Military Review

Anti-ship "trap" for the US Navy in the APR. The strategic air "killer AUG" H-6N

32



Extremely important information continues to come today from the Indo-Asia-Pacific region, where an increasingly noticeable geostrategic “gap” is forming between Washington and Beijing’s global ambitions “mixed with” the North Korean concept of nuclear deterrence aimed at protecting national defense programs. While Kim Jong-un, the military leadership of the DPRK, as well as the population of the socialist republic for decades have not been tied to the economic structure of the Asia-Pacific region, one way or another suffering from dependence on the American market and the dollar, in China there is a slightly different situation requiring maintaining a wait-and-see attitude with slow reformatting of the economy and increasing technological perfection of strategic components fleet and the air force. To resort to the implementation of serious operational-strategic countermeasures, the command of the PLA prompted the appearance of several factors at once, indicating Washington’s desire to strip China of its former borders in the South China and East China Seas, as well as very successful attempts to obtain radar control over the airspace of the provinces Shandong, Jiangsu, Anhui and Henan. In the latter case, we are talking about deploying a THAAD missile defense system battery in South Korea.

The threat here is not at all in the anti-missile system (after all, the PLA’s 2 artillery corps has a ton of other directions for a massive launch of ICBMs and MRBMs), but in the AN / TPY-2 GBR multi-function radar for detecting and targeting, which can detect aerospace objects with EPR within 5 - 7 m2 at a distance of about 1200 km. Thus, under the guise of monitoring the launches of North Korean ballistic missiles, the American THAAD calculation is able to track everything that happens in the airspace over the above provinces. Moreover, an important role is played by the intensification of regular reconnaissance flights of anti-submarine aircraft P-8A "Poseidon" near the disputed Spratly archipelago, as well as the co-operation of the US Navy with the Indian Navy in order to complicate the operations of the Chinese CCG and the IAPL in the Indian Ocean.

In previous works, we returned several times to the development programs of promising supersonic low-profile H-20 and YH-X bombers with 2-xfold speed advantage over Russian PAK DA and American LRS-B, also considered the concepts of hypersonic LA-carriers of "nuclear equipment", capable of “breaking through” the most complex missile defense systems in the sea and land theaters of military operations. They should allow Beijing to establish parity with Washington within the "Third Chain" of islands in the Pacific zone. But the background here is that bringing these concepts to a state of operational readiness will require at least 8 - 10 years of hard work by specialists from Xian, a Chinese company, and numerous research institutes specializing in the design and manufacture of aerospace equipment. For example, the far obscure bomber H-20 bomber should go into service between the 2025 and 2027 years. Based on the current military-political situation, it can be assumed that until the middle of the 20-s, several serious conflicts may occur in the Pacific theater of war, in which the Chinese Air Force will need a sufficiently advanced strike weapon capable of leveling the high effectiveness of ultra-long-range anti-ship missiles AGM -158C LRASM and anti-ship versions of "Tomahawk" under the name "Maritime Strike Tomahawk".

The development of a new supersonic anti-ship missile underwater launch, which could be launched from mine universal TLUs or 533-mm torpedo tubes of multipurpose nuclear submarines of pr. 093B "Shan", will also take a lot of time, while the existing YJ-18 have a range of 300 - 500 km , yielding to subtle LRASM by 1,5 - 2 times. A way out was found in the "crossing" of existing weapons systems. So, according to one of news posts posted on the information resource defense-blog, com over the past 2 weeks, flight tests of the long-range missile carrier H-6N from the company "Xian" are being carried out in the Celestial Empire. This machine is one of the modifications of the domestic long-range bomber Tu-16, but it has a fundamentally new "digitized" avionics and 32% more high-torque D-30KP-2 bypass turbojet engines. The avionics include a modern inertial navigation system, a powerful electronic warfare station with electronic reconnaissance sensors, as well as a more high-energy airborne radar with an increased antenna array diameter to search for enemy surface and coastal targets. The compactness of the digital element base made it possible to increase the volume of the fuel system, due to which the combat range increased from 2 to 3 thousand km. The fuselage design and "stuffing" of the H-6N is almost identical to the long-range missile carrier H-6K. The latter forms the nuclear triad of the Celestial Empire, being the carrier of the CJ-10A strategic air-launched cruise missiles.


