Ka-22 - an outstanding record of Soviet aviators

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At the end of 1961, the Soviet konvertoplan Ka-22 set a capacity record during a test flight. This final departure was preceded by a series of flight tests, during which records were set for lifting loads to a height of more than 2000 meters with a weight of cargo from 1 to 15 tons. The climax was the fact of lifting the load in 16,485 tons to the ceiling height, up to 2557 meters. Since then, half a century has passed, and the record remains unsurpassed.

Ka-22 - an outstanding record of Soviet aviators


Western developments

40-50-ies of the XX century were the era of dominance convertoplanes. These aircraft flew off like helicopters, after which the motor was converted in a horizontal plane, and then the car flew like an airplane. The lifting force during the flight was achieved using an aircraft wing. Fairey's English Rotodyne was a favorite of all the world's air shows.



"Rotodine" though it was in the class of convertible planes, but its screws did not change positions. He had a helicopter rotor, and two engines with pulling screws were on the wings. This type of construction is called a rotorcraft. In January, 1959, Rotodyne set a world record for flying on a closed 100-meter loop in a new subspecies E.2 for convertiplanes, showing a speed of 307,2 km / h, which is 80 km / h more than the average for turntables. But the record did not last long. In 1961, the helicopter Ka-22 (USSR) produced a direct flight speed 356,3 km / h.

History create convertoplane KA-22

During the period of intensification of tension between the capitalist and socialist camps, our aircraft designers were given the task of developing such a cargo helicopter that could deliver a ballistic missile of operational tactical range to an area with difficult terrain and at high speed. Mil Design Bureau took up the design of the Mi-6 on a single-end with a tail rotor, and in the Kamov Design Bureau solved the problem of the convertible plane Ka-22 with two rotors on the wings of the wings. For the "base" decided to use the fuselage of the aircraft Li-2. The prototype exceeded the English Rotodyne in linear dimensions.

In the Ka-22 transmission, a rather complicated scheme was used to transfer the torque from one engine to different screws. This motor, rotating aircraft pulling screws by means of a gearbox, transmitted the torque to the supporting helicopter propellers. The pilot could independently switch engine power to the pulling screw, thereby simplifying the angle of attack and unloading the main rotor. The tail ailerons of the aircraft control variant also took part in the rotor wing control.



The Ka-22 convertible was generally very difficult to pilot. Pilots managed to figure out the rotor wing for a very long time, as a result of which the tests took so long.

At the same time, the designer himself experienced tremendous pressure from officials and apparatchik of the CPSU Central Committee. But, unfortunately, not everything worked out. During dynamic tests, the original designs, circuits, circuits were revised, the gearbox was changed, at the end of the reporting period they even changed the direction of rotation of the screws.

flight tests

Finally, by the beginning of 1961, all the main problems had been solved, but many small, unsolved problems remained. In April of this year, the first flight was made. Immediately, the failure - the detachment of a part of the blade on one of the wings, and the car, without flying over even half of the test circle, was forced to land. Again, the finalization of the product, and by the middle of summer - test flight.

At present, it’s nonsense to go on breaking a record on an unfinished car; many would consider this a direct recklessness, and then the pilots agreed. The protocol was observed, sports commissioners were invited, flights were conducted under the auspices of the FAI, special equipment was shot according to the rules of the International aviation federation. In the end, on October 12, 1961, a record result was recorded: the average speed on the route was 336, 76 km / h.

Setting a record

But that was not all. The designer was directly told by the industry leadership about the need to set a record for lifting the load to the maximum height. In the conditions of the most severe shortage of time, extremely bad weather and unsatisfactory flight situation in the area of ​​the Lyubertsy airfield, the crew still managed to gain a record height with more than 16 tons of cargo. International Aviation Federation confirmed this record.



Tragic fate

But on the history of this rotorcraft, obviously, there was a black seal of fate. Of the four crews that were involved in test flights of this machine, only one survived - the very first one, which was subsequently removed from flights for unknown reasons. The other two crews also crashed during flight tests of the Ka-22 convertoplane. The fate of fate was also expected, and the crew, which set all imaginable and inconceivable records on this rotorcraft.

