successes to the author from now on