Military Review

The Kosciuszko Liberation Movement led Poland to death

24 March 1791, a year after the Second Division of Poland between Russia and Prussia, the national hero of the Poles Tadeusz Kosciuszko solemnly announced in Krakow the beginning of an anti-Russian liberation uprising.

Relations between Russia and Poland could never be called friendly. In the crisis years, the nobility certainly used the situation and mercilessly robbed Russian cities, seized territory. In difficult and crisis times of decline, Poland always turned to the Russian state for help. Such stable hostile behavior has been characteristic of the country in question for many centuries, and modern politicians should take it into account. Today we will talk about the revolt of Kosciuszko and the suppression of his Russian troops, in which the brilliant commander Suvorov played a special role.

The Kosciuszko Liberation Movement led Poland to death
Kosciuszko swears on the square in Krakow. Wojciech Kossak

Today, there is a whole line of historians who hysterically declare that the immortal glory of Suvorov is not completely deserved, that this person is nothing more than a butcher, a destroyer of freedom and a champion of serfdom. Let's face it, such hysteria is nothing more than a product of Russophobia, which has now become active in Europe. Russophobia is especially characteristic of statesmen seeking to divert public attention from their own failures and mistakes.

In 1791, anarchy in Poland reached unbelievable proportions. The freedom-loving nobility increasingly ignored royal decrees and decisions and abused their right to disrupt the Diet, such behavior prevented the strengthening of the country's power. The attempt to introduce a new constitution by the powerless king Stanislav Poniatowski provoked the indignation of the Polish petty nobility, and already in 1792 a confederation was formed. At the general meeting of the Confederates, the Constitution was abolished, and the power of the king was no longer recognized. It's amazing how short-sighted the Polish nobles turned out to be, because their behavior was not only beneficial to the Russian Empire, but put the state on the verge of annihilation. As a result, two main opposing blocs were formed: the supporters of the new Constitution and the Confederates.

Preparation of the uprising was carried out a lot earlier, and such famous people as General Jialynsky, the merchant Kapostas and others were involved in his organization. The scale of the uprising was in the nature of a civil war, since even peasants, armed with pitchforks and scythes, came out from the rebel side. Catherine II, despite her correspondence with such thinkers as Voltaire, supported the Confederates by sending Russian troops to Poland. Russia needed an exceptionally weak Poland with a puppet king.

On the part of the rebels, or, as they were called in Poland itself, the insurrection, the well-known Tadeusz Kosciusko spoke as commander. This uncommon person considered his homeland to be the Commonwealth, but was subject to the influence of revolutionary French ideas. His fate is full of amazing adventures. He participated in the US Civil War, where he established himself as a talented and decisive commander, was attracted to the leadership of Polish troops, and had contact with revolutionary France. Kosciusko enjoyed special confidence from insurgents and ordinary people, and legends about his courage and luck in military enterprises of this man. It was a worthy opponent of the Russian commander Suvorov.

The ideas of Tadeusz Kosciuszko were much broader than the original goals of the rebels, taking command, he took the oath not to the gentry, but to the Polish people, therefore he intended to defend the interests of all social strata of the country. Such a leader was extremely dangerous both for the nobility and for the Russian sovereigns. Kostiushko was well versed in politics and understood that the only worthy path for the development of Poland was power and freedom. He agreed to lead the army on the condition that freedoms would be granted not only to the gentry, but also to ordinary citizens of the country. He joined the rebels and the Polish king, hoping to maintain his power and position. More specifically, it was the Confederates who were the rebels, since theoretically the head of state was on the side of the troops Kosciusko.

Jan Matejko. "Battle of Raczawitz"

16 March 1794 of the year Kosciuszko in Krakow was proclaimed dictator of the new republic, after which the Act of Uprising was drawn up. Kostushko’s election was supported by General Madalinsky, defeating the Russian detachment and seizing his treasury. Russian military forces under the command of Tormasov and Denisov entered the territory of Poland in order to defeat the rebels, Prussia did not stand aside. The Russian failures under the Raczlawitz shook the entire Polish population. Under the influence of this news, an uprising broke out in Warsaw, as a result of which a Russian garrison was defeated in the city. The insurgency was repeated in Vilna under the leadership of Yasinsky, only a part of the Russian detachment was able to escape from the city, and the Insurgents signed the Insurrection Act of the Lithuanian people.