Seen in China, the prototype of the promising missile carrier H-6N


The H-6N missile carrier will be the carrier of the medium-range anti-ship ballistic missile DF-21D. The news is very unexpected and significant. About a month ago, we examined the July anti-ballistic missile tests of the American THAAD complex on Kodiak Island (Alaska) under the name FTT-18, during which a medium-range ballistic missile with training equipment was launched from the cargo compartment of the C-17 Globmaster III strategic military transport aircraft were also described the program of an aeroballistic missile with Skybolt launched from external suspension nodes of the B-52 strategic bombers, and the Minuteman III intercontinental missile launched from the cargo compartment from rategicheskogo MTC C-5A «Galaxy». These projects were not destined to reach large-scale production, but in the course of single tests valuable technical data were obtained, which made it possible to determine all the advantages of air-launched ballistic missiles of various classes. In particular, it was determined that when a BR is launched from an altitude of 12 km, the following is observed: an increase in the characteristic speed of approximately 1,13 times (indicates a longer period of operation of the first and second stages in the upper layers of the stratosphere), a decrease in backpressure losses (determines the efficiency coefficient of rocket fuel in more rarefied layers of the atmosphere), a decrease in aerodynamic drag losses, which in turn leads to an increase in the characteristic speed.

There is only one thing to be summarized here: high-altitude launch significantly increases the flight range of a ballistic missile, this applies to the Chinese "Dongfeng." Consequently, the anti-ship ballistic missile DF-6D launched from the H-21N missile carrier will have a range of not more than 1800 - 2000 km, but 2500 - 3200 with a launch height of 8 - 12 km. With a carrier radius of 3000 km, this will make it possible to strike at American AOG at a distance of up to 6200 km (in the vicinity of Midway Atoll). For these purposes, long-range anti-ship modifications of the CJ-10A ASRM with a range of 2500 km can also be used, but their flight speed is more than 10 times lower than that of the DF-21D. The operational-strategic anti-ship capabilities of the new H-6N with the DF-21D missile are simply unique. The placement of only one 14 - 14,7 ton PKBR on one missile carrier is more than compensated by a maximum mass of combat equipment of 2000 kg, which provides for the installation of three to four individual combat guidance units. At the final section, they can be controlled with the help of aerodynamic rudders, at the time of breeding in the stratospheric section - by means of gas-dynamic rudders. The launch of the DF-21D missile to the battlefield is carried out according to target designation data from satellite reconnaissance systems, or from air-based radar systems that are part of the avionics of marine tactical fighters aviation, long-range anti-submarine aircraft, KLJ-2000 AWACS aircraft and strategic Soar Dragon unmanned aerial vehicles.

As for a target combat target targeting system, or IN split combat units, most likely, passive radar homing heads are used to detect and capture radiation from shipborne radar radar stations and the MRLS for control of shipboard air defense systems. It is also possible to point to the sources of radiation of the tactical radio channel of the Link-16 network. Circular probable deviation using passive X-ray targeting can range from 50 to 30 m. In the case of use of cluster equipment with hundreds / thousands of submunitions rushing to enemy AUG at a speed of about 8500 - 9000 km / h, it can be argued that the main avionics of surface ships will be disabled (the AN / SPY-1D radar antenna canvases will receive critical damage), just like the main combat component of Aegis ships - the universal TLU Mk 41.

Moreover, nuclear warheads with a capacity of several kilotons or superhigh-frequency (UHF) hypersonic electromagnetic warfare BBs that can literally burn down the radio electronic element base of any modern unit can be used as warheads. The accuracy provided by Chinese sources in 30 m is a very excellent indicator for a rocket of this class. For example, the first Soviet anti-ship ballistic missile of an underwater base, the P-27, in the initial modification had a QUO in 1,9 km, in the P-27U version - on the order of 1,3 km, because of which high efficiency was achieved solely thanks to the installation of three nuclear unmanaged “dispersing type” BB power of 200 kt, or a single controlled with a power of 1 Mt. High-explosive or cluster equipment with 1,9 - 1,3-kilometer QUO would not lead to the proper result.


