Military Review

Modern special forces. How does it differ from the 20 special forces of the century?

46
What I love our readers for is the fact that in one or two sentences they can set the task in such a way that you don’t turn away. Literally today published an article on the Chinese MTR. And at once the task ... I will quote from the commentary of one of the readers "IN":


“What are“ special forces "? No one really knows. The concept has become impossible, and it was not entirely clear from the beginning what this is. Let's try to dance from the stove, that is, to solve the problem from the target. There are two goals for the military specialty. contribute to the victory in the war. And the second is "quiet war", that is, ensuring the implementation of special operations in peacetime. "



You know, dear readers, and the author of this comment is right. We too often use the word "special forces", in principle, without understanding the meaning of this concept. I do not want to offend the soldiers and officers of special forces. Moreover, today I want to reconcile many "enemies" and "opponents" from among our readers. Remember the disputes that almost always arise when discussing materials about special units.

These disputes are interesting because ... all the disputants are right and ... wrong. It happens. And it happens only because everyone talks about the personal experience of serving in special forces. About personal! And special forces are different ... Different, not only by their tasks or training. SWAT is different ... in time. This structure is as changeable as the foreign policy and military situation is changeable. Special units are mobile in tasks and in time just as in the place of use. Today these are counterterrorist operations, tomorrow reconnaissance, the day after tomorrow - sabotage. And yesterday - the protection of a particularly important object ...

Special forces units appeared in our army, probably, at the time of the appearance of the army in general. How to name, for example, ambush shelves that were widely used during the time of ancient Russia? How to name the detachment of Colonel Denis Davydov during the Patriotic War 1812 of the year? How to call the assault brigade of the period of the Great Patriotic? And the team of snipers, who acted not only in one part or compound, but on the whole front?

Sometimes such detachments were created temporarily to solve one specific problem, but gradually the army command came to the conclusion that it was rather difficult to prepare soldiers in this way. Such preparation took time. And this is the biggest deficit in modern warfare. I will remind one historical fact about which he once wrote. The assault on Koenigsberg by the Red Army. How long did it take Soviet generals to train soldiers in the assault on this fortified city. It is good that during this period of the war it was already possible to afford such liberties.

Recall how spetsnaz appeared in the Soviet army. Some of the readers may well call themselves the same age as the Soviet and Russian special forces.

The first units of modern special forces appeared about 70 years ago. And they arose not at the whim of a particular commander. It was an urgent need. I am writing specifically about military intelligence units.

It was at that time that the main task before military intelligence was the search and tracking of nuclear weapons the adversary. Everyone was well aware that air defense weapons and other measures were insufficient to neutralize this type of weapon. Even one bomb or a missile with nuclear weapons can cause such damage, which will simply deprive the army of the ability to resist in a particular area, and possibly the front.

It was then that special forces units appeared. These were the special forces of the GRU, located in various garrisons throughout the country. The task of such units was extremely simple - to destroy a specific object of the enemy. Or to deprive the enemy of the opportunity to use nuclear weapons at least for some time, necessary for the application of our strike on the object.

In fact, the SPN GRU companies were reconnaissance and sabotage units that were prepared to conduct sabotage operations on the territory of the enemy or on a specific object. This could be ambushes, raids, the destruction of military infrastructure, sabotage on airfields. The range of tasks is quite wide. The fighters of such companies even knew the commanding composition of objects not only in person, but also many personal data. Then historians helped a lot. The experience of fighting in the period of the Great Patriotic War was simply invaluable. We studied not only the actions of special forces, but also the actions of partisan detachments.

By the way, it was then that respect for special forces was born. Not nationwide. Secrecy was the highest. Respect professionals to professionals. Combat training, training and ability to conduct combat against superior enemy forces hit Soviet officers and generals. Virtually any of the special forces was ready to fight alone. And effectively fight.

It was the time of those readers from SPN, which is now under and for 60 ...

But, by the end of 70, the military intelligence tasks had changed significantly. Probably, it will be more accurate to talk about the expansion of tasks. And the need for total control over objects with weapons of mass destruction has somewhat faded into the background. Just the opportunity to track such objects using other means. Many readers probably remember the notes of the US State Department and our Foreign Ministry to each other. At such an object (everyone knew perfectly well that these were ballistic missile launchers) the mines were ajar centimeters wide ...

This led to the fact that the units of the GRU began to deploy. In place of the mouth, military brigade units began to appear. And this somewhat changed the training of the special forces soldiers themselves. Specialists of various specialties served in the connections. In addition, thanks to Afghanistan, their own helicopter squadrons appeared in the brigades. Even the remaining companies had helicopters assigned to them. 4-6 helicopters to the company.

I can not forget about a legendary company SPN GRU GSH, which showed itself very well in Afghanistan. Just in memory of the guys of 459 orSpN ... Established in December, 1979 of the year on the basis of the Chirchik training regiment SPN 459 or became the first full-time unit of the Special Forces in the 40 army. Worked in Afghanistan from February 1980 to August 1988. For those who were there, I will reveal the secret. This is the same company that you remember under the name "Kabul company". Intelligence, additional exploration and data verification, capture or destruction of the leaders of the Mujahideen, hunting for caravans ... By the way, a film with this name is just based on the actions of these particular guys. While in the 40 Army, the company conducted more than 600 operations in various provinces. More 800 awards ... This is when the number of people in 112 ...

I understand that now readers are waiting for the development of a story about the Caucasus. About the Chechen war. If SPN had such a good experience in database management in Afghanistan, why did numerous failures happen in Chechnya? After all, by this time in the army, special forces had divorced, like cockroaches in a dirty kitchen. Well, we must be honest in this matter.

Alas, but the collapse of the USSR affected the army. Many people remember this moment. When we became "friends" with probable opponents. Yes, how to make friends ... The most combat-ready, most elite units and formations were disbanded. At best, turned into a miserable resemblance of the former. SPN Gru this touched first. “Friends” didn’t want Russia to have such units. A lot of officers then “left” precisely from such formations and units.

So why in Chechnya there were many failures? I'm talking about specific reasons.

The first, and, in my opinion, main reason, idiots commanders. Those who, after watching American films (or Russian ones, like Russian Special Forces), decided that elite fighters are capable of solving any task alone. It is enough to call the unit spetsnaz and all. Success is guaranteed. And do not need motorized infantry, paratroopers, gunners, pilots. Moreover, finding them in the army that Yeltsin’s government created was really difficult.

Because the Special Forces acted like ordinary military units. Forgotten was the experience of Afghanistan. Helicopters were not given. Worked autonomously at a great distance from the main forces. What we proudly called walkie-talkies in the mountains became just rubbish. VHF ranges in the mountains are ineffective. And attempts to install repeaters ended in another sabotage.

But most importantly, again I repeat, people. Even in Soviet times, when people who already had initial military and sports training came to the army, there were quite a few conscripts in the units of the Special Forces. To master such a profession in two years is almost impossible. In 90, the special forces became after three months of the training unit. He paid blood for this "experience" of our military and political "reformers." Big blood ...

What do we have today? Can you call the MTR of Russia heirs of the Soviet special forces? What is the similarity and what is the difference?

Very indicative in this regard is the experience of the conduct of hostilities in Syria. He, by the way, shows the difference of the SSO not only in time but also in space.

We open messages about the operation of the American special forces in Syria or Iraq. And what do we read? During the operation, such and such leaders of bandit groups were destroyed. And also captured such and such territory. In principle, such a message fits into the scenario of the MTR action. Yes, and in the script of the Soviet special forces.

And now we read the message about Russian actions. Officers of the Russian army for reconciliation of the parties organized a meeting of the leaders of such and such formations with representatives of the Assad army. A few more villages stopped fighting. Readers are well aware that the officers of the Russian army are not from motorized rifle units arrived. Serve where it is necessary to serve as military intelligence officers.

It seems to me that this is the fundamental difference between the Soviet-era SPN and the 21 MTR of the century. Moreover, this is the difference between the MTR of Russia and the MTR of Western countries and the USA. Intelligence objectives have not changed as a whole. An example of this was the feat of the Hero of Russia Alexander Prokhorenko. An officer who honestly fulfilled his duty as a soldier. Fulfilled at the cost of his own life. At the price of a feat ... But this is only one side of the coin.