The rebel army quickly increased, the call was announced throughout the country. The revolutionary promises of freedom attracted not only well-equipped gentry, but also simple peasants who had weapons only scythes, knives or pitchforks. The main building numbered up to twenty-three thousand people, and the total number of the army was not less than seventy thousand rebels. From the Russian side, Saltykov’s army acted, defending the territories annexed from the Polish state against capture, and the corps of the glorious Suvorov hurried from Turkey. From the side of Prussia, more than fifty thousand people spoke and at least 11 thousand defended the borders of the state. Austria, which sent troops to 20 thousands of soldiers, did not stay aside. The Russian army numbered just over forty thousand people.

The tactics of the rebels were primitive and similar to the movement of the crowd, swept away on the way of the enemy. There were no professional military commanders among the rebels, so all the luck was based on numerical superiority and surprise. However, when the war passed into the stage of long-term confrontation, and the Confederates somewhat mastered the situation, Kosciusko felt an acute shortage of weapons, competent strategists and commanders. The peasants simply did not know how to fight, and numerical superiority turned more likely to a disadvantage, since there was no one to manage the great host.

The few Russian troops shied away from the battles with the injector, however, connecting with large parts, immediately went on the offensive. So did Denisov, uniting the forces entrusted to him with Prussian troops. At the same time, Krakow was taken, which was a serious blow to the forces of Kosciuszko. Derfendel defeated the rebels under the command of the hare and occupied Lublin, and Repnin was located near Vilna. Repnin, however, did not take any decisive action, waiting for Suvorov’s approach. Austrian troops occupied Krakow, and also took the cities of Chelm and Sandomierz, but did not dare to enter the fighting, since their main goal of their government was to participate in the division of Poland, and not victory. The rebels slowly but retreated to the Vistula, but they took Bromberg.

The approach of a small detachment was the beginning of the brilliant victories of the Russian troops. September, the Suvorov detachment took Kobrin from the turn, the next day inflicted a crushing defeat on the enemy superior to him in numbers and artillery under Serakovsky, the 4 successfully crossed the Bug River. Suvorov acted with lightning speed, not giving the opponent time to think about his actions, and by September 7 had finally broken Serakovsky’s corps, which was almost twice as good as the Russians. After that, the rebels began to evade clashes with Suvorov and directed all their efforts to reinforcements rushing towards him.

However, it was impossible to stop the Russian commander, he soon connected with the forces of Derfendel, as well as Fersen. At the disposal of Alexander Vasilyevich, 22 already had thousands of people, which allowed him to deploy an active offensive company. A crushing blow followed the Mare, then Prague was taken, the last to surrender to Warsaw. Suvorov rushed through the Polish land tormented by military clashes and never lost. His losses were minimal, while the rebel army lost thousands of people.

Frederick Hirsch (1821 – 1895). “Heroes of the Revolution” (between 1850 – 1890). Kostyushko is fourth on the right. In America, Tadeusz Kosciusko was awarded the Order of Cincinnatus, established by George Washington (George Washington, 1732 – 1799), who highly appreciated the services of the Pole. Illustration from the archives of the Library of Congress

King Stanislav was sent to Russia at the end of December, where he laid his crown at the feet of the empire. Poland lost sovereignty completely. Tadeusz Kosciuszko was captured shortly before the final surrender of the rebels. He was sent to Russia and imprisoned in the Peter and Paul Fortress, where he lived as a guest in the house of the commandant, although he was considered a prisoner. Pavel I released Kosciusko. Alexander I even offered him to join the new Polish government, but he refused, motivating his decision by saying that the state’s borders had not been fully restored. The last days the instigator of the uprising ended in the Swiss town of Solothurn, far from home. His ashes were nevertheless reburied in Krakow, and the Polish people still consider him a national hero.

The outcome of the liberation uprising for Poland was sad. The state lost its sovereignty and was divided between Russia, Prussia and Austria. Despite the great experience and potential of Kosciuszko, the uprising was not organized, as a result of which it suffered a crushing defeat, the national spirit fell, and the country ceased to exist. Gradually, the Polish people were again united, but this path took centuries.
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  1. Dobrokhod Sergey
    Dobrokhod Sergey 24 March 2012 09: 19 New
    The eternal problem of the Poles in their inflated self-esteem and eternal claims to Russia.
    1. vylvyn
      vylvyn 25 March 2012 06: 44 New
      And for this we have repeatedly cleaned the chimney.
    2. Krilion
      Krilion 26 March 2012 02: 10 New
      Quote: Dobrokhod Sergey
      The eternal problem of the Poles in their inflated self-esteem and eternal claims to Russia.

      the Poles were so often and diverse bent over and had that their attitude was understandable in some way ...
  2. ward
    ward 24 March 2012 10: 51 New
    Moral ... Do not look at your fifth point of adventure ...
  3. AlexxxNik
    AlexxxNik 24 March 2012 11: 48 New
    well substantiated the Polish "love of freedom" Yu.I. Mukhin, especially their unsightly (to put it mildly) behavior before the Second World War, if they still learned lessons, but apparently God did not give
    1. Lech e-mine
      Lech e-mine 24 March 2012 12: 59 New
      He always respected Suvorov - this talent of military affairs smashed any opponent.
      1. vylvyn
        vylvyn 25 March 2012 07: 09 New
        Yes. Our Suvorov was able, and most importantly, loved to intelligently, thoroughly and grandly clean chimneys in Europe. Again, to the same Turkey, no, no, yes and it will be attached from behind and fuck Tibidoch and her darling. And he taught the descendants to this holy cause.
  4. vylvyn
    vylvyn 24 March 2012 16: 20 New
    Quote - The results of the liberation uprising for Poland were sad. The state lost its sovereignty and was divided between Russia, Prussia and Austria.

    The main thing is that Austria and Prussia (Germany) have always flocked to Poland. Russia in the window restored this grey .... Poland. And ask any Pole who is the invader, they say - Russia. And Austria, but Germany? And they still respect those. Hitler completely destroyed them and still respect. It was necessary to push the reptiles to the end.

    I heard one story how in the 60s they suppressed an uprising, either in Yugoslavia, or in the same Poland, I don’t remember where. The Russians were not afraid. They threw bottles with stones. A company of Germans arrived. The German officer got out of the APC and shouted - if after half an hour the area is not clean, I will do what my father did to you in the 1940th. After 15 minutes there was no one.

    It was necessary to crush reptiles once and for all.
    1. Sirius
      Sirius 24 March 2012 18: 51 New
      It was in Czechoslovakia in 1968.
      1. vylvyn
        vylvyn 25 March 2012 06: 46 New
        Similarly, we were a military instructor at the NVP, when I was still in school, he told me.
    2. plotnikov561956
      plotnikov561956 24 March 2012 20: 37 New
      The prostitute’s pedigree has very deep roots. This is genetics.
    3. Prometey
      Prometey 24 March 2012 22: 05 New
      More like a joke. The troops of the GDR in 1968 were not allowed into Czechoslovakia for ideological reasons.
    4. justas-xnumx
      justas-xnumx 25 March 2012 09: 26 New
      It was in the 68th, in Bratislava, ours were forbidden to respond to provocations, and the Germans simply and firmly put the Slovaks in a well-known position, and as a result, our fault again!
    5. German
      German 25 March 2012 10: 02 New
      in Czechoslovakia this story was at 68m
  5. Sirius
    Sirius 24 March 2012 19: 09 New
    It was in Czechoslovakia in 1968.
    1. plotnikov561956
      plotnikov561956 24 March 2012 20: 40 New
      Yes, it really is Czechoslovakia, my uncle spoke very well about the German troops, they did not stand on ceremony
  6. ikrut
    ikrut 24 March 2012 21: 11 New
    "I do not believe in the honesty of the player. In the love of the Pole for Russia" (A.S. Pushkin)
    And to Alexander Vasilievich SUVOROV - VIVAT !!!
  7. Vlaleks48
    Vlaleks48 24 March 2012 21: 25 New
    Punishment fiercely hate Russia and panic fear of its strengthening. They always recognized the right of the strong. So it is necessary to conduct a policy with friends and neighbors.
    And in August 1968 there was no order for fire resistance for us, and the Germans acted in accordance with the charter. Ordung is an Ordung!
    Shoot a lot of "hippies". But they were taken out of the settlements quickly.
    But we spat in the face and called the invaders.
    And we had an oath and an order! On that and stood.
    1. Churchill
      Churchill 24 March 2012 23: 53 New
      Most people, unfortunately, are so arranged that softness and tact are mistaken for weakness, but stiffness, and even cruelty, are respected! .. And the Poles are a vivid example. Who beat them mercilessly before they still bend and they hate us for excessive scrupulousness ...
  8. Prometey
    Prometey 24 March 2012 22: 14 New
    The whole problem of the Poles was that they were constantly looking for confrontation with Russia. Until now, the "proud" Poles have not realized that Poland's strength lies not in confrontation, but in alliance with Russia. It was their obstinacy and the idea of ​​belonging to "Western civilization" that ruined Poland throughout history. The Russophobia of the Poles sometimes reached the point of paranoia. In the army of Napoleon, during the campaign against Russia, the Poles surpassed everyone in their hatred of the Russians. In the battle of Borodino, the Poles fought especially fiercely and were not inferior in anything to their French masters. Subsequently, Napoleon made the Pole Poniatowski a Marshal of France and placed him in the same rank with such giants as Lannes and Davout.
  9. Pancho
    Pancho 24 March 2012 23: 22 New
    In my opinion, Poland was in vain annexed. Together with the Poles, millions of Jews also became subjects of the Russian crown. So we got the parents of future buried commissars in "dusty helmets". It seems to me that it would be better to create a puppet state, and at the same time they would fence themselves off from the Germans.
  10. Kibl
    Kibl 24 March 2012 23: 56 New
  11. LiRoy
    LiRoy 25 March 2012 00: 10 New
    The Poles have always played on the side of the strong, playing the role of a hyena killing the weak. Subsequently, the Polish legions in the ranks of the army of Napoleon distinguished themselves with particular cruelty.
  12. Magadan
    Magadan 25 March 2012 00: 58 New
    Quote: Pancho
    In my opinion, Poland was added in vain.