A year after the record flights, the aircraft commander Dmitry Efremov crashed during the Ka-22 flight from Tashkent. During landing, the helicopter rotor lost control and fell to the ground due to a cable break. Literally before this departure, the flight mechanic E. Filatov was transferred to the crew of the famous test pilot Yuri Garnayev, who was also engaged in testing the convertoplane. The last to crash was his Ka-22, which crashed, going "into a tailspin." The pilot himself and two crew members managed to escape, they landed, and two pilots crashed.

The biography of the Ka-22 is over. This trend in the development of rotary-winged vehicles around the world did not receive further development. The state commission recommended adopting the Mi-6 helicopter.

A few words about the device XV-22 Osprey

We must pay tribute to the Americans - they are armed with the US Marine Corps is a rotor V-22 Osprey. The Yankees attempted to surpass the achievement of the KA-22, but it also ended tragically, and the crew as part of the 4 pilots crashed. But the United States continued to test and faced with extremely complex aerodynamics, they had to overcome the “wing sticking effect”, turbulence, and many other emergencies.
Unknown aircraft

Now everyone knows how the plane looks. Wing. Fuselage. Chassis. In appearance, you can also determine which class the aircraft belongs to. And there were cars that, being advanced in many respects, remained in single copies. The film tells about the little-known general public aircraft. They are not so widely known, although their contribution to progress aviation huge. These include Mozhaisky’s aircraft, the Bi missile fighter, the Ka-22 rotary wing, the Turbolet flying stand, the first Soviet Yak-36 vertical take-off aircraft and others. Three-dimensional computer graphics, rare newsreels, interviews with historians and experts in the field of aviation - all this in the film "Unknown Aircraft"!

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7 comments
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  1. 755962
    +5
    8 February 2012 14: 00
    The designer was directly told by industry leaders about the need to set a record for lifting cargo to the maximum height.
    A lot of losses were due to the so-called command and command policy of that time. Then, by the time of the holiday or the anniversary of the revolution, launch a rocket, then set a record with flaws, then surpass it at all costs. As a result, they paid with human lives.
    1. +2
      9 February 2012 06: 21
      And according to what policy did the Yankees lose pilots?. The article indicates this.
  2. Strabo
    +2
    8 February 2012 20: 48
    The technique is impressive. But every technique of this kind is tested by blood. The courage of the testers can only be surprised.
    Currently, to break the record on an unfinished car is nonsense, many would consider this a direct recklessness, and then the pilots agreed. Real heroes.
  3. mox
    mox
    +1
    8 February 2012 22: 37
    But on the history of this rotorcraft, obviously, there was a black seal of fate. Of the four crews that were involved in test flights of this machine, only one survived - the very first one, which was subsequently removed from flights for unknown reasons. The other two crews also crashed during flight tests of the Ka-22 convertoplane. The fate of fate was also expected, and the crew, which set all imaginable and inconceivable records on this rotorcraft.

    that is, in simple words: a powerful technique, but technically raw and unreliable.
  4. suharev-52
    +1
    8 February 2012 22: 53
    Yes, there were a lot of ideas in the USSR. And it was the heroism of the test pilots that gave our country records. But ... "Marked" came and the USSR did not become. And this Gan ... well, was given a high order from the current leadership. Yes !!!! And now we, nosebleed, need to build up our defense potential. And there is almost no time left. The world evil is getting closer and closer to our borders.
  5. Hunt
    0
    9 February 2012 01: 14
    The pale shadow of the article "Ka-22 showed who is faster and stronger" in NVO.
    http://nvo.ng.ru/armament/2012-02-03/8_ka22.html
    And was it really difficult to write that the pilots, unlike their superiors, were never awarded? And now they are footballing in the award department.
  6. valery dv
    0
    9 February 2012 21: 46
    Really Russian made a wonderful spacecraft

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