Icebreaker vs cruiser

26


On the morning of August 24, the icebreaking ship “A. Sibiryakov "left the port in the village of Dikson on the island of the same name. It is in the northeastern part of the Yenisei Bay of the Kara Sea - where the Yenisei Bay enters the Arctic Ocean. "Sibiryakov" was supposed to deliver equipment, food, fuel, log cabins for two houses, a radio station kit, land four polar explorers at Cape Tin and change people at the station of Domashniy Island.



On the second day of the voyage, the icebreaker was located in the northwest of the Nordenskiöld archipelago (if you look at the detailed map of the Arctic or Northern Siberia, you will find it west of the famous Cape Chelyuskin, which crowns the northern tip of Taimyr). 25 August 1942 of the year, 11 hours 47 minutes. Kara Sea, Belukha Island area. Through a misty haze, observers from the icebreaker saw an unknown warship. A nose light blinked from it: “Who are you? Where to go? Come closer! ” And again the requirement: “Notify the state of the ice in the Vilkitsky Strait, where the caravan of transports and icebreakers is now.” Then from an unknown ship they ordered to stop the work of the ship’s radio and to lower the flag.

"Sibiryakov" did not obey the order. The radio operator Anatoly Sharshavin sent a clear message to Dickson about the appearance of the enemy - there was no doubt about that - of a warship of a large displacement. It was the German battleship "Admiral Scheer".

During the war, reports from its northernmost flank sounded infrequently. Meanwhile, the Arctic, the Arctic and the Northern Sea Route were of great importance then. Particular responsibility fell on the sailors of the North fleet, whose command even before the war, in August 1940 took 35-year-old Rear Admiral Arseny Golovko. But this fleet and its combat responsibility zone are special. Its length from east to west is about four thousand nautical miles. Severe conditions: difficult ice and hydrometeorological conditions, under the flashes of the northern lights - huge uninhabited spaces. Plus a six-month polar night ...

The fleet performed the most important tasks in disrupting the enemy’s sea lanes, assisting ground forces and protecting our sea and especially the Arctic routes. When, in the first year of the war, the ocean route of arms supplies under lend-lease began to operate, the strategic importance of the Northern Fleet and the theater of military operations in the Polar Region increased.

Wunderland without miracles

This could not but understand the Nazi command. In 1942, it developed a special operation with the aim of disrupting movement along a strategic ocean route and doing away with vital transportation for the front and the Soviet rear in the Arctic. “Wunderland” (“Wonderland”) - this is the code name received operation, scheduled for August 1942-th. The month was not chosen by chance: at this time the ice melted by the waters of the mighty Siberian rivers in the most part of the northern seas almost disappears.

The plan for Operation Wunderland envisaged that seven submarines, destroyers and aviation. However, their mission was more distracting in nature. The main, striking role in the “Wonderland” was assigned to two battleships - “Admiral Scheer” and “Lyuttsov”. Three of the seven boats were supposed to maintain direct contact with the battleships, conduct ice reconnaissance for them, and draw the forces of the Northern Fleet in the waters at the southern tip of Novaya Zemlya. Four other submarines were ordered to cover the Sheer and Lutts from the western direction.

Why from the west? The implication was a cover from Soviet warships in the event of their interception. And they would go from the Kola Peninsula, that is, from the west. The destroyers were assigned the modest role of protecting battleships when passing through the zone of vigorous activity of the ships of the Northern Fleet and the Anglo-American allies.

The Admiral Scheer, built in 1939, was part of a series of German ships known as pocket battleships. Where does this strange name come from? According to the Versailles Treaty (1919 year), which recorded the defeat of Germany in the First World War, it was imposed severe restrictions on the construction of new warships. In particular, it was forbidden to have in the Navy ships with a displacement of more than ten thousand tons and with guns of a caliber larger than 280 millimeters. But the German designers were able to circumvent the restrictions by developing projects that had artillery weapons more powerful than the cruiser, and speed, like the battleships. Hence the name. In fact, the "Admiral Scheer" (as well as the same-type "Lutz") is a heavy cruiser. Germany planned to use them as raiders (naval term from the English raid - raid), that is, ships that can conduct independent military operations against merchant ships on long-distance communications. Scheer had a full displacement of 13 700 tons. Crew - 926 man. Speed ​​- 26 nodes. Armor thickness - from 76 to 178 millimeters. Armament: six 280 caliber guns, 8 – 150 millimeters, six 105-mm anti-aircraft guns, eight 47-mm and eight torpedo tubes.

"Admiral Scheer" at that time was commanded by a sea wolf, a former submariner, a World War I participant 45, a summer captain-zur-ze (1 rank) Wilhelm Meendsen-Bolken. He took the cruiser under its start in June 1941, when Germany attacked the USSR. But earlier, with the start of the Second World War, Scheer was already "famous for" attacks on merchant ships. For 161 day of sea hunting - from the Arctic to the Antarctic, he passed 46 thousands of nautical miles, sinking 19 vessels with a total displacement of 137 thousand tons. Hitler favored the predecessor Meendsen-Bolken on the bridge of Theodore Crank. He conferred an admiral rank and appointed him a representative of the commander-in-chief of the Navy in his headquarters.

Operation "Wunderland" "Scheer" began alone - "Lutz" was damaged and put in for repair. 6 August 1942, the cruiser secretly left the naval base in Skomenfjord (Northern Norway). The operation was being prepared in deep secrecy. Only 16 of August read the order of Meendsen-Bolken to the team: “Our task is to attack the ships of the enemy in the Kara Sea, the main target of the attack are convoys, especially those coming from the east. The commander will decide on the firing of ground points on the spot. ”

Slowly moving east along the edge of the ice, the 20 August 1942, the cruiser met with the German submarine U-251. But its commander could not say anything definite about the movement of the Soviet convoys. Meendsen-Bolken decides to go south. An Arado seaplane Ar 196 was raised from the deck of the ship for reconnaissance. In the air, he was launched with the help of a catapult, and sat on the water.
Gloomy daylight hours were already ending, when the pilots reported: a convoy of nine ships was found. The battleship went to intercept the convoy and took a comfortable position for the attack. All 28 guns and 8 torpedo tubes "Admiral Scheer" on the first signal were ready to open fire. After all, at that time not one of our combat units in the region could resist such deadly firepower: the Soviet Northern Fleet did not have such a class of ships. The caravan seemed doomed. But time passed, but the ships were not visible. Although the data of the radio interception said that they were somewhere nearby.

The next morning the seaplane departed again for reconnaissance. But ... the caravan has sunk into the water. The fact is that the chain of ships did not move to the west, but to the east. That is, it did not approach the German cruiser, but left it.

On August 22, a message was received from the Norwegian command about another convoy from the 19 ships and four icebreakers heading west. And on August 23, the Arado onboard reconnaissance aircraft Ar 196 discovered 10 ships anchored.

But Captain Zur-Zee Meendsen-Bolken was afraid that the wind would change and the cruiser would be locked up with ice. In addition, there was a threat of shelling by the Soviet courts, since each transport is at the very least, but it was armed with two cannons and machine guns. Meendsen-Bolken every now and then gave the command to change course. The movement of ice began, and 25 August crashed a reconnaissance plane, leaving the cruiser "without sight". The fact is that according to the state there should have been two such planes on board, and for some reason they took one on a hike. This served as a reason to head south into the waters free of ice.
The flag is not lowered

At the command of the icebreaker captain, Senior Lieutenant Anatoly Kacharava, the crew prepared for battle. The commander addressed the subordinates with a brief speech: “Comrades! The ship raised the fascist flag. Now the battle will begin. Let us show what the valor of the Soviet people means. We'll die, but we won't give up! ” An unequal battle began. Unequal - not even that word. How could two sorokapyatki, two 76-mm guns and several anti-aircraft machine guns "Sibiryakova" to resist the powerful weapons of a heavy cruiser? And the speed was only eight and a half knots, and there was no armor protection at all.

Shells from the icebreaker that reached "Scheer" could not penetrate his armor. But when the Sibiryakov set up a smoke screen and opened fire on the German cruiser, through shreds of smoke, the sailors saw that the enemy deck was instantly empty. And from where only the Germans, who hitherto with smirks photographed their next victim, undertook such agility!