    That's for sure. And the history of hostility between Russia and Poland is really amazing. For a long time I tried to understand the origins of this hatred, judging by the history, they begin with the Time of Troubles. Then our traitors, the boyars and the other Russian 5 convoy, together with the Polish invaders, well-fed. According to the blessing of the pope, they primarily tried to destroy Orthodoxy. They starved our Patriarch and tried to storm the Trinity-Sergius Lavra, where 1000 hungry monks withstood the siege and assaults of the 40-thousandth army for a year.
    At that time, Poland was almost as important as the United States now. It was a huge country with a huge army and economy, much more powerful than France and England, and even more so Russia. In the end, after that war, everything ended sadly for Poland - the following 4-5 centuries, Poland steadily faded. Now it is what it is - a small Euro-dwarf. Which still cannot at the genetic level forgive us for its decline. Conclusion - not figs rock the boat on Russia, and even more so on its culture and Orthodoxy.
    1. vylvyn
      vylvyn 25 March 2012 06: 58 New
      I’ll add - otherwise you can easily run into her armed forces, which will once again fraternally clean the Polish chimney.
  13. ymNIK1970
    ymNIK1970 25 March 2012 01: 35 New
    "Gradually, the Polish people were reunited ..." Aha, grandfather Stalin reunited this people and recreated this "dead" state. And psheki "zenkuyu" we were told ... in the form of NATO bases and support for Uniatism and other "churches" on the territory of Ukraine. A political tumor in Europe.
  14. Bat1stuta
    Bat1stuta 25 March 2012 16: 05 New
    national hero of the Poles Tadeusz Kosciuszko solemnly announced in Krakow the start of an anti-Russian liberation uprising

    anti-Russian-this is a guarantee of defeat ... tongue

    During the crisis years, the gentry invariably took advantage of the situation and mercilessly robbed Russian cities and seized territories. In difficult and crisis times of decline, Poland has always turned to the Russian state for help.

    and how can it be called, other than "prostitution"? fool
  15. orient
    orient 25 March 2012 17: 59 New
    I came across a couple of articles that seemed to be unconnected ... The first is the notes of a psychotherapist, with the remark that the insult or insult inflicted by a person who is close in blood is felt more painfully and lasts longer, possibly for a lifetime. The second is about the latest research on the structure of the genes of the Slavs, in particular: Poles, Ukrainians and Russians, in which it was concluded that the Russians and Ukrainians are practically one people, and the Poles are so close that it is difficult to say how much they differ from the same Ukrainians and Russian. From here, probably, the legs of all mutual insults, hostility and even (sometimes) hatred grow. Plus, the story is interpreted differently, which was not ideal without it.
  16. serge
    serge 25 March 2012 18: 07 New
    The uprising in Poland, like the "Great" French Revolution of the same time, was organized and led by the Freemasons. It was headed by Tadeusz Kosciuszko, a well-known freemason and conspirator, a former brigadier general of the North American army (even then the Americans, wow). Together with others, a Jewish (!) Regiment took part in the defense of Prague, almost completely destroyed by Russian troops. The orange (knowing the leaders, you can safely call it that) revolution did not pass.
  17. iulai
    iulai 25 March 2012 20: 27 New
    Poles and British - the eternal enemies of Russia!
  18. phantom359
    phantom359 28 March 2012 00: 45 New
    It is normal for psheks to declare the hero of an adventurer. They filled the muzzle at the place of residence - dumped in America, to heroize.