Anti-ship ballistic missile Р-27У with a split head had a range of 2500 km


The Chinese DF-21D is the brainchild of technology XXI and is controlled by the INS with a digital computer that provides the minimum error. Moreover, monoblock and separable warheads can carry containers with complexes of means for overcoming missile defense on the basis of light and heavy false targets, dipole reflectors, tanks with infrared aerosols, and also compact electronic warfare modules. A squadron from 10 H-6N can strike at the United States Navy AUG with ten “Dongfans” with 10, 30 or 40 warheads and even more false targets. Americans have almost no chance of maintaining combat stability in the Pacific and Indian Oceans. Last but not least, the H-6N missile carriers will be able to take to the center of the suspension and such a modification of the Dongfans, like the DF-21C, which will ensure the ability to carry out attacks on the island military bases of the Navy and the US Air Force in the Indo-Asian-Pacific region, where the list includes the “favorite” objects of Kim Jong-un - Andersen airbase and Apra naval base located on the island of Guam.

The only drawback of the strategic anti-ship "bundle" "H-6N - DF-21D" is morally and technically outdated media. Despite the excellence of the electronic “stuffing” of the upgraded Tu-16, the design of the airframe and the power plant has not changed. The same rounded edges of the fuselage, a direct duct with an open architecture of the engine compressor, etc. All this makes the EPR machine just perfect for long-range detection of the F-22A and F-35A fighters relocated to Japan or Taiwan. For this reason, during the long-distance anti-ship operation, the H-6N route should pass as far as possible from the 800-kilometer boundaries of their patrols, also the missile-carriers cannot do without long escorting with the J-15S, Su-35C and J-20A fighters.

The source of information:
http://forum.militaryparitet.com/viewtopic.php?id=17911
http://rbase.new-factoria.ru/missile/wobb/r27/r27.shtml
http://bastion-karpenko.ru/h-6k/
Author:
32 comments
Ad

Subscribe to our Telegram channel, regularly additional information about the special operation in Ukraine, a large amount of information, videos, something that does not fall on the site: https://t.me/topwar_official

Information
Dear reader, to leave comments on the publication, you must sign in.
  1. aszzz888
    aszzz888 23 August 2017 07: 08
    0
    There is only one thing to be summarized here: high-altitude launch significantly increases the flight range of a ballistic missile, and this applies to the Chinese "Dongfeng."

    ... fly pigeons, fly (this does not apply to mail) ... laughing
    1. Boa kaa
      Boa kaa 23 August 2017 23: 36
      +7
      Quote: aszzz888
      . fly doves fly

      Alas, colleague, they will not fly anywhere in this version ... But more on that later. First, about copyright mistakes in this article.
      the first Soviet anti-ship ballistic missile submarine R-27 in the initial modification had a Navy 1,9 km ...
      Here he mixed everything together. The fact is that the P-27K (anti-ship) had a KVO ... 0 (!) M. The latest 2's missile salvo was marked by a direct hit on target! And she had one combat unit, with a capacity of 650ct. But due to the fact that it was necessary to have a maneuvering 2-th stage, it was necessary to reduce the range to 900km ... The missile was never adopted.
      2. States experienced a high-altitude launch from military transport aircraft. An exhaust parachute was used, a complex multi-dome system with a stabilization system ... Everything is very complicated. And such a method of combat use of ICBMs was intended for firing at large area targets, as well as for the supersaturation of the SSS system and the ABM system of the Union. There is no need to talk about accuracy in this case ... not to mention falling into a maneuvering, fast-moving sea target.
      3. The pre-launch preparation time of the DF-21D is 10 min (!) ... During this time, you need to enter the start coordinates in the digital computer, which will differ by 13,3 km of the start of preparation. At the same time, for 10 minutes, the carrier must fly without maneuvering ...
      4. About the carrier. It is not possible to place this PKBR inside H-6N. DF-21D has dimensions: L = 10,7m d = 1,4m and weight 14,7т. And this is without taking into account the parachute system and the stabilization system.
      Suppose that the suspension will be external, as in the case of the Tsart-bomb on the Tu-4 ... But he cannot lift more 12 410kg ... "Health" is not enough ...
      Therefore, a beautiful dream will remain a dream. But the GZKR can seriously upset the peddlers of democracy ...
      1. Random
        Random 2 August 2018 18: 19
        0
        Quote: Boa constrictor KAA
        4. About the carrier. It is not possible to place this PKBR inside H-6N. DF-21D has dimensions: L = 10,7m d = 1,4m and weight 14,7т. And this is without taking into account the parachute system and the stabilization system.
        Suppose that the suspension will be external, as in the case of the Tsart-bomb on the Tu-4 ... But he cannot lift more 12 410kg ... "Health" is not enough ...
        Therefore, a beautiful dream will remain a dream. But the GZKR can seriously upset the peddlers of democracy ...