The stunned captain-zur-ze Meendsen-Bolken ordered not to delay the destruction of the Russian icebreaker. How dare this "vessel" stand up to one of the best ships of the crigsmarine! The first projectile from the "Scheer" cut off the mast "Sibiryakova." Glavstarshina Mikhail Sarayev, under heavy fire, connected parts of a broken antenna and thus made it possible to operate the main transmitter. The second volley from the "Sheer" fell on the stern of the ship and brought down both stern guns. Gunners partially died or were seriously wounded.

All who were on board showed courage in an unparalleled fight with the enemy. Selflessly helped the wounded doctor Valentina Chernous. When a Soviet flag was torn down by a missile projectile, the sailor Alexander Novikov raised it over the burning icebreaker again. Until the last crushing blow, the radio operator Anatoly Sharshavin remained at his post in the radio room. From the dying “Sibiryakov” he sent the last radiogram on the air: “Pompolyt ordered to leave the ship. We burn, goodbye. It was 25 August in 14 hours 5 minutes. The icebreaker lost speed, the guns of the German cruiser ruthlessly and methodically finished it. It is amazing: "Sibiryakov" was already on the verge of death, but one of the guns continued to fire! By order of the captain, cryptographer Mikhail Kuznetsov destroyed all secret documents, depriving the Germans of the chance to get the information they need about the ice situation in the Kara Sea.

The senior mechanic Nikolai Bochurko executed the last order of the captain - he opened the Kingston. Anatoly Kacharava himself was seriously wounded. The command was taken over by his political assistant Zelik Elimelah, the commissar, as they called him. He ordered everyone on board to leave the ship at that time. Like the legendary "Varyag" "Sibiryakov" the flag in front of the enemy did not lower. Around 15.00, the sea swallowed the ship. And the commissioner remained at the flagpole ...

Today, all ships sailing along the Northern Sea Route near Belukha Island, in memory of this feat of the northern Varyag and its crew, in an unequal battle, give a long beep and lower the flag.

Robinson with the Nakhimov Medal


We can not say about the fate of the sailors of the icebreaker. A significant part of the crew and passengers died from shells and burns before the icebreaker disappeared into the depths of the sea. Those who fought one by one for their lives in icy water and refused to climb a boat launched from the German cruiser were shot by “supermen” from the “Sheer”. The stoker Nikolai Matveyev, while capturing his comrades, threw an ax at a German sailor. In response, an automatic burst.

The boat with 18 wounded and burned the boat towed to board the "Sheer". Long interrogations did not give the Germans anything. The surviving sailors from the Sibiryakov were thrown behind the barbed wire.

Of the 104 people who were aboard the icebreaker on his last voyage, only 14 survived Victory. The fate of the driver Pavel Vavilov is amazing. He managed to avoid death and captivity. In the icy water, he grabbed the side of the half-broken boat and with great difficulty reached the uninhabited rocky island of Belukha. For more than a month, his forced wintering on the island continued. Ate Vavilov bran, a small stock of which was on the boat. She and the wreckage ejected from the sunken ship ashore went into the fire ... Into the fire saving in every sense: the famous polar pilot Hero of the Soviet Union Ivan Cherevichny saw his uneven flame from the air. He brought Vavilov to the mainland. For courage and perseverance, the sailor from Sibiryakov was awarded a rather rare award — the Nakhimov Medal. And in August, 1960, as part of a large group of employees of the Ministry of the Navy, Pavel Ivanovich Vavilov was again awarded. And how! He became the Hero of Socialist Labor.

Help "MIC"

During the war years, the fleet ships conducted 1548 convoys that included 2951 transport along the internal sea routes. In the northern ports of the USSR and in the opposite direction as part of the 76 allied convoys followed over 1400 British, American and Soviet transports. The enemy managed to sink all our ships 16. Severomorsk destroyed 413 transports with a total deadweight of over a million tons, a lot of warships and enemy support ships.
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  1. +7
    16 September 2017 07: 20
    [B]
    Today, all ships sailing along the Northern Sea Route in the vicinity of Belukha Island, in memory of this feat of the northern "Varyag" and its crew in an unequal battle, give a long beep and lower the flag. [
    /bapter..In 1965, the coordinates of the battlefield and the death of the icebreaker Alexander Sibiryakov were declared a place of military glory. In honor of the icebreaker’s team, the Strait in the Kara Sea north of Dikson Island was named the Sibiryakovtsy Strait. The name of the vessel is a bank in the Barents Sea near Novaya Zemlya and a mountain in Antarctica on Enderby Land. A number of islands in the Dixon area are named after the crew members of the icebreaker - the island. A lighthouse was erected on the island of Elimelakh (Belukha Island) in memory of the ship's deed. The book The Tale of Sibiryakova shocked in childhood. This book contained photos of German sailors Admiral Scheer "they photographed the evacuation and immersion of" Alexander Sibiryakov. "
    1. +3
      16 September 2017 13: 10
      How dare this "vessel" confront one of the best Kriegsmarine ships
      Well, let's say that the German Navy was famous for far from surface forces, and somehow submarine, not a single victory (and even in this narrative I can’t fix), so this division of the German fleet was positioned even though the Navy owed only to submarines. And the Navy themselves somehow pterryanye ..
  2. +5
    16 September 2017 07: 58
    Icebreaker "Sibiryakov".
    1. +3
      16 September 2017 22: 49
      And here is his opponent:

      The trump card of the new ships was their main caliber - 283 mm [10] guns SK C / 28. Developed anew, they had no equal among the armament of ships of comparable displacement. The barrel length was 52,35 caliber, the initial velocity of the projectile 910 m / s, but the survivability was quite acceptable. Three types of shells were used, all weighing 300 kg:
      Armor-piercing, containing 7,84 kg of explosives (2,6% of the mass of the projectile);
      Half-armor-piercing [11] - 16,94 kg (5,65%);
      High explosive - 23,3 kg (7,8%).
      The main caliber of "Deutschland"
      This combination of ammunition made it possible to effectively fire at a wide variety of targets. Firing range with a maximum elevation angle of 40 ° reached 36 meters. Ammunition ranged from 475 to 105 shells per gun. The loading system with a fixed angle of 120 ° allowed to make up to three rounds per minute on the barrel, the practical rate of fire did not exceed two. Such characteristics ensured the confident defeat of all medium armored ships, and even the most protected heavy cruisers were vulnerable at any distance.
      The auxiliary 150 mm caliber was also specially designed for these ships. Shells weighing 45,3 kg were produced at a speed of 875 m / s. Theoretical rate of fire - 10 v / min, practical - 5-7. The guns themselves were installed along the side on the pin machines and were covered only by shields. The presence of an intermediate caliber is one of the most criticized aspects of the project, but the Germans considered it necessary, being confident in the weakness of the caliber of 120-127 mm against attacking destroyers.
      The heavy anti-aircraft battery looked weak even on the "Admiral Count Spee" with its 105-mm twin. Light anti-aircraft artillery was insufficient, although it was strengthened during the war. 20 mm machine guns lacked striking power, and 37 mm machine guns lacked rate of fire. The main flaw of the light anti-aircraft battery was a primitive fire control system, when the choice of priority air targets was left to the disposal of gun calculations.
  3. +5
    16 September 2017 08: 17
    I’ll say a triviality: what are different destinies of ships?
    On the one hand, the frigate "Raphael", the battleships "Nikolai", "Apraksin", "Senyavin", built for battle, but did not accept the battle.
    And on the other - this modest hard worker, who covered himself with real sailor glory ...
    1. +2
      16 September 2017 10: 50
      Well, the battleships even fought and at the time of the shameful surrender were almost without ammunition and in the battle they managed to pinch the Japanese, especially Nikolai. And how do you Senyavin surrender his squadron to the British storage
      1. +1
        16 September 2017 13: 48
        Quote: Ken71
        managed to pinch the Japanese especially Nikolai


        Here, first of all, the merit of the crew, and the equipment of the shells that were applied to the guns mounted on this ship.
      2. +1
        17 September 2017 13: 37
        Quote: Ken71
        And how do you Senyavin surrendered his squadron FOR STORAGE the British

        This is a political issue - not cowardice, but rather a clear reluctance to fight for such an ally as Napoleon!
      3. +1
        20 September 2017 00: 56
        Quote: Ken71
        And how do you Senyavin surrendered his squadron FOR STORAGE the British


        Senyavin is an outstanding Russian naval commander who fully deserves second place after Fyodor Ushakov. His actions against the French and Turks during the Second Archipelago Expedition to the Adriatic in 1805-07. - a textbook example of the "full-scale overseas expedition" of the Russian Imperial Navy - a combination of effective fleet / landing forces and diplomatic maneuvers (alliance with Montenegrins and Bokolians).
        Honor and praise to him that in the conditions of the Tilsit world in the most difficult military and political conditions he “pulled out” his squadron home - through Lisbon, Portsmouth. According to the convention with the British from 23, Aug. 1808, there was no surrender of the squadron “in storage”, the Russian crews remained on the ships and served according to the charter. It was a classic example of internment, not captivity: the difference is obvious to a person familiar with the laws and customs of war! Provided that Russia and England were officially in a state of forced war at that time (under pressure from Napoleon on Russia after Austerlitz and Tilsit), Senyavin did his best and kept his squadron as a combat unit for Russia. And for a war with an enemy that posed a real threat - Napoleon.
  4. +5
    16 September 2017 10: 43
    Another pocket story is associated with this pocket battleship. On November 5, 1940, accompanied by the Atlantic convoy HX-84, the airliner Jervis Bay converted into an auxiliary cruiser took an unequal battle defending the convoy and was sunk. Thanks to the decisive actions of Jervis Bay, 37 of the 32 ships of the convoy escaped.
    1. +4
      16 September 2017 11: 52
      As if the British did not belong, but at sea they fought notably.
    2. +2
      16 September 2017 18: 49
      There is still a difference in the ships!
      "Jervis Bay" (HMS Jervis Bay) - British ocean liner, with the outbreak of World War II converted into an auxiliary cruiser.
      With the outbreak of war in 1939, it was confiscated by the navy, hastily armed with obsolete 6-inch guns of the 1895 type and assigned to guard the Atlantic convoys.
      Outdated, but 6-inch in the amount of 7 pieces !!!
      The crew of the "Alexander Sibiryakov" had a different ratio in fire power compared to the British ship!
      "Alexander Sibiryakov" in August 1941 became part of the icebreaking detachment of the White Sea military flotilla under the name LD-6 ("Ice-6"). The ship was equipped with weapons: two 76-mm guns (feed), two 45-mm guns (tank), two 20-mm anti-aircraft guns "Oerlikon".
      1. +1
        16 September 2017 21: 35
        Who cares. Neither one had a chance. True, Jervis Bay could have escaped having avoided the battle, but there were no Siberians, but both of them fulfilled their duty without having a ghostly chance of victory.
        1. +1
          16 September 2017 21: 49
          The difference is that although the old, but 6-inch shells of the Briton could cause damage to the “Sheer”!
          Captain BOLHEN didn’t dare to land on DIXON after several bursts of 152mm shells from 2 old field howitzers on the island !!!
          But the Soviet shells of 3-inch and “forty” “SIBIRYAKOV” could scratch the paint to the German raider!
          And besides, I do not think that British sailors were shot when they tried to evacuate from a sinking ship.
          1. 0
            22 September 2017 22: 22
            Do not think in vain. Thinking is good. Most sailors from Jervis Bay died including a captain; a minority rescued a neutral steamer. The Soviet captain surrendered. Old six-inch could not bring harm. Maximum to Raider or Destroyer.
            1. +1
              22 September 2017 22: 27
              Surrendered or WAS TAKEN IN THE WASTE OF POWS?
              “As a result of the third hit, the captain was severely wounded in the arm, he lost a lot of blood. Commissar Z. A. Elimelakh took command, and further led the battle, despite being wounded in the head. On his orders, the radio operator A. G. Sharshavin broadcast a radio message: “The pompolit ordered to leave the ship. Burn, goodbye. 14 h. 05 min. ” By order of the commissioner, senior mechanic Bochurko opened Kingston. The commissar and senior mechanic died with the ship.
              The last surviving gun continued shelling the enemy cruiser from a distance of 2,2 miles. At 14 p.m. the cruiser, having suppressed the firing point, ceased shrapnel fire and approached the place where the sinking icebreaker was. The battle of the cruiser with the icebreaker lasted 30 minutes. Of the two boats with the survivors, the Germans managed to sink. A boat was sent to the remaining boat to search for possible data on caravans, ice conditions, codes and ciphers. 43 people were found in the boat by German sailors, of which 28 (according to other sources, 18 or 19), including Captain Kacharav, radio operator Sharshavin, the head of the planned polar station Zolotov, were captured. The sailor Matveev, who showed resistance, was shot, several people refused to be evacuated to a German cruiser, jumped overboard and remained in the water. About 15 hours, the icebreaker began to quickly sink into the water, forming a funnel. The sailors of Admiral Sheer photographed the evacuation and immersion of Alexander Sibiryakov. "
  5. +1
    16 September 2017 11: 50
    I’m sorry, but Luttsov is not a pocket battleship, the 203 mm caliber is not a battleship.
    1. +6
      16 September 2017 13: 36
      You confuse the heavy cruiser Lutzov and the pocket battleship Lutzov.
      The Luttsov shopping center was laid down, not completed and sold to the USSR under the name Petropavlovsk. That was with 203 mm. The series also included Admiral Hipper, Blucher, Prince Eugen and Seidlitz.
      And here we are talking about the former "Deutschland", renamed the "Lutz". This one with 280 mm. The series also included Admiral Scheer, Amiral Count Spee. I read somewhere that Hitler himself ordered the renaming of “Deutschland” to “Lutz”, because he did not want one day to “report that Germany was sinking."
  6. +3
    16 September 2017 11: 58
    But Sibiryakov’s sailors have great respect, on a civilian ship against a heavy cruiser (and Sibiryakov was never a raider or auxiliary cruiser.) This is an enviable persistence and courage.
  7. +2
    16 September 2017 18: 40
    OPERATION “WUNDERLAND” Tale
    OPERATION "WONDERLAND"
    Story

    TO THE GLORIOUS SEAMERS - DEDICATING SEVOREMERS

    ... The reason for the failure of Operation Wunderland was not the difficult ice situation, as the falsifiers of the war in the North are trying to portray, but the heroic rebuff received by the fascist cruiser in our waters. Fearless crew of the icebreaker "A. Sibiryakov ”, who repeated the feat of the Russian cruiser“ Varyag ”, the commandant of the SKR-17“ Dezhnev ”, the steamers“ Revolutionary ”and“ Kara ”, the coastal defense artillery sailors, the people's militia of the port employees and the inhabitants of the island of Dikson forced the Admiral Scheer to leave Soviet waters and, having essentially achieved nothing, return to Narvik.

    The story of E. Barenboim "Operation Wunderland", written historically authentically, recalls those heroic days.

    N. A. Torik, Retired Vice Admiral - Head, Political Administration of the Northern Fleet in 1940-1945
    (From the review of the story)
  8. Alf
    0
    16 September 2017 22: 13
    In particular, it was forbidden to have ships with a displacement of more than ten thousand tons and with guns in caliber more than 280 millimeters in the Navy. But German designers managed to circumvent the restrictions by developing projects that had more powerful artillery weapons than the cruiser, and speed, like the battleships.

    What exactly were the Germans able to get around the restrictions if the displacement of Deutschland is 14300 tons?
    1. +2
      16 September 2017 23: 04
      The main task facing the designers was to create a powerful warship that does not contradict the conditions of the Treaty of Versailles. In particular, the ship's displacement should not exceed 10 thousand tons.
      Displacement "Admiral Scheer"
      standard - 11 550 t,
      full - 15 180 t
      In official sources, the weight was indicated as not violating the Treaty of Versailles.
      All TYPE BELIEVED ... hi
  9. +3
    16 September 2017 22: 40
    Sibiryakova was called the polar Varyag. The commander of the Northern Fleet in 1940-46, Arseniy Golovko, compared Alexander Matrosov with Sibiryakova. The well-known Swiss naval historian Jürg Meister wrote with reference to German archival materials that the raider’s officers couldn’t achieve anything from the prisoners from Sibiryakov, although they included a commander, engineer and meteorologist who possessed valuable information, including about the ice situation in the strait.
  10. 0
    20 September 2017 11: 31
    What battleship?
    The Germans themselves initially classified him as an armadillo (panzershiff), then re-classified them as a heavy cruiser.
  11. 0
    15 September 2020 04: 01
    I will add something.
    My father Zhitetsky Sergei Feofanovich (born in 1912) was drafted into the fleet for mobilization and sent to the White Sea military flotilla. He is a radio operator by profession, graduated from sailing. He spoke German as a native, as well as English and some other kind, languages ​​were given by the legendary Petrishule, and his mother was a Smolyanka graduated in 1906.
    After sailing, my father took a risky free diploma and rushed to Murmansk. There he did not know anyone, only a few of his friends arranged their careers in something like this. Father was lucky - he met a friend of Skachevsky Igor Valentinovich (in our family Skach, a sea dandy and a real captain was famous for standing behind Lanovoy, for many years after the war, of course, and he flew a schooner with scarlet sails, probably a Comrade, where he served as chief officer. He was also famous for his statement about the sailing ship turned into a restaurant Kronverk, every time he passed by he spat and said they made a tavern from the ship). Sorry for the lengths, it brings.
    Skach arranged for his father to spend the night in his cabin on the ship, where he was chief officer, and in the morning he arranged for his father on the Yukagir motor ship. The radio operator. Employment was simple, in Murmansk there was a tavern near the port, they called it Shalmanka, by the name of personnel officer Shalman. The personnel officer set up an office there, and while drinking beer sent everyone to the ships. He remembered the vacancies and salaries, the parameters of ships, captains and many applicants. An advance payment was also issued immediately (30s) if the sailor was drunk in the trash, Shalman wrote in chalk on the back of the applicant the number of the berth at which the ship was moored and the car transported the insensible bodies to the workplaces. This is how my father began his radio operator work. In 1939, my father was urgently transferred at the end of December to the icebreaker Joseph Stalin, the best at that time. As a reinforcement of the group of radio operators, it seems there were three of them, which is logical (watch for 8 hours). Joseph Stalin went out to save Georgy Sedov under the leadership of ID Papanin, having on board a pool of journalists and even a cameraman Carmen. On January 13, the Sedovites were taken aboard, those who remained, led by Konstantin Badigin, continued their drift. Father was sent to the steamer Semyon Dezhnev. The crews of the rescuers and the rescued were showered with awards, a golden rain was poured - Papanin received the 2nd Star of the Hero, Badigin and his colleagues collectively received heroes, the rest also got the same. it is better to render out of sight of different organs.
    In 1943, my father was sent to Novaya Zemlya, to organize and command the Novaya Zemye sector of the SNIS service (monitoring and communication service). Much help was provided by Tyko Vylka (Ilya Konstantinovich), he provided mushers for the teams, often his brother was a musher. My father was amazed at the amazing ability of the Nenets to navigate the tundra, more precisely, in the Arctic semi-desert (up to the Matshar Strait) and above the Arctic desert. As a New Zealander with a modest 7-year experience, I can say that it is difficult to navigate the NZ. We often stomped on Lake Pomorskoe on foot, the banks are low and steep, 30-40 meters, cut by skerries. They all seem to be the same. Some help was provided by the landmarks modern, false positions of the air defense, some kind of signs. To navigate during a blizzard, even the easiest option is the third option (the first is just horror), it seems to me, you can only use instruments. On the polar night, everything is aggravated by the absence of any landmarks at all. They simply cannot be seen. It was enough to move a few kilometers from Belushka and the lights disappeared, all around the night.
    My father drove 5500 km on sleds along the coast of the NZ, picking up points for SNIS. They took frozen food, often Nikolai Vasilyevich Fedorov became his partner. We set up a tent, lit a primus or kerosene stove and heated the soup on the fire under the howling of the wind. After heating the required amount, the rest of the ice blank was simply taken out of the vessel, after eating it was reinserted until the next rest. The handle was a frozen stick in the center of the ice cylinder. The Nenets determined the direction precisely, thanks to memory and skills. Kayur could simply feel the sastruga in the snow and indicate the exact direction. In an incomprehensible way, they remembered in what place, in winter, where the ridges of the sastrugs were directed, and from them they understood to what degree they needed to change their course. Vylka called his father Mayakovsky for his outward resemblance. In addition to natural difficulties, German submarines were also dangerous. They often got up for repairs, recharging batteries, to replenish the stock of food in small bays. They were found by Nenets and Russians fishermen, reported to the headquarters, there they called aviation, or boats. Starikov was the base of boats on the naval base. Often the Germans simply set fire to the camp, the house, everything that could burn, or they shot points and observation posts from machine guns and cannons.
    the paths of friends in Murmansk were sometimes cut off, but virtually. A friend from the circle of acquaintances Gevork Tonunts, later the famous film actor (Kamo), by the will of fate, ended up on Dezhnev, from which, at the beginning of the war, his father was drafted into the White Sea military flotilla. Tonunts took part in the battle at Dixon.
    As a result, the assigned tasks were solved in the shortest possible time - reliable communication appeared, regular exchange of reports on ice conditions, notification of all changes began to arrive in a timely and regular manner. Eyewitnesses, believe it or not, are still alive (Veniamin Popov and several other people). He told me some of the details of the work. To this day, from his boyhood years, he remembers how they hammered rocks 4 m deep by hand with crowbars and picks, in the short Arctic summer, when the ground does not thaw and there is eternal snow on the hills. These pits were then concreted and served as supports for antenna masts, which actually gave a more confident reception. The winds on the NZ are hurricane, often, during my 7 years I had to put a cup of a satellite dish 12m in diameter, at the zenith like a glass, twice in my 57 years.
    In 1941, in November, my mother gave birth to a daughter, my sister (the old woman is still alive), and as soon as the child got stronger, she rushed to her father. How she got there I can only imagine from the stories of my mother and sister. The story is that I.D. Papanin during the war was appointed chief of the NSR (Sevmorput), accidentally in Arkhara, his mother saw him leaving Emka, and rushed to him, help him get to her husband. Papanin was a simple uncle, he remembered his father well - the radiogram about The 2 star of the hero was given to him by his father. Well, there were only three radio operators and all the management and the press knew them. Papanin wrote a note on the hood of the head of the Belomorian flotilla with a request to send a citizen to the place of service. Then there was a story of penetration by railway to the place of collection of passengers and goods, to be sent to NZ. The day before (I don’t remember exactly), the Germans sank a civil caravan with Marina Raskova, sank all the ships that were trying to lift the drowning from the water. The order was not to stop. Mom was allowed to visit NZ, but there was not a word about the child. Then the sailors moved away from the checkpoint of the base and simply threw a bundle with their sister over a thorn to their father. They lived in dugouts. There was a water carrier with a horse. From the escaped transports of the PQ-17 convoy they took flour and food soaked outside. In the summer they harvested fish, caught it with nets, the char was up to 9kg, my mother was afraid of them like crocodiles, and my father yelled at her to jam them with a hammer.
    Father did not go to the bayonet, and it seems to me that he always felt embarrassed before those who fought in the trenches.
    During the Novaya Zemlya period, my father was awarded 2 Orders of the Red Star, then the Patriotic, in peacetime, probably in total he was awarded the Badge of Honorary Radio Operator of the USSR and the Order of the Badge of Honor. everyone who does not scold for confusion, and eclecticism with digressions
  12. 0
    15 September 2020 23: 02
    After the Great Patriotic War, Anatoly Alekseevich Kacharava commanded the ships of the Glavsevmorput and the Murmansk Shipping Company. And from 1967 to 1979, Kacharava headed the Georgian Shipping Company.

"Right Sector" (banned in Russia), "Ukrainian Insurgent Army" (UPA) (banned in Russia), ISIS (banned in Russia), "Jabhat Fatah al-Sham" formerly "Jabhat al-Nusra" (banned in Russia) , Taliban (banned in Russia), Al-Qaeda (banned in Russia), Anti-Corruption Foundation (banned in Russia), Navalny Headquarters (banned in Russia), Facebook (banned in Russia), Instagram (banned in Russia), Meta (banned in Russia), Misanthropic Division (banned in Russia), Azov (banned in Russia), Muslim Brotherhood (banned in Russia), Aum Shinrikyo (banned in Russia), AUE (banned in Russia), UNA-UNSO (banned in Russia), Mejlis of the Crimean Tatar People (banned in Russia), Legion “Freedom of Russia” (armed formation, recognized as terrorist in the Russian Federation and banned)

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