Military Review

On the "golden age" of Catherine II

On the "golden age" of Catherine II 220 years ago, on November 17, 1796, the Russian Empress Catherine II Alekseevna passed away. The foreign policy of Russia in the era of Catherine met national interests. Russia returned the West Russian lands, which for a long time were under Poland (including modern White Russia and part of Lesser Russia - Ukraine). Also, the ancient lands in the Black Sea region (the annexation of New Russia, Crimea, and partly the Caucasus) were returned to the Russian state. The Black Sea again became, as in antiquity, Russian. The Black Sea Fleet was created, which inflicted a number of heavy defeats on the Turkish the fleet. The Russian army successfully defeated all opponents. Therefore, this era is called the "golden age" of Catherine the Great.

However, the Catherine's era was marked by the maximum enslavement of the peasants and the comprehensive expansion of the privileges of the nobility. What finally split the Russian people into two parts: the privileged "Europeans" - the nobles, whose cultural and economic interests were linked to Western Europe and the rest of the people, most of whom were enslaved. As a result, this was the main cause of the geopolitical catastrophe of the year 1917, when the Romanov empire died.

Ekaterina II Alekseevna, nee Sophia Frederick Augustus of Anhalt-Zerbst, was born on April 21 (May 2) 1729, in the small town of Stettin in East Prussia in an impoverished princely family. Since childhood, she has been distinguished by curiosity, ability to learn, perseverance. In 1743, the Russian Empress Elizaveta Petrovna, selecting a bride for her heir, Grand Duke Peter Fedorovich (the future Russian emperor Peter III), made a choice in favor of Frederica. In 1744, she came to Russia to marry Peter Fedorovich, who was her second cousin (the mother of the future Russian empress, Johann Elizabeth from the Gottorp sovereign house, had a cousin Peter III). 28 June (9 July) 1744 of the year Sofia Frederick Augustus moved from Lutheranism to Orthodoxy and received the name of Ekaterina Alekseevna, and the next day she was engaged to the future emperor. The mother of the future empress turned out to be a “Prussian spy”, and she was expelled, but this did not affect the position of Sofia herself.

21 August (1 September) 1745, at the age of sixteen, Catherine was married to Peter Fedorovich. The relationship between the royal couple did not exist. Peter was cold to his wife, called his wife “a spare madam” and openly made mistresses. This was one of the reasons for the emergence of favorite lovers among Catherine. Catherine devoted much time to self-education, she studied Russia, her history, language, tradition. The young queen also did not forget about the dances, balls, hunting and riding. 20 September (1 October) 1754, Catherine gave birth to a son Pavel. The baby was immediately taken away from the mother by the will of the reigning Empress Elizaveta Petrovna, and deprived Catherine of the opportunity to educate her, allowing only occasionally to see Paul. It is believed that the true father of Paul was the lover of Catherine S. V. Saltykov. In general, in the future, normal relations between Catherine and Pavel did not develop. Pavel believed that the mother was guilty of the death of the official father, Peter. In addition, he was annoyed by the too free atmosphere of the Catherine Palace, he himself lived almost as an ascetic, given his position.

Catherine did not like her position, and she began to create her own “circle”. So, the close friend and confidant of Catherine was the British ambassador Williams. He repeatedly provided her with significant amounts in the form of loans or subsidies: only in 1750 was 50 thousand rubles transferred to her, and in November 1756 thousand rubles were transferred to her 44. In exchange, he received various confidential information from her. In particular, about the Russian army in Prussia. This information was transmitted to London, as well as to Berlin by the Prussian king Frederick II (he was an ally of the British). After Williams left, she received money from his successor, Keith. In one of her letters to Williams, Catherine promised as a token of gratitude “to lead Russia to a friendly alliance with England, to provide her everywhere with assistance and preference necessary for the good of all of Europe and especially Russia, before their common enemy, France, whose greatness is a disgrace for Russia. I will learn how to practice these feelings, justify my fame on them and prove to the king, your sovereign, the strength of these my feelings. ” True, the empress Catherine was not an "English agent." In fact, this smart woman used the British to their advantage.

The British were aware of the plans of Catherine to overthrow the future emperor (her husband) through a conspiracy, which Williams repeatedly wrote about. Beginning with 1756, and especially during the period of Elizaveta Petrovna’s illness, Catherine was carrying out a plan to remove the future emperor from the throne. Thus, the British actually financed one of the palace coups. The British money went to the support of Catherine, who created her own shock detachment, which included officers of the guard.

Among the conspirators were the hetman of the Zaporozhian Troops, K. Razumovsky, who was the commander of the Izmailovsky Regiment, Chancellor A. P. Bestuzhev-Ryumin, and the protégé of the British Ambassador Stanislav Ponyatovsky (he was Ekaterina's favorite). At the beginning of 1758, Empress Elizaveta Petrovna suspected the Russian Army commander Stepan Apraksin of treason, with whom Catherine was on friendly terms. Apraksin, fearing a radical change in Petersburg’s policies regarding Prussia in the event of Elizabeth’s death (Peter was a “fan” of Frederick’s “Invincible”), acted slowly and indecisively, depriving the Russian army of the fruits of victory over the Prussians. Also under suspicion was Chancellor Bestuzhev. Both were arrested, subjected to inquiry, but Bestuzhev managed to destroy all his correspondence with Catherine before her arrest, which saved her from prosecution. Bestuzhev himself was sent into exile, and Apraksin died during the inquest. At the same time, Ambassador Williams was recalled to England. Thus, the previous favorites of Catherine were removed, but a circle of new ones began to form: Grigory Orlov and Ekaterina Dashkova.

The death of Elizabeth Petrovna in December 1761 and the ascension to the throne of Peter Fedorovich further estranged the spouses. Peter III began to live openly with his mistress Elizaveta Vorontsova. And Catherine became the lover of Captain G. Orlov. Catherine became pregnant by Orlov, and this could no longer be explained by the accidental conception of her husband, since the communication of the spouses ceased by that time. Catherine hid her pregnancy, and when it came time to give birth, her faithful valet Vasily Shkurin set fire to his house. Peter and the court left the palace to look at the spectacle, at this time Catherine safely gave birth. So Alexey Bobrinsky was born, to whom his brother Pavel I subsequently appropriated the title of count.

Entering the throne, Peter III set up a metropolitan officers against himself. He decided to fight with Denmark for Schleswig-Holstein and made peace with Prussia, giving up the already captured Konigsberg and Berlin (almost all of Prussia could become part of the Russian Empire!). As a result of the mood of the guard, skillfully heated agents of Catherine, were on the side of the queen. Apparently, there has not been without foreign participation. The British continued to sponsor Catherine. 28 June (9 July) 1762, Ekaterina, with the support of the Orlov brothers, raised a mutiny. Peter III the next day abdicated the throne, was taken into custody and died in dark circumstances (he was killed). Thus, Catherine became the ruler of the Russian Empire.

The time of her rule is called the “golden age” of Russia. Culturally, Russia finally became one of the great European powers, to which the empress herself, who was fond of literary activities, collected masterpieces of painting and corresponded with French enlighteners, contributed a lot. In general, the policy of Catherine and her reforms fit into the mainstream of enlightened absolutism of the XVIII century.

Catherine II carried out a number of reforms: reorganized the Senate, announced the secