Military Review

The last spurt. The June offensive of the South-Western Front 1917 r. 2. Russian army: the power of technology and weakness of spirit

59
By 15 December 1916. The current army on the European (Austro-German) front (including the Romanian, but without the Caucasus) included 158 infantry divisions, 5 infantry brigades, 48 cavalry divisions and 4 cavalry brigades. The opposing forces of the enemy - 133 infantry and 26,5 cavalry divisions [Strategic sketch of the war 1914 — 1918. CH 7. Campaign 1917 of the year. M., 1923. C. 16].


At the end of 1917, the Army had 205 infantry and equivalent divisions (69 army and equivalent corps), 48 cavalry divisions and 7 individual brigades (10 cavalry corps), a significant number of technical and special units and formations.

By the beginning of the February revolution, the acting army numbered about 7,2 million people [Gavrilov LM. The number of Russian army in the period of the February revolution // History THE USSR. 1972. No. 3 (May-June). C. 202], but to 26. 10. 1917 g. - more than 6 million people [Gavrilov LM, Kutuzov V. V. Census of the Russian army 25 of October 1917 g. // History of the USSR. 1964. No. 2 (March-April). C. 89].

By 1917 and in 1917, there was a significant technical strengthening of the troops of the Army.

In 1916, a special purpose heavy artillery corps (TAON) was created as part of 6 artillery brigades and other technical units. By the spring of 1917, it had 338 guns of various calibers and purposes. Being out of submission to ordinary military units, the TAON was at the disposal of the army command, being the most powerful means of operational reinforcement — the army artillery reserve.


6. Heavy artillery cannon in position.

By 1917, the saturation of units and divisions of the Army in action with mortars increased significantly. 47-mm and 58-mm light, as well as 152-mm heavy mortars were used.

By 1917, the artillery of the field army had achieved serious tactical achievements. In particular, the Russian artillery first mastered the new method of shooting - according to calculated data - and 3. 12. 1916 has brilliantly applied it in practice in the area of ​​Dvinsk. Was mastered and the method of artillery shooting on the so-called. close combat areas.

There have been changes in the field of communication. In March, 1917 was created by the Office of the Head of Technical Equipment at the Stavka, who organized the work of the telegraph and radio telegraph in the army, providing telegraph and radio parts, accounting for specialists and property. In September, the 1917 Office was reorganized into the Department of Radio Telegraph Service of the Army. The wireless telegraph was being used more and more widely - for example, for correcting artillery fire by airplanes.


7. Heavy car radio station of the Russian army.

By the end of 1916, the camouflage had penetrated deep into the army in force — most units were trained by the so-called. "Kraskomovkirovki" The use of the paintbrush, which allowed mass coloring of various surfaces, helped the masking to take its rightful place at the forefront. The camouflage business reached a special development on the South-Western Front, where, thanks to the activities of military engineer KI Velichko, since October 1916, intensive training of the troops began to be disguised.


8. Disguised 152-mm howitzer battery at the forest South-Western Front, June 1917

With ammunition, the situation at the front gradually improved, and from the second half of 1916, it became satisfactory. It was in 1917 that Russia copes with the difficulties of meeting the needs of its army in relation to shells of light and medium caliber, gradually freeing itself from foreign dependence. The first type of shells comes in this year over 14 millions (only about 23% from abroad), and medium-sized guns over 4 millions (with the same percentage of foreign production). In relation to the shells to the guns of the TAON, the amount of ammunition ordered from outside was 3,5 times the productivity of the domestic industry. In 1917, shells to 8 guns - 12-inch caliber came into the army around 110000.

Organizational and quantitatively increased aviation force.
Thus, in the Summer Offensive, the actions of the South-Western Front supported 38 of various squadrons (226 aircraft). In the summer of 1917, the Russian pilots won the 23 aerial victory, losing 8 of their cars.


9. The pilots of the 7 corps air corps. Left: V.I. Yanchenko (16 confirmed victories).

Effectively established new scooter battalions.
A striking illustration of the combat qualities of these units are the battles of 3 and 5 of scooter battalions against the German infantry 9 in July 1917 in the region of vil. Malovody and ferries. The 11 th and 9 th scooter battalions, the 3 th and 5 th scooter companies and the 20 th cavalry artillery division are at the disposal of the chief of the 27 th cavalry division of the 11 of July.

Thrown to the right der. Malovody on the threatened area, 3 th scooter battalion discards the oncoming German 114 th Infantry Regiment, takes the ferry and leads the battle until dark.

Thrown onto another threatened area, the 5 th scooter 3-x battalion of the company, incomplete, on the outskirts of the village. Malovody faced with the oncoming German infantry regiment 143. Without a shot, with a rapid bayonet attack, the battalion overturns the German rifle chains and drives the Germans 3 km, ending the destruction of the enemy until its reserves approach.

The battles of 20 and 27 of the scooter companies of July 6 under der. Streams and 8 on July at Shchetov-Vybuduv.

6 of July, the company fought a hard battle under the village. Streams. Having repulsed the attacks of the Austrians, the transfer of 7 machine guns to the scooters helped the rifle regiment of the 11 Cavalry Division to the enemy occupied area. Moreover, scooter squads and platoons acted without communication, having destroyed trenches, sometimes compared with the ground.

July 8 scooter companies repulsed the attack of the Austrian 88 regiment, taking prisoners. After digging, they fought until they received an order to withdraw. The companies fully perform the task and 9 numbers participate in the operation under the village. Malovody.


10. Highest review scooters 1-th Horse Corps.

By the middle of 1917, the troops of the current army had 13 armored units (300 armored vehicles) - a fairly solid armored fleet for those times.


11. Armored cars on the front.

The 1917 year was characterized both by the highest development of the technical component of the current army and the inability to use the combat results achieved due to the decomposition of the bulk of the army.