        Dear Alexander drinks I have to disappoint you, unfortunately soldier
        They will fly and how they fly. Since:
        For all its “clumsiness", the Tu-16 aircraft was designed by a VERY STRONG and ENDURING machine soldier
        What is only one wing design worth? fellow (2 spars and two panels), yes "oak", but you could almost forget about strength and fatigue loads wink
        You are right, in the marine version with 3 missiles, the b / c weight can be 12 470 kg, but ... you forget that the aircraft is equipped with a refueling system in the air and ... who prevents you from refueling at 2- 3 tons on the ground less. That would not "fall out" for the restrictions on G vzl.maks. f and after take-off and departure along the route, top up these 2-3 tons. wink
        It’s another matter that in the DB Tactics of our aviation (that MRA, that YES, that SA) this "method" was not applied, but ... there were reasons for it wink
        But I dare to assure you that this "thing" DF-21D ... this is really a serious argument
  2. NUR
    NUR 23 August 2017 08: 51
    +1
    There are no perfect weapons, there are strengths and weaknesses. We must strive for parity, it will be the key to peace.
  3. srha
    srha 23 August 2017 09: 20
    +2
    "also on very successful attempts to obtain radar control over the aerospace space of the provinces of Shandong, Jiangsu, Anhui and Henan," the question arose, but is it so difficult to put electronic warfare (jammers) in the way?
  4. HEATHER
    HEATHER 23 August 2017 09: 28
    +1
    Tu-16 in a new role. Grandfather will serve the Chinese.
    1. A1845
      A1845 23 August 2017 10: 47
      0
      Quote: VERESK
      Tu-16 in a new role. Grandfather will serve the Chinese.
      Tu-95 is not younger, but it serves the same
      1. HEATHER
        HEATHER 23 August 2017 10: 51
        +2
        The Tu-95, like the Tu-142, is far from being the same machine. Only the hull is left. They are modernizing everything and everything. The Tu-16 has been removed from service. It does not meet modern requirements in terms of both range and loading.
        1. Alexey RA
          Alexey RA 23 August 2017 12: 28
          0
          Quote: VERESK
          The Tu-95, like the Tu-142, is far from being the same machine. Only the hull remains.

          Moreover, the Tu-95MS is not at all the direct heir to the original Tu-95 and its descendant rocket carriers. For the ancestor of Tu-95MS was Tu-142, and the ancestor of Tu-142 was Tu-95RC. smile
          1. HEATHER
            HEATHER 23 August 2017 12: 31
            +2
            I know, Lyokha. They lengthened the fuselage, altered the glider. Put the equipment. The original TU-95 is generally unlike a modern MS. hi
  5. Butchcassidy
    Butchcassidy 23 August 2017 10: 07
    +5
    It only bothers me that it is not indicated how exactly China should direct its cunning anti-ship missiles to the AUG in the Guam area at a range of up to 3000 km? Still, AUG is a moving target. I don’t see any problems on the island’s infrastructure, but it’s still unclear on the ships themselves, does China have similar targeting capabilities for moving targets?
    1. faridg7
      faridg7 23 August 2017 13: 28
      +2
      The launch of the DF-21D missile to the battlefield is carried out according to target designation data from satellite reconnaissance systems
      1. twviewer
        twviewer 23 August 2017 16: 37
        0
        or from airborne radar systems that are part of the avionics of tactical fighters of naval aviation, long-range anti-submarine aircraft, AWACS KLJ-2000 and strategic unmanned aerial vehicles such as "Soar Dragon".

        1. 11 black
          11 black 24 August 2017 19: 00
          +1
          Quote: twviewer
          or from airborne radar systems that are part of the avionics of tactical fighters of naval aviation, long-range anti-submarine aircraft, AWACS KLJ-2000 and strategic unmanned aerial vehicles such as "Soar Dragon".

          Satellite systems have the ability to quickly go astray, and the AUG commander should be a complete donkey if he lets in a DRLO - AUG has everything to bring down a DRLO in time
          1. faridg7
            faridg7 25 August 2017 14: 04
            +1
            Have you checked everything in orbit in the form of garbage and civil satellites of Chinese origin hanging out? Do you guarantee that what was considered (for example) as the remainder of the overclocking unit at the right time will not begin to give target designation? Give a guarantee that the drone shot down by the AUG air defense system did not manage to fulfill its role?
            1. 11 black
              11 black 25 August 2017 15: 47
              0
              Quote: faridg7
              Have you checked everything in orbit in the form of garbage and civil satellites of Chinese origin hanging out? Do you guarantee that what was considered (for example) as the remainder of the overclocking unit at the right time will not begin to give target designation?

              The guarantee is provided by RosGosStrakh, but I’m saying that the satellites are being tracked and getting lost, the communication channels are jammed, and the DF-21 is not a panacea.
              Quote: faridg7
              Give a guarantee that the drone shot down by means of anti-aircraft defense did not manage to fulfill its role?

              AUG has everything to prevent him from doing this.
              1. faridg7
                faridg7 25 August 2017 16: 30
                +1
                Quote: 11 black
                satellites are tracked and lost, communication channels are jammed, and the DF-21 is not a panacea.

                This is just understandable, and this is an occasion to continue working both for the Chinese and us.
            2. DimerVladimer
              DimerVladimer 28 August 2017 11: 35
              0
              Quote: faridg7
              Have you checked everything in orbit in the form of garbage and civil satellites of Chinese origin hanging out? Do you guarantee that what was considered (for example) as the remainder of the overclocking unit at the right time will not begin to give target designation? Give a guarantee that the drone shot down by the AUG air defense system did not manage to fulfill its role?


              The drone, long before the AUG is detected, will fall into the far zone of interception
              1. faridg7
                faridg7 28 August 2017 14: 59
                +1
                Quote: DimerVladimer
                The drone, long before the AUG is detected, will fall into the far zone of interception

                The interception zone is of course distant, just keep in mind that
                firstly, the drone’s ESR is such that it is detected when it has overcome the far and even the middle of the interception zone (in contrast to the ESR of the AUG ships). Secondly, the point of destruction of the drone will be one of the markers indicating the position of the AUG.
                Well, to top it all off, the PRC has the ability to put its satellites into orbit without resorting to the services of other states, which means that the components of the PRC orbital constellation are not controlled. No one can determine what was put into orbit — garbage, a failed satellite, spent boosters, or a command waiting for a military satellite to turn on. It is possible to destroy what impersonates itself with its work, and if it does not work yet?
      2. DimerVladimer
        DimerVladimer 28 August 2017 11: 20
        0
        Quote: faridg7
        The launch of the DF-21D missile to the battlefield is carried out according to target designation data from satellite reconnaissance systems


        The bold assumption that at the time of applying the DF-21D according to the AUG, satellite reconnaissance systems will remain operational :) - directly optimists :)
  6. Old26
    Old26 23 August 2017 10: 19
    +9
    Another opus from Eugene Damantsev? It seems that it wasn’t Friday yesterday to "get enough of it" ... Is he already going to deploy a ballistic anti-ship missile on a bomber? On a plane with a carrying capacity of 12 tons (the latest version of the N-6K) and a bomb-hole of 8,5 meters in length, place a rocket of 15 tons and a length of 11 meters ?? Oh well
    1. Alexey RA
      Alexey RA 23 August 2017 12: 31
      +4
      Quote: Old26
      On a plane with a carrying capacity of 12 tons (the latest version of the N-6K) and a bomb-hole of 8,5 meters in length, place a rocket of 15 tons and a length of 11 meters ?? Oh well

      Well, again, with rough figures, they cut off the flight of fantasy. It’s good that they didn’t write about the dependence of the combat radius on the load ... smile
      Upon reading the article, I somehow remembered Zvyagintsevsky I-153 with a suspended Exocet. laughing
    2. DimerVladimer
      DimerVladimer 28 August 2017 11: 27
      0
      Quote: Old26
      Another opus from Eugene Damantsev? It seems that it wasn’t Friday yesterday to "get enough of it" ... Is he already going to deploy a ballistic anti-ship missile on a bomber? On a plane with a carrying capacity of 12 tons (the latest version of the N-6K) and a bomb-hole of 8,5 meters in length, place a rocket of 15 tons and a length of 11 meters ?? Oh well


      Even the range prophesies to her higher, because it will be launched from a height :)
      Man, imagines the process of remaking a rocket into a carrier-based, apparently stupidly suspension under the carrier :)))
      Optimization of the design for aircraft carrier - the maximum simplification of the design, at least - alteration of the engines of the first stage, nozzle assembly for the pressure difference at the launch height and at the surface level. The feeling that the author does not have a technical education, while trying to draw expert conclusions on complex technical issues ... yeah.
  7. lance
    lance 23 August 2017 12: 54
    0
    in article 6H-N, who is willing to give out the dimensions of his hatch or suspension
  8. Sergey-8848
    Sergey-8848 23 August 2017 13: 59
    +2
    Ballistic PLA against the AUG of the US Navy, of course, is formidable (hypothetically), but extremely technically difficult to use. The goal is still quite maneuverable and unpredictable, and this is only the first of a number of factors that prevent defeat.
  9. bratchanin3
    bratchanin3 23 August 2017 13: 59
    0
    China is getting closer and closer to the United States. It's time to stop the Americans cheating on their cheeks.
  10. Old26
    Old26 23 August 2017 14: 26
    0
    Quote: Alexey RA
    Well, again, with rough figures, they cut off the flight of fantasy. It’s good that they didn’t write about the dependence of the combat radius on the load ... smile
    Upon reading the article, I somehow remembered Zvyagintsevsky I-153 with a suspended Exocet.

    Specially did not write. But Zvyagintsev ... Alas, Vasily is no longer there, he went to another world last year

    Quote: Lance
    in article 6H-N, who is willing to give out the dimensions of his hatch or suspension

    But what, the dimensions of the bomb bay from modification to modification change? I have not heard something about this. Suspension. Whatever the suspension, but hang 3 tons more, with large sizes .... On what kind of suspension can you hang a single product of 15 tons, when 10 rockets of 1,2 tons were hung up before that on the corresponding mounts ...

    Quote: Sergey-8848
    Ballistic PLA against the AUG of the US Navy, of course, is formidable (hypothetically), but extremely technically difficult to use. The goal is still quite maneuverable and unpredictable, and this is only the first of a number of factors that prevent defeat.

    Even the Chinese do not claim that ballistics is ready to hit the target in motion. In the databases - is another matter. And to hit the AUG - even the Chinese themselves at one time (a couple of years ago) wrote that the parameters of the GOS radar should be increased 10 times so that it would be possible to hit moving targets
  11. ADmA_RUS
    ADmA_RUS 23 August 2017 15: 02
    0
    The author compares the scheme that has not yet been implemented with the ancient and already withdrawn from service R-27U. Just great.
  12. Fei_Wong
    Fei_Wong 23 August 2017 17: 11
    +5
    In particular, it was determined that when the BR was launched from a height of 12 km observed: an increase in the characteristic speed of about 1,13 times (indicates a longer period of operation of the first and second stages in the upper stratosphere)

    I advise the author to learn a little materiel. 12 km is LOWER stratosphere layer (from 11 to 25 km). And the upper one starts from 25 to 50 km (it already intersects with the stratopause - from 40 to 55 km).
    I don’t put a plus article, if only because of this complete ignorance of the school physics course.
    1. kasatky
      kasatky 24 August 2017 16: 49
      0
      Everything is written correctly. The BR is launched not from the ground, but from a height of 12 km. Due to this, the BR engines in the upper layers of the stratosphere (above 25 km) will last longer.
  13. Sivasa
    Sivasa 25 August 2017 14: 41
    0
    The author unreasonably reduced the contradictions in the Asia-Pacific region exclusively to the confrontation between China and the United States. China-India, China-Vietnam, everything is much "hotter" there.

    And from a purely technical point of view, launching an ICBM from a heavy, slow bomber at a high altitude .. the launch will probably be visible from the North Pole.
  14. DimerVladimer
    DimerVladimer 28 August 2017 10: 59
    0
    Consequently, the anti-ship ballistic missile DF-6D launched from the H-21N missile carrier will have a range of not more than 1800 - 2000 km, but 2500 - 3200 with a launch height of 8 - 12 km.

    What a daring assumption - the aviation version can be facilitated by reducing fuel reserves, with the loss of range.
    The author’s fantasy is endless.