The Caucasian Wars taught us not only that the enemy should be destroyed. They taught us another. Not every enemy is an enemy. In the enemy's camp there are enough people for whom this war is already across the throat. And such people, if given the opportunity, become the most ardent fighters for peace and order. Therefore, Russian officers risk their lives, meeting with leaders of bandit formations, territorial defense, and radical Islamists. There is no need to go far for an example. The leader of one of the Caucasian republics ...

At the end of the article I want to return to the very beginning. To the fact that today I "will reconcile" many readers. As you can see, special units in the army are not "frozen statues." These are constantly evolving, growing "organisms". Something appears. Something disappears as an unnecessary rudiment. Changing goals and objectives. This means that the personal experience of any of those who served in such units does not always correspond to what the fighter encountered at another time. Categorical judgments here is harmful.

Russian MTRs were, are, and will be flesh and blood of the Special Forces of the GRU General Staff of the USSR They just "grew up." Children always grow up. And, paradoxically, they do not always look like parents. There are similarities, but these are other people, other thoughts, another worldview. And then there will be "grandchildren." With their faces ... But all is one family. We are also someone's children and grandchildren. This must always be remembered.
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  1. grau
    grau April 11 2017 15: 30
    +1
    Directly someone does not know what special forces are, THIS ARE NARROW SPECIALIZED highly trained troops of the group, etc., What is infantry just meat
    1. Reserve officer
      Reserve officer April 11 2017 18: 16
      +7
      Why argue? As they said in a famous fairy tale - there are just warriors, but there is a special hero.
      1. Inok10
        Inok10 April 11 2017 22: 55
        +8
        Quote article:
        And now we read the message about Russian actions. The officers of the Russian army to reconcile the parties organized a meeting of leaders of such and such formations with representatives of the Assad army. Several more villages stopped fighting
        ... the work of SPN is in the first place ... the work is HEAD ... well, of course, not least with the feet ... well, not like in the Hollywood films - all in the cabbage, shouting Kiya and Gatling for an edge. .. wink ... I didn’t even comment on the last article about Seals with an emphasis on their physical training ... although I wanted to write that you need to pump Brains first, and then muscles ... when Grandfather (Respectfully) restored bit by bit the experience and SMERSH tactics, the first assistant was the daughter of Academician Ankylosing spondylitis, who headed the Brain Institute. Father ... The Soviet Special Forces did not grow from scratch ... there are a lot of things ... from Koryakov and Yakut to Kazakov-Plastunov ... The Old Believers were also at work, as they are now ... Our country is like that. .. Much ... from the deserts to the Arctic ... and the phrase is very true: ... I didn’t drink tea what strength, I drank tea completely weakened ... The Uzbek will say one thing, Yakut another ...
        Quote: grau
        Directly someone does not know what special forces are, THIS ARE NARROW SPECIALIZED highly trained troops of the group, etc., What is infantry just meat

        ... is not true at the root ... widely specialized ... de facto, up to three adjacent, in one Person ... only the Techie is not replaced by anyone ... he is always alone, he can replace ... neither who ... specifics ...
        Quote: Reserve officer
        Why argue? As they said in a famous fairy tale - there are just warriors, but there is a special hero.

        ... You don’t even recognize him in the crowd ... The gray man ... is not noticeable and not catchy ... hi
    2. combat192
      combat192 April 12 2017 00: 38
      +3
      Quote: grau
      Someone doesn’t know

      How so? Nеwho knows everything!
      1. Cat man null
        Cat man null April 12 2017 00: 40
        +1
        Quote: combat192
        Quote: grau
        Someone doesn’t know

        How so? Nеwho knows everything!

        - fiercely plus good
        - there is still a walking (in VO) expression "to sing Assan", IMHO too ... nefigovo laughing
        1. The comment was deleted.
  2. yehat
    yehat April 11 2017 15: 30
    0
    I wonder what role camouflage on the ground is given in special forces today?
    in comparison with a trained sniper.
  3. slepnoga
    slepnoga April 11 2017 15: 35
    +7
    Te in the "special forces" sabotage and terrorist operations on enemy territory and do not remember?
    PS The author prankster - military special forces IMHO appeared just at Lavrentiy Palych, and just before the war.
    1. yehat
      yehat April 11 2017 15: 53
      +2
      the need for special forces manifested itself clearly after the events in China and Spain.
      therefore, everyone began to think maybe not about special forces, but about the specialization of units.
    2. Glory1974
      Glory1974 April 11 2017 23: 51
      +1
      Te in the "special forces" sabotage and terrorist operations on enemy territory and do not remember?

      They do not carry out sabotage and terrorist operations in the Russian army. This is more typical of the US Army and the entire NATO bloc.
      1. ProkletyiPirat
        ProkletyiPirat April 12 2017 04: 24
        +2
        We are not doing this right now; in war all means are good...
        1. Glory1974
          Glory1974 April 12 2017 20: 15
          0
          We are not doing this right now;

          not. We will not be terrorist. Russian soldiers with the civilian population do not fight.
          1. ProkletyiPirat
            ProkletyiPirat April 12 2017 20: 37
            +1
            Russian soldiers with civilians do not fight.

            it's just populist vyser, it will be necessary, they will fight, no one will ask ...
            1. Glory1974
              Glory1974 April 12 2017 20: 47
              0
              it's just populist vyser, it will be necessary, they will fight, no one will ask

              is there a difference between fighting and a terrorist act?
              1. ProkletyiPirat
                ProkletyiPirat April 12 2017 21: 50
                0
                glory, there’s no difference, and if you turn on your head a little, you will understand why ....
                1. Glory1974
                  Glory1974 April 12 2017 22: 37
                  0
                  the difference is very significant. it is a pity that you do not want to see this.
                  1. ProkletyiPirat
                    ProkletyiPirat April 13 2017 01: 28
                    0
                    Is killing good or bad?
                    1. Glory1974
                      Glory1974 April 13 2017 15: 23
                      0
                      Is killing good or bad?

                      enemies who came to your land kill people, they force women to kill well. In military art, such actions are classified as fair war. At the same time, military and military operations are conducted, during which the enemy is destroyed in accordance with the Geneva and Hague conventions, which determine the rules of warfare.
                      A terrorist act implies action against non-combatants, that is, against the civilian population and those who are not involved in hostilities. This is a war crime under the Hague Convention.
                      Therefore, if you kill a soldier of the enemy army. you are a hero and have every right to do so. And if you kill a non-combatant, you are a war criminal.
                      According to the convention, the shooting of servicemen leaving a sinking warship is a war crime. When a civilian plane was blown up in the Sinai, they committed a terrorist act. When they shot down the SU-24, they theoretically had the right, because it was a war, but they shot a Russian pilot in the air, they committed a war crime.
    3. Abel
      Abel April 12 2017 13: 51
      +1
      The fact that special forces are specialized units, no one argues. Only specialization is different: MTR (Special Forces GRU GSH), special forces BB, special forces UFSIN. Sharpening is different
      1. alex-cn
        alex-cn April 13 2017 06: 56
        0
        The liquidation of the top military leadership is also a terrorist attack, but not against civilians.
        1. ProkletyiPirat
          ProkletyiPirat April 13 2017 10: 38
          0
          it’s already warmer, but not that, tell me, but if I blow up a bus with civilians is this a terrorist attack or sabotage? you answer the terrorist attack, in the same place ABOUT GOD, innocent little men died crying , but what if I say that after that I will send a letter to the Strategic Missile Forces General whose children go to school on the same bus? a terrorist act and an act of sabotage are one and the same thing, it’s just that the media are boggling all kinds of information shit ...
          1. alex-cn
            alex-cn April 13 2017 12: 02
            0
            Come on, the Military exist for this, in order to kill and die. Therefore, we will separate the sabotage and terrorist acts, although their meaning is the same. An old example, but the shooting of Dargel, and the undermining of Funk - sabotage and terrorist attack?
          2. Glory1974
            Glory1974 April 13 2017 15: 26
            0
            a terrorist act and an act of sabotage are one and the same thing

            read the Hague convention. Against non-combatants act of terrorism. Against combatants - sabotage.
        2. Glory1974
          Glory1974 April 13 2017 15: 25
          0
          The liquidation of the top military leadership is also a terrorist attack, but not against civilians.

          This is not a terrorist attack, this is a diversion.
  4. Captain Angry
    Captain Angry April 11 2017 16: 53
    +2
    "Even in Soviet times, when people who already had basic military and sports training came to the army, there were few conscripts in the units of the Special Forces." - Dear author, after such statements do not write more about SpN, neither Soviet nor Russian, never write. You do not know this topic.
  5. The comment was deleted.
  6. Young_Communist
    Young_Communist April 11 2017 18: 42
    +4
    "Special Forces" is the one and only Special Forces GRU GSH. And then, finally, all call themselves special forces. Even the fierce airborne troops, paratroopers, reconnaissance, etc. What can I say if even the private security companies have their own "special forces" ..
    1. Glory1974
      Glory1974 April 11 2017 23: 42
      +4
      "Special Forces" is the one and only Special Forces GRU GSH. And then, finally, all call themselves special forces.

      Special Forces may be different. Anti-terrorist: internal troops (Rosguard), alpha.
      sabotage (SPN GU GSh), anti-sabotage, etc. There are special forces to suppress riots in the colonies.
  7. Anti-fascist
    Anti-fascist April 11 2017 19: 15
    0
    We open messages about the operation of the American special forces in Syria or Iraq. And what do we read? During the operation, such and such leaders of bandit groups were destroyed. And also captured such and such territory. In principle, such a message fits into the scenario of the MTR action. Yes, and in the script of the Soviet special forces.
    And now we read the message about Russian actions. Officers of the Russian army for reconciliation of the parties organized a meeting of the leaders of such and such formations with representatives of the Assad army. A few more villages stopped fighting. Readers are well aware that the officers of the Russian army are not from motorized rifle units arrived. Serve where it is necessary to serve as military intelligence officers.


    It follows that the Americans are fighting ISIS, and the Russians are fighting the opposition to Assad.
    1. Pete mitchell
      Pete mitchell April 12 2017 01: 30
      +9
      anti-fascist, you carefully read the written: Russian officers are trying to resolve the situation and put all the sane at the table, to agree. They understand very well that forceful actions will not achieve a result, it will be for a long time. This tactic paid off in Afghanistan, the “negotiated areas” paid off. And we need people who are capable of this, and among them there are legends. If the goal is to "keep the fire", then the tactics of the Americans are justified.
      The article is interesting, although a little chopped off
    2. Abel
      Abel April 12 2017 13: 53
      +1
      You are extremely smart. I can talk with you and explain if there is still gray matter, but I can immediately use the ax on the head. The result is one: the cessation of hostilities, the means of achievement are different. For the APU, it seems, only the second option
  8. Sakmagon
    Sakmagon April 11 2017 21: 13
    0
    But the question was not answered. The author began for health, and ended ... by the fact that, like the vast majority of readers, he brought out special forces in the form of supermen of sabotage and close combat. And in the end, truly idiotic comments appear in the style of Young_Communist (read below). Although the very first commentator thought started right...
    For the sake of jokes: one general, while checking one of the brigades of the Special Operations Directorate of the GRU, bluntly stated: "So you are special forces! Sneaked up - and with knives, knives!" wassat In the back rows, the officers simply fell ...
    And who knows that these are also special units?
    1. ProkletyiPirat
      ProkletyiPirat April 12 2017 04: 29
      +1
      yeah, also special forces, there still the famous commando served, the call sign "mario" lol
    2. Abel
      Abel April 12 2017 13: 55
      0
      pipeline troops. 609 battalion was in Chernobyl
  9. Rhino
    Rhino April 11 2017 22: 57
    0
    Pipeline troops are not special purpose they are special forces
  10. Vik66
    Vik66 April 11 2017 23: 27
    0
    Quote: Captain Evil
    "Even in Soviet times, when people who already had basic military and sports training came to the army, there were few conscripts in the units of the Special Forces." - Dear author, after such statements do not write more about SpN, neither Soviet nor Russian, never write. You do not know this topic.

    Absolutely right! He served as an urgent in the GRU special forces 84-86 (GSVG), then there were no words of a contract soldier, there were 10–20 people on the brigade, and even those were mainly paratroopers and in the airborne military service
  11. Glory1974
    Glory1974 April 11 2017 23: 48
    0
    Too often we use the word "special forces", in principle, not understanding the meaning of this concept.

    Special Forces - people selected by moral, physical criteria, equipped with special weapons, designed to perform special tasks.
    The first mention of special forces in the Bible.
    The troops could not take the city of Jericho. The king built an army and said: Who is not afraid to die and will come with me ?. Some of the soldiers are out of order. (moral selection).
    Those who have failed let them take the stones and take them to the river bank. Warriors took stones and carried them. (selection by physical indicators).
    Those who remained were armed with special weapons: "And they sounded the pipes of Jericho and the walls of the city fell."
    By the way, modern scientists during excavations of this ancient city note an incomprehensible effect on the city wall, as a result of which it has a "fused" appearance.
    1. ProkletyiPirat
      ProkletyiPirat April 12 2017 04: 32
      0
      so the special forces of the future shot from blasters lol
  12. noskov
    noskov April 12 2017 06: 27
    +2
    A huge request to the author not to publish anything else. The period of work of the SPN in Chechnya was generally crap .... I ask the author to provide the part number in which he served and served for years ..
    He was called to himself in 1989. NVVKU. He began his service in one of the divisions on the anti-sabotage activities of the UGA (missile mines, command posts). It happened to be Abkhazia, Georgia (port of Poti), Tajik. There is experience of the “disappearance” of hazardous materials from Chechnya in 1994. Now the happy father of two happy children. AND YOU?
  13. Holoy
    Holoy April 12 2017 21: 00
    0
    Yes, in the 90s in Chechnya, the GRU special forces were extremely poorly trained! One Tragedy of the Brigade from Chuchkov ... says a lot ... Caught on a simple trick ...
    1. Timeout
      Timeout April 13 2017 08: 23
      0
      Quote: Holoy
      was extremely poorly prepared!

      Quote: Holoy
      .Got caught on a simple trick ...

      Are you sure about that? Personally saw what happened? Before you uselessly clicking the clave, think with your head and look for normal information. He knew Zhenya Sergeyev, rest in peace, personally. And to read that he prepared his fighters poorly is simply wild for me. Or did you decide to question the professionalism of the special forces past Afghanistan? Think!
      1. noskov
        noskov April 13 2017 12: 50
        0
        And I'm talking about the same thing .. In general, the prefix special always confused me a little. somehow we did not consider ourselves to be "supermen." But knowledge and training always inspired confidence in superiority over a potential adversary. and it’s worth a lot. I remember how in the year 85, we all admired one of our senior comrades. Terrible letters were pronounced with admiration - DShB ... Only then do you begin to realize the full scale of the structure of SA. Our first ensign said so ... "Honorary bread maker with a parachute." In general, it is necessary to carefully operate this prefix special to a place or place. And my regards to the Chuchkovites.
        1. Holoy
          Holoy April 13 2017 13: 35
          0
          The mistake of personnel officers - in Special Forces there is no place for Sentimentality ... Special Forces is not yours ...
      2. Holoy
        Holoy April 13 2017 13: 22
        0
        And you do not write to me with slogans... By virtue of my age, I am deprived and not subject to Slogans, Propaganda, and generally deprived of Sentimentality ... If they were just blown up like that .... it means a penny to them ... the death of an entire group of GRU special forces, they did not check before bedtime the room where they spent the night. The spirits left gifts, which at one fine moment worked, turning 20 (GR Chuchkov’s brigade) into bloody meat. It was a great shock for everyone - the GRU special forces fell for such a trick ...

        This is the truth ... The truth is always difficult ... Yes, and the Group Commander is to blame for this most of all ... Substituted his group for slaughter ... What professionalism is there in FIG? These are common truths ... The base must be selected and checked carefully ... Alphabet ...
        1. noskov
          noskov April 13 2017 13: 35
          0
          Sorry. But I have some other information about the deaths of fighters. I tend to trust her more (you will forgive me). To put it mildly, you have inaccuracies. I do not write slogans. Four holes in the body is my slogan for all time. How else can you explain that you are only mistaken in using the prefix special in relation to this group ?????? Well, damn it, not the GRU special forces group ... Will you reach the conclusions yourself?
          1. Holoy
            Holoy April 13 2017 13: 36
            0
            See comments above ... I have nothing to add ...
            1. goblin xnumx
              goblin xnumx April 13 2017 21: 05
              0
              I heard a version about 48 dead from a projectile (possibly "friendly") ...
            2. Petrov Petr
              Petrov Petr April 17 2017 17: 23
              0
              ... Your pseudonym reminds me of youth, Primorsky Krai ... no?