In order to create effective breakthrough forces in the context of a positional war, and at the same time in the situation of a drop in the combat capability of the main part of the army to have at least some combat-ready units and formations, the Russian command proceeded along the path of formation of shock battalions. In the infantry division was supposed to appear three-tribe shock battalion.

But in the new battalions, the solution of both combat and political tasks in the complex 1917 was combined - it was the shock units (the “death” battalions, the shock companies and battalions, etc.) that became the breakthrough weapon, while the bulk of the army lost its combat capability. Attack units were to not only act on the point of a breakthrough, but also become a bulwark of duty and carriers of high morale.

By October 1917 there were 313 military formations of "death" - they included more than 600000 people (even the creation of a "death army" capable of holding the front was discussed) [Solntseva S. A. Shock formations of the Russian army in 1917 year // Domestic history . 2007. No. 2. C. 50].

The last spurt. The June offensive of the South-Western Front 1917 r. 2. Russian army: the power of technology and weakness of spirit

12. Death battalion of the 3 Caucasian Army Corps.

But in a situation where the shock units achieved tactical success, ordinary troops did not support their success, which led to the death of the elite units, and with them the soldiers who could and wanted to fight. Therefore, the offensive of the Russian troops in the summer of 1917 in many respects turned into an offensive almost exclusively on strike units.

Despite the technical growth, the moral and ideological state of the army after the February Revolution began to plummet.


13. Reading the manifesto of the emperor's abdication.


14. The speech of the regimental commander after reading the Manifesto.


15. Oath to the Provisional Government.

The beginning of the destructive processes was laid by legislative decisions and practical actions of the new government, which was a symbiosis of the Provisional Government and the Petrograd Soviet. This fact was expressed: 1) in accepting the tragic order for the troops No. 1, which canceled the main principles of the military organization, on which any army rests; 2) in the displacement of a large number of senior military leaders (143 man - including such worthy generals as V. N. Gorbatovsky, V. V. Sakharov, V. E. Flug, etc.), by which the highest level of management was disorganized troops (begins a series of movements and appointments, for 9 months 1917 was replaced by 6 Supreme Commanders of the Russian army); 3) in the introduction to the army of electoral origin. All these circumstances, as well as the institution of the institution of commissioners of the Provisional Government, brought chaos on the one hand, and diarchy on the other.


16. War Minister of the Provisional Government A.I. Guchkov and A.A. Brusilov.

On May 4, a meeting of the commanders-in-chief of the fronts, the Provisional Government and the Executive Committee of the Council of Workers 'and Soldiers' Deputies was held in Petrograd. The front commanders in their reports described the current situation and ways out of the crisis situation. The motive of all the speeches was the same: the army was law-abiding and supported the revolution, but discipline and order must be unconditionally maintained at the proper level. Capable power is the key to victory, and the collapse of the army is a catastrophe in Russia. Understanding of this position by the new leaders of the fate of Russia did not cause, and if it did, it was in words.


17. The Supreme Commander-in-Chief of the Army of the Army M. V. Alekseev and the Commander-in-Chief of the armies of the South-Western Front A. A. Brusilov. April-May 1917

The army, and with it the country, plunged deeper and deeper into the abyss of chaos and multi-power.

After the promulgation of the rights of servicemen in May, the process was even more active - lawlessness, desertion, rallies swept over troops. The rally became the most popular form of amateur soldier masses, taking away a huge part of the time and effort of both the soldiers and the commanders trying to appeal to them.


18. 1 May 1917 in the military.


19. At the rally.


20. Listen to the speaker.


21. Rally at the front.

Appear so-called. fraternization, which, on the one hand, is a form of barter with the enemy, on the other hand, are a conduit for the subversive activities of the German-Austrian special services to disintegrate the Russian army and undermine its combat effectiveness.

Brotherhoods at the front were of an ever-increasing nature (from 220 infantry divisions at the front in March, 1917 of fraternization was observed in 165). The fight against them was conducted solely on the initiative of front-line commanders. Field Marshal P. Hindenburg, Chief of the Field General Staff of Germany, wrote: “Our position on the Eastern Front is becoming more and more like a truce, albeit without a written contract. Russian infantry gradually declares almost everywhere that it will no longer fight. But she still ... remains in the trenches. In those places where mutual relations take too obvious a form of friendly relations, from time to time they are firing artillery, which is still subordinate to the commanders ”[Hindenburg P. Memoirs. PG.1922. C. 47].

Desertion intensified.
If in August 1914 - February 1917, the total number of deserters was 195000 people (i.e. average 6300 people per month), then in March – August 1917, the number of deserters increased on average 5 times (and from June 15 to July 1 - 6 times) [Kavtaradze A. G. The June offensive of the Russian army in the 1917 year // Military-Historical Journal. 1967. No. 5. C. 112]. In fact, this is the spontaneous demobilization of the army in the field.

After the start of the so-called. democratization The current army becomes weakly controlled. Signed for the collapse of the army were: the order of the Petrograd Soviet number 1, abolished the principle of unity of command in the army and introduced a multi-level system of soldiers' committees in military units and ships, as well as the system of congresses of soldiers and officers delegates and the abolition of 12 in March 1917 of the death penalty on the front and field courts. This undermined the combat capability of the army, accelerated its moral decay and led to an increase in desertion.

In the spring of 1917, the soldiers' committees entered into conflicts with the officers and the generals, on their initiative a significant number of commanders were displaced.

The progressive decomposition of the army was accompanied by violence against the officers. In March and November, several hundred officers were killed at the front, as many committed suicide, thousands of the best officers were removed from their positions and expelled from their units. The memoirs of eyewitnesses are full of memories of these tragic facts.

Surprising was the very possibility of active actions of Russian troops in 1917. The enemy recorded a catastrophe in the Russian army (from the destruction of discipline to the fall of controllability). The Germans noted that the Russian troops "are not the same."

A. G. Kavtaradze stated that the state of the army in the spring of 1917 was fundamentally different than before. If before the beginning of a military operation at the front there was no shadow of doubts about the combat capability of the troops and the main difficulty was the relatively weak material and technical support of the hostilities, by May 1917 the situation became diametrically opposite - for the first time during the war material and technical support ( including heavy artillery guns and ammunition) was normal, but the combat capability of troops who did not want to fight was also unsatisfactory for the first time during the war [Ibid. C. 114].

All this in the complex led to the loss by the Russian troops of a significant part of the combat capability.

In such a situation, the June offensive of the South-Western Front was carried out.
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  1. avva2012
    avva2012 7 March 2017 05: 44
    +1
    the total number of deserters was 195000 people (that is, on average 6300 people per month), then in March - August 1917 the number of deserters increased on average 5 times (and from 15 June to 1 July - 6 times)

    War to a victorious end? The end has already come, and the Provisional Government, it turns out, did not see him. The government did not have the strength / desire to stop the decomposition of the army by repressive measures. Then what were they counting on? Consider them mentally retarded is not worth it, then who are they? Apparently, they were enemies of the state.
    1. Uncle Murzik
      Uncle Murzik 7 March 2017 06: 45
      +4
      Recall the "Declaration of the Provisional Government on its composition and tasks of March 3, 1917." After all, it says practically the same thing as in order No. 1, democratic freedoms are introduced in the army, in other words, the army begins to engage in politics and listen to someone whose language is better suspended!
      1. avva2012
        avva2012 7 March 2017 07: 08
        +4
        Ushlepok, what can I say. Acute schizophrenia! Immediately we issue such orders and immediately prepare the offensive. 60000 (killed wounded and captured were 1968 officers and 56 361 soldiers) as a result of losses, why, why ?! In a word, the intelligentsia. More precisely, V.I. Lenin will say about them. Now, the same damn thing, thinkers again want to rule the state. No censorship words!
    2. voyaka uh
      voyaka uh 7 March 2017 12: 13
      +2
      "Then what were they counting on? Considering them mentally retarded is not worth it, then who are they?" ///

      They were the TEMPORARY government: they prepared the elections and are resigning.
      And the legitimate Parliament is deciding the issue of war.
      But energetic Lenin worked ahead of the curve. He was in a hurry to seize power BEFORE the election - and managed! -
      The October Revolution about 10 days before the date of the elections to the Private Assembly.
      1. avva2012
        avva2012 7 March 2017 13: 29
        +3
        Quote: voyaka uhAnd the legitimate Parliament is deciding the issue of war.
        But energetic Lenin worked ahead of the curve. He was in a hurry to seize power BEFORE the election - and managed!

        You are a little confused. Not the Parliament, but the Constituent Assembly, which, in turn, like 300 years ago, was to elect the Tsar. Or not to elect. In September, the Provisional Government, by its decree, proclaimed, without a decision by the US, Russia, as a republic, i.e., usurped power. Lenin, what does it have to do with it? This, time. And, two, knowing the real state of affairs at the front, all the more, having contributed to the creation of this position by his order No.1, nevertheless, he agrees to an offensive that was initially a failure. That is, he throws soldier and officer lives into a meat grinder. Now, after all this, what should this government be called?
        1. voyaka uh
          voyaka uh 7 March 2017 16: 27
          +3
          "however, agrees to an offensive that was initially a failure.
          That is, he throws soldiers into the meat grinder "////

          In this I agree with you. It was not necessary to launch any offensives on the fronts.
          It was necessary to “blabber” the allies with excuses and to drag out time.
          America entered World War I in early April 1917. And it was clear that
          there will be a turning point - fresh forces and equipment have come.
          1. avva2012
            avva2012 7 March 2017 19: 26
            +2
            If there were in the Provisional Government, people are normal, then, based on the temporary status, you could sit quietly and deal with your problems. And what’s the matter how many Europeans will poison each other with gases and split skulls with batons? Well, the Americans came, hello new meat. All the questions of the “allies” could be shrugged, but shaw, this is happening here! But how could they, i.e., the government, refuse real owners? So they paid with their souls. Therefore, if these remained in power, forgive Russia, goodbye. They would give out for pennies. I understand that you don’t care. But, believe me, it’s not a fact that you would be born. Jews always come out extreme. And the new owners would suit both Russian and non-Russian, not only Babi Yar has been like this in 20 already this year.
            1. voyaka uh
              voyaka uh 7 March 2017 19: 34
              +3
              "if these remained in power, forgive Russia, goodbye. They would hand out for pennies.
              I understand that you don’t care "///

              But in this matter I can’t agree with you ...
              I like the Provisional Government. It’s a pity that they did (inexperience)
              many mistakes and could not hold in their hands fragile democracy. I am not enthusiastic about the last Romanovs (I respect Alexander the Second very much) and frankly do not like the Bolsheviks.
              But among the Cadets, right-wing socialists and Socialist-Revolutionaries there were very smart and decent people.
              1. Silvio
                Silvio 7 March 2017 20: 01
                +4
                I like the Provisional Government. It’s a pity that they did (inexperience)
                many mistakes and could not hold in their hands fragile democracy.



                RI, and then the Union, played in the major league of leaders of geopolitics. And now, with a sweet liberal heart of capitalism, kirdyk came to the third Rome in any way. How can you defend your geopolitical interests with a GDP that is 9 times smaller than the US. Even if they had stayed in 1MB until the victorious end, retribution would have been inevitable. Former allies, coupled with former enemies, would have seized a decrepit grip on a decrepit bear. In the big game, the weak goes to feed, but without theory, we die (and this is true). After 91g. they tried to change color, positioned themselves as part of the Western world. And how it all ended - a new cold war. What nonsense is this liberal policy in the Russian Federation.
              2. avva2012
                avva2012 8 March 2017 06: 14
                +3
                All your respect, both to Alexander the Second, and to the Cadets and the interim government comes from for two reasons. First, emotional, it’s basic, you have a negative attitude towards October, that is, a person of anti-Soviet views. Second, you are not interested in objective information. Or, reject it for the first reason.
  2. Uncle Murzik
    Uncle Murzik 7 March 2017 06: 37
    +1
    A bastard and bastard - start over! The author at least got acquainted with the writings of Lieutenant General, Professor N.N. Golovin, a direct participant!
  3. Olgovich
    Olgovich 7 March 2017 06: 56
    +12
    Thanks to the excellent article, accurate conclusions, interesting details and wonderful photographs to the author.

    1. V.ic
      V.ic 7 March 2017 08: 40
      +2
      Quote: Olgovich
      Thanks to the excellent article, accurate conclusions, interesting details and wonderful photographs to the author.

      ... strange is the absence in your commentary of traditional spells about the Bolsheviks! Ferment sour?
      1. Olgovich
        Olgovich 7 March 2017 09: 59
        +5
        Quote: V.ic
        Sourdough sour?


        Focus on ARTICLEComrade Wick!
        Comments on VO serve just for this.
        1. V.ic
          V.ic 7 March 2017 10: 32
          +3
          Quote: Olgovich
          Focus on the ARTICLE, Comrade Wick!

          Focused, Mr. "Olgovich." An article as an article.
          Quote: Olgovich
          Comments on VO serve precisely for this.

          ... well, yes, "And as one we die in the struggle for this". No, definitely exhausted uzer / Olgovich!
  4. Cartalon
    Cartalon 7 March 2017 08: 23
    +9
    600000 drummers would be quite enough to restore order, if in March the generals could have illusions, then in May it was clear that the army and the country needed to be saved, but they continued to wait for something.
    1. Silvio
      Silvio 7 March 2017 09: 13
      +3
      RI kirdyk came. No Stolypin reforms, let alone liberal innovations, would save this state. To survive, the country was doomed to dictatorship. And then the Bolsheviks saved her.
      1. Cartalon
        Cartalon 7 March 2017 09: 49
        +10
        What kind of kirdyk? The revolution took place during the most difficult and unsuccessful war, the USSR collapsed in the middle of the world, there is a kirdyk and a stupor of control.
        1. V.ic
          V.ic 7 March 2017 10: 45
          +3
          Quote: Cartalon
          The USSR collapsed in the middle of the world, and there is a kirdyk and a stupor of control.

          Philip II of Macedon - Quote. “A donkey loaded with gold will take any fortress.”
          There were a lot of old donkeys in the leadership, and the golden bourgeois did not spare ...
          1. Cartalon
            Cartalon 7 March 2017 12: 07
            +2
            Philip II of Macedon - Quote. “A donkey loaded with gold will take any fortress.”
            There were a lot of old donkeys in the leadership, and the golden bourgeois did not spare ... [/ quote]
            You gentlemen, the Communists, both your revolution, the natural course of history, the change of formations, etc., and how things have come to terms, are sheer traitors, and if you read the local Reds, it wasn’t that the traitors of the USSR managed only from 1937 to 1953 and that’s because traitors were constantly shot.
            1. veteran66
              veteran66 7 March 2017 15: 12
              +2
              Neither add nor subtract good
            2. Alexander Greene
              Alexander Greene 8 March 2017 01: 20
              +2
              Quote: Cartalon
              You have gentlemen, the Communists, how is your revolution, so the natural course of history is the change of formations, etc., and as everything is screwed up, so solid traitors,


              Dear, pay attention to similar kickbacks after bourgeois revolutions. The Great French Revolution of 1789 overthrew the monarchy, then restoration, then the revolutions of 1830 and 1848, again on the throne of Bourbon and only after the Paris Commune in 1870 republican rule was finally established. It took 100 years, similar processes occurred in England and in the Netherlands. The possibility of restoration of capitalism in the USSR was also warned by V.I. Lenin in his work "On the Significance of Gold Now and After the Victory of Socialism." He wrote that more than once we will have to start all over again.
          2. veteran66
            veteran66 7 March 2017 15: 12
            +1
            Quote: V.ic
            There were a lot of old donkeys in the manual

            that's for sure, moreover, they were young donkeys laughing
        2. Silvio
          Silvio 7 March 2017 11: 34
          +4
          The revolution did not come from war, but from capitalism, which in its form is incompatible with the popular mentality. The first half of the Second World War was also not successful, but the factories were exported beyond the Urals and the production of armaments was established. And in the previous war, rifles were sorely lacking. At the same time, their capitalists could not provide anything for any financing. For the construction of one battleship in the military, kickbacks took 40 percent of the price of the boat. And every third peasant is horseless. Covered clearly than this crisp-baked opera.
          1. Cartalon
            Cartalon 7 March 2017 12: 01
            +2
            Who told you about kickbacks? WWII how many people sided with the enemy? In WWI, this was not even close, the USSR in 41 did not collapse due to the idiotic policies of the Germans and the repressive system which at the beginning of the century was simply unthinkable
            1. V.ic
              V.ic 7 March 2017 12: 21
              +3
              Quote: Cartalon
              WWII how many people sided with the enemy?

              Are you talking about ideologically close? It’s clear to Kose that for you Vlasov is nicer than Stalin! It’s now that people like you have become bolder, but the USSR didn’t have an “overkill” 16 years ago, such as you would breathe pionEram about how your grandparents Ilyich helped to carry a log on a clean-up day, and when you were serving military hardships by 5 The Ukrainian front wrote angry articles under the heading "Kill the German"!
              1. Cartalon
                Cartalon 7 March 2017 13: 20
                +1
                Without insults, not one red can lead a discussion
                1. murriou
                  murriou 7 March 2017 15: 23
                  +3
                  show me polite, correct and knowledgeable topic bakers lol

                  You certainly can’t offer yourself laughing
              2. Trapperxnumx
                Trapperxnumx 7 March 2017 15: 57
                +1
                Quote: V.ic
                It’s clear to Kose that for you Vlasov is nicer than Stalin!

                Nowhere did I notice that the citizen of Cartalon Vlasov was nicer than Stalin. Be careful with the labels. Disagreeing about something does not mean agreeing with the enemy, and your methods are a simple demagogic trick to discredit your opponent. It doesn’t color you.
                And about the massive transition to the side of the Germans - so you won’t throw words out of a song. It means it was. Bitter truth, but what to do.
                But at the same time they won the same))))))
                1. Silvio
                  Silvio 7 March 2017 18: 21
                  0
                  Quote: Trapper7
                  But at the same time they won the same))))))

                  It was all, but the main result on the scoreboard, and not the beauty of the game. Who now admires the brilliant victories of the Wehrmacht when the war was lost to them with a devastating result.
                2. Alexander Greene
                  Alexander Greene 8 March 2017 01: 06
                  +2
                  Quote: Trapper7
                  And about the massive transition to the side of the Germans - so you won’t throw words out of a song. It means it was. Bitter truth, but what to do


                  The Great Patriotic War was a continuation of the class struggle. Those who did not accept Soviet power passed to the side of the enemy. With the help of German troops, the anti-Soviet hoped, like the whites on the interventionists in 1918, to destroy the world's first socialist state.
            2. murriou
              murriou 7 March 2017 12: 54
              +3
              Quote: Cartalon
              Who told you about kickbacks?

              There were no kickbacks in tsarist Russia that you, mamaiklanus!

              There were Russian, as it were, battleships, purely by chance, 1,5 times more expensive to build than the English superdreadnoughts, whose combat value was several times greater than that of much more expensive Russian battleships. And with other Russian products about the same - more expensive and worse than in developed countries.

              Purely by chance, defense orders were transferred from state-owned enterprises to private, making similar products longer, more expensive and with poorer quality, or foreign, making fast and high-quality, but even more expensive than private Russians.

              Purely by chance, the Grand Dukes and other senior officials who determined the fate of these orders, the rich, and even the ballerinas generously presented mansions and diamonds.

              The empire’s defense funds melted purely by chance, and the most important issues of preparation for war, to which these funds were released, remained unresolved by 1904 and 1914.

              Purely by chance, the tsarist army and navy shamefully purged the war with small Japan, suffered huge losses and did not win a single significant battle in the entire war.

              Purely by chance, the First World War began with a shameful defeat in the East Prussian operation.

              There are so many accidents and coincidences in our history, yes. laughing
            3. murriou
              murriou 7 March 2017 12: 56
              +3
              Quote: Cartalon
              In WWI, this was not close

              In WWI, for starters, it was considered criminal to violate the rights of prisoners of war, to torture and death for refusing to work for the occupier. Forcing prisoners of war to serve on the side of the enemy seemed completely unthinkable.

              And if then a similar system - the results would be completely different.
              And by the way, is it not so that tsarist Russia in WWI set a world record by a wide margin in the number of prisoners and deserters? lol
              And in the RNE, the number of prisoners from the Russian side was 40 times more than from the Japanese, and extremely high in itself.
              1. Cartalon
                Cartalon 7 March 2017 13: 29
                +2
                Separation from Austria of 200 tons of people with how many times the number there, the mention of the RPE is generally stupid, in your opinion the Port Arthur garrison should have committed suicide in full force.
              2. veteran66
                veteran66 7 March 2017 15: 25
                +1
                Quote: murriou
                And by the way, is it not so that tsarist Russia in WWI set a world record by a wide margin in the number of prisoners and deserters?

                Quote: murriou
                In total, at the end of 1917, 2100000 soldiers and officers of the German bloc were captured (up to 200000 Germans, more than 1800000 Austrians, up to 100000 Turks and Bulgarians) [L. Kamensky, S. Novoselsky. Losses in past wars. M., 1947; Vasilyeva S. N. Prisoners of war in Germany, Austria-Hungary and Russia during the First World War. M., 1999].

                What are the general losses of the captured Russian Army in the years 1914 - 1917? N. N. Golovin, having carefully analyzed the issue, points to the number of 2417000 people [Golovin N. N. Decree. Op. S. 173]. This figure is also recognized by Russian historical science [Stepanov A. I. The Price of the War: Victims and Losses / World Wars of the 1th Century. Prince 2002. The first world war. M .: Nauka, 629. S. XNUMX]

                The difference is only 300 thousand 11-15 %% according to various sources and this is the "mediocre losing" war Russia https://topwar.ru/107453-voennoplennye-kak-poteri
                -i-trofei-na-russkom-fronte-pervoy-mirovoy.html Can we compare the difference in prisoners 41-42?
                1. V.ic
                  V.ic 7 March 2017 16: 03
                  +3
                  Quote: veteran66
                  The difference is only 300

                  ... well, the end is at least one "ripe" for an answer!
            4. Alexey RA
              Alexey RA 7 March 2017 13: 36
              +2
              Quote: Cartalon
              Who told you about kickbacks?

              Apparently out of kindness, the state-owned Nikolaev Admiralty was transferred for 25 years on a free lease with the right to redeem a company, which at the time of the transfer did not even have a Charter. And then the same mysterious company was given an order for 2 new battleships - with advance payment.
              The victory of “Russud” is all the more significant since society at that time neither actually nor legally existed. The charter of the company was approved much later, and the first meeting of shareholders took place only on November 5, 1911. The construction of the plant has not yet begun. “At the time of issuing orders to Russoud, burdocks and grazing cows were growing on the site of the future shipyard,” engineer Prokhorov, head of the technical department of the board of Russud, showed in the Supreme Maritime Investigation Commission. The maritime department could not resolve the question for a long time: who, in fact, to issue an order for the construction of ships. The shipbuilding society does not yet exist, it is somehow inconvenient for private individuals ... Then, waving at the legal details, we decided to write an order for the founders of a future and still non-existent society.

              Moreover, in order to get a firm order for LK, the owners of “Russud” - the International Bank - with the help of the State Duma threw off the Marine Minister Voevodsky, who was objectionable to them, shoved Grigorovich in his place.
              And the story of the choice of the project of the Black Sea LK is generally a song. To develop the project, Russud hired ... engineers of the Shipbuilding Department of the General Directorate of Shipbuilding. The very ones who were technical experts in the competition of LC projects.
              The sight turned out unprecedented, - Filonenko reported in the Commission of Inquiry. - All the premises of the Shipbuilding Department of the Main Directorate of Shipbuilding were turned into a drawing room, “Rusuda.” The design was carried out by the engineers of Korimaldi, Sosnovsky, officially at the Baltic and Admiralty Plants of the Maritime Department, under their leadership all the engineers and draftsmen of the Shipbuilding Department, headed by the ship engineer Berens , Traukhkom and others. The chief of the Shipbuilding Department of the GUK, Major General Pushchin, took part in the project and gave his advice.

              The end is a bit predictable. - experts admitted that Roussud’s project different thoughtfulness, thoroughness of execution and more consistent with the technical requirements currently accepted in the Navy. laughing
          2. Cartalon
            Cartalon 7 March 2017 13: 32
            +1
            Capitalism is what people do if they are left alone, and your experiments always end the same way, dumb grub and so on with every construction of socialism.
            1. Alexander Greene
              Alexander Greene 8 March 2017 01: 42
              +2
              Quote: Cartalon
              Capitalism is what people do if they are left alone, and your experiments always end the same way, dumb grub and so on with every construction of socialism.


              No, dear. Capitalism is the exploitation of man by man. The main indicator of capitalism is the profit for which the bourgeoisie goes for any crime. Pay attention to what the Russian, Ukrainian and other peoples feed and drink - poison, and nobody cares. The population without war has already declined in all the republics by several tens of millions.

              But when we lived under real socialism, the goal of the economy was to satisfy the needs of the population, therefore the socialist economy was oriented toward reducing the cost of production, and as a result: from 1949 to 1954, prices were reduced six times.

              But the enemies of socialism did not like this, and they transferred the Stalinist economy of socialism to capitalist rails, introducing self-financing. The main reference point again was profit. As soon as MTS was sold to collective farms, so immediately began the rise in price of food. Previously, the state through MTS participated in the cultivation of crops and the cost of tractors was not included in the price of agricultural products, and after selling to collective farms, they had to include the price of tractors in the price of milk, and butter, and bread, etc.

              With a little more and with the Stalinist economy, we would have already come to communism. But after the Khrushchev reforms, we had a restoration of capitalism.
          3. Trapperxnumx
            Trapperxnumx 7 March 2017 16: 10
            +1
            Quote: Silvio
            The revolution did not come from war, but from capitalism, which in its form is incompatible with the popular mentality. The first half of the Second World War was also not successful, but the factories were exported beyond the Urals and the production of armaments was established. And in the previous war, rifles were sorely lacking. At the same time, their capitalists could not provide anything for any financing. For the construction of one battleship in the military, kickbacks took 40 percent of the price of the boat. And every third peasant is horseless. Covered clearly than this crisp-baked opera.


            40% say ... nu-nu ...
            I must say that our battleships, of course, were a very expensive pleasure. And moreover, sadly aware of this, but the construction of warships in Russia very often turned out to be more expensive than the leading world powers, such as England and Germany. However, contrary to popular belief, the difference in the cost of ships was not at all times.
            For example, the German battleship "König Albert" cost German taxpayers in 45.761 thousand gold marks (23.880.500 rubles in gold). Russian "Sevastopol" - in 29.400.000 rub.

            And, finally, the last myth - and, perhaps, the most unpleasant of all.
            The project of the Baltic Plant (which later became a project of Sevastopol type battleships) was far from the best one presented for the competition, but was chosen because the commission chairman Academician Krylov was related to the author of the project Bubnov. That helped a relative, so that the plant received a chic order.
            Even comment is disgusting. The point is not even that the Baltic plant was actually state-owned, i.e. He was in state ownership and therefore Bubnov personally did not expect any special gesheft from the “smart order”. The fact is that in the Baltic the Russian Empire had exactly four stocks, on which it was possible to build battleships, and two of them were located right at the Baltic Shipyard. At the same time building new battleships was originally intended in series of four ships. And therefore it doesn’t matter who developed the project and where. If the project were Russian, Italian, French, or even Eskimo, two battleships would be built at the Baltic Shipyard, simply because there was no place to build them anymore. So the plant received its order anyway.
            https://topwar.ru/60675-linkory-tipa-sevastopol-u
            speh-ili-proval-chast-3.html
            1. Silvio
              Silvio 14 March 2017 15: 55
              +1
              Quote: Trapper7
              40% say ... nude-nude ..

              Quote: Trapper7
              For example, the German battleship "König Albert" cost German taxpayers in 45.761 thousand gold marks (23.880.500 rubles in gold). Russian "Sevastopol" - in 29.400.000 rub.


              It is according to your layouts more expensive at a price of 25%, but at the same time Koenig percent for 5 larger displacement. Add to it its economy, long range, better armor protection, other high-quality characteristics and our battleship will become 40% more expensive against German. And where did the money go if earnings at Russian shipyards were many times less than in Germany?
    2. Alexey RA
      Alexey RA 7 March 2017 10: 38
      +3
      Quote: Cartalon
      600000 drummers would be quite enough to restore order, if in March the generals could have illusions, then in May it was clear that the army and the country needed to be saved, but they continued to wait for something.

      You recall the fate of a man who tried in the summer and autumn of 1917 to restore order as he imagined it?
      He had a 100% loyal cavalry corps. So what? But nothing - he was still propagandized on the approaches to Petrograd. Moreover, to suppress the putsch, seemingly irreconcilable opponents were united - the Provisional Government, the Soviets with their Red Guard, and even Vikzhel.
      However, one result of this speech was - following its results, the Provisional Government finally dug up a grave for itself. If a power that considers itself legitimate cannot find the right parts, even in order to withstand a single corps, this raises certain doubts about the capacity of this power. And if this power, in attempts to preserve it, tries to rely on the formally illegal armed formations of its political adversary (the Red Guard), then its days are numbered.
  5. murriou
    murriou 7 March 2017 10: 50
    +2
    At the end of 1917, the Army had 205 infantry and equivalent divisions (69 army and equivalent corps), 48 cavalry divisions and 7 individual brigades (10 cavalry corps), a significant number of technical and special units and formations.
    By the beginning of the February Revolution, the active army numbered about 7,2 million people.

    Taking up a calculator and basic information, we find that even in the pre-war states (infantry division 21 thousand people, infantry corps 48,7 thousand people, cavalry division less than 10 thousand people), there were less than 4 million at the front. , about half (!) of this as if-acting army. And at the same time, the staffing is reduced, and the army has a huge shortage compared to even the staffing, not less than 0,5 million.

    And this same as-acting army was noticeably less than half of the 15,8 million Russian people mobilized in the army at that time.
    Attention, the question is: where did 11-12 million of these almost 16 million go?
    And this is with the “lowest losses of all the belligerent powers”, as the bakers love to lie to us.

    Opposing enemy forces - 133 infantry and 26,5 cavalry divisions

    Those. even in the pre-war states, less than 2,5 million, in the states actually operating since the middle of the war, the Germans switched from a 12-battalion division to a 9-battalion, i.e. the listed forces - up to 2 million, LESS THIRD, in fact - about a quarter of the number of the Russian as if-acting army.
    Comments still needed? laughing
    1. soldier
      soldier 7 March 2017 11: 18
      +18
      Again, distort the uncle.
      If we are talking about February, these are 158 divisions and 5 brigades, 7,2 million people
      And October - 205 divisions, 6 million people.
      Those. in the 1917 campaign, 1,2 million died. Of these, 400 thousand were combat losses, the rest were spontaneous demobilization, deserters.
      In total, 15 million were mobilized to the maximum (almost 2 million of them are internal districts).
      Thus, even if we subtract from the 15 million (Forgetting about the internal districts) 7,2 million people in the Armed Forces by February 1917, we get 7,8 million - this number includes killed, wounded, prisoners of war, commissaries, deserters, etc.
      This is what the calculator gives us
      1. murriou
        murriou 7 March 2017 11: 34
        +3
        Quote: soldier
        In total, 15 million were mobilized to the maximum.

        The figure of 15,8 million - according to Krivosheev. Well, let's say you’re a better specialist in military demography than he, laughing - still the difference is not making the weather.

        Quote: soldier
        we get 7,8 million - this number includes killed, wounded, prisoners, commissaries, deserters

        You distort: ​​I took the difference not only between the number of mobilized and the number of the army, as it were, but also the difference between the number of mobilized and the number of the real army, i.e. located at the front in the specified military formations. And this difference is almost one and a half times greater.

        But even if you take my word for it, all my questions remain valid, and where are the answers? What are your layouts for the final figure by category?
        1. soldier
          soldier 7 March 2017 11: 49
          +20
          So you also believe in the word
          However, of this number, 2,4 million, as we agreed with you, are prisoners (data from the modern scientist-demographer Stepanov and, as you rightly noted, Lieutenant General, Professor N. N. Golovin, a direct participant).
          We will deal with the rest of the numbers together - primarily working in the archives wink
  6. murriou
    murriou 7 March 2017 11: 22
    +2
    Wireless telegraph was used more and more widely - for example, for the correction of artillery fire by airplanes.

    At the same time, despite the scientific work of Popov, according to his technology, Russian radio stations in Russia produced very little, less than 1 / 3-1 / 4 of the available staff. The main part of the “Russian” radio stations was bought in developed countries and made, of course, using Marconi’s technology and patents.

    Organizational and quantitatively increased aviation forces.
    So, in the Summer Offensive, the operations of the Southwestern Front were supported by 38 different squadrons (226 aircraft)

    Of these, Russian-built aircraft, the notorious Muromets, comprised up to 30 units in the squadron and up to a dozen at the front. Their small-scale production barely had time to make up for losses. There was also a small number of "Russian" fighters designed by the Italian Mosca.

    The main part of the "Russian" aircraft wore brands "Moran-Parasol", "Newpor", "Voisin", "Sopvich
    "and" Farman. "There were still years. boats of Grigorovich, but they acted chiefly at sea.

    Russian advanced industry made engines for "Russian" airplanes 2+ times less than airplanes; during the whole war, up to 3,5 thousand engines (almost completely foreign construction) were made for 1,4 thousand airplanes (mainly of foreign design) . The remaining demand was covered from foreign supplies.

    By the middle of 1917, the troops of the current army had 13 armored units (300 armored vehicles) - a fairly solid armored fleet for those times.

    Russian-made in them was, as a rule, only armor. The most massive “Russian” armored car, about 100 units, was the “Austin-Putilovets” with Putilov armor in the English chassis and with the same English usually machine guns.

    The shock units were to not only act on the cutting edge, but also become a stronghold of duty and carriers of high morale.

    There was even the famous female “Battalion”, from which 170 people reached the front — 2/3 of the company. 8 women had combat experience in it, including a commander in a non-commissioned (!) Rank.
    The rest received 3-month training in haste, and they did not become fighters from this: at graduation firing the volunteers showed enchanting results. The targets were hardly affected, but the horse was killed by accidental hits on the edge of the training ground and glass was broken in a train passing in the distance, fortunately without casualties.

    It is not surprising that in the first month of fighting, the “battalion” suffered huge losses - 30 killed, 70 wounded, and this was the end of his combat biography along with the main part of the personnel, and it was again strictly forbidden to take women and women's units to the front.

    The calculation of the moral effect did not work enough, for the sake of which the untrained women were sent to slaughter.
    Although the reports and newspaper articles attributed to the “battalion” the results of the entire regiment awarded this “honor”, ​​the soldiers were not eager to imitate the mythical heroines.
  7. murriou
    murriou 7 March 2017 11: 26
    +1
    Desertion intensified.
    If in August 1914 - February 1917 the total number of deserters was 195000 people (i.e. an average of 6300 people per month), then in March - August 1917 the number of deserters increased on average 5 times (and from June 15 to July 1 - 6 times)

    Krivosheev gives figures an order of magnitude higher: 1,87 million in total for the war.
    But even the modest numbers mentioned here are record-breaking in comparison with other warring powers.
  8. Silvio
    Silvio 7 March 2017 13: 48
    +3
    Quote: murriou
    In WWI, for starters, it was considered criminal to violate the rights of prisoners of war, to torture and death for refusing to work for the occupier.

    What are you talking about? Railways were built in Russia during WWI at the expense of prisoners of war and only for grub. And the opportunity to die in a prisoner of war camp was always provided. Straight sanatorium described behind barbed wire. Have you heard anything about mortality of prisoners of war in the first war? There, even without executions, it is easy to give horses in our climate and grubs, and in their conditions it is similar. God sends people war, so that they do not forget its horrors.
    1. V.ic
      V.ic 7 March 2017 16: 09
      +1
      Quote: Silvio
      Railways were built in Russia during WWI at the expense of prisoners of war and only for grub.

      Sorry, the Sinians and the Central Asians were also prisoners of war? And they worked only for grub? Did they pay for the construction?
      1. Silvio
        Silvio 7 March 2017 18: 16
        +1
        And I said that only prisoners of war were building roads? I meant the Murmansk, Orsk railway and others. There was no resort and the mortality in the camps was decent. After going through these trials, Czechoslovakians from the legion were not at all going to return there and raised a rebellion.
        1. V.ic
          V.ic 7 March 2017 20: 14
          +1
          Quote: Silvio
          And I said that only prisoners of war were building roads?

          ... below are not your words?
          Quote: Silvio
          Railways were built in Russia during WWI at the expense of prisoners of war and only for grub.

          At the expense of = in Russian = at whose expense = do you speak Russian or use?
          Quote: Silvio
          After going through these trials, Czechoslovakians from the legion were not at all going to return there and raised a rebellion.

          ... well, again ... communist propaganda ... here a certain "Olgovich & Cartalon" explained to us earlier the rebellion of the White Czechs by an attempt to disarm them by the Reds, but it turns out to be ... the rejection of the scrap and the shovel-tie-hammering of the reasons for the rebellion of the Czechs!
  9. Silvio
    Silvio 7 March 2017 13: 51
    +2
    Quote: murriou
    In WWI, for starters, it was considered criminal to violate the rights of prisoners of war, to torture and death for refusing to work for the occupier.

    What are you talking about? Railways were built in Russia during WWI at the expense of prisoners of war and only for grub. And the opportunity to die in a prisoner of war camp was always provided. Straight sanatorium described behind barbed wire. Have you heard anything about mortality of prisoners of war in the first war? There, even without executions, it is easy to give horses in our climate and grubs, and in their conditions it is similar. God sends people war, so that they do not forget its horrors.
    1. V.ic
      V.ic 7 March 2017 16: 15
      +1
      Quote: Silvio
      It’s easy to give horses there without executions on our climate and grubs

      ... "horses" is, of course, a lawyer ... only dissertations are defended in our climate ... What's in the minds, what's on the tongue!
      1. Silvio
        Silvio 7 March 2017 18: 08
        0
        Are you practicing a stylistic editor of opuses? Horses move, give ends. So arrange? And the "spit" on the rights of prisoners of war. In fact, what's wrong?
        1. V.ic
          V.ic 7 March 2017 20: 21
          +2
          Quote: Silvio
          The horses are moving

          ... and the young horse-drawn carriage is carried with a broken head. Learn Russian, child EG! At least in the search engine they filled the phrase you are interested in ... Nothing more ... less too ... but the elephant is still thicker!
          1. Silvio
            Silvio 8 March 2017 08: 21
            +3
            Quote: V.ic
            Learn Russian, child EG!

            Well this is not an academic Russian language, this is slang. It does not pass in your academies. Learn for yourself the diversity of forms of expression, and do not exercise in boring, our right.
            1. V.ic
              V.ic 8 March 2017 09: 00
              0
              Quote: Silvio
              Learn for yourself the diversity of forms of expression

              If it’s slang, then turn on the brain: it’s not the horses that moved, but the CENTURY moved, and the legs grow and the expressions “threw the skates away”.
              1. Silvio
                Silvio 8 March 2017 10: 14
                0
                Well, nobody moved the horse. If all wise men would be as literate as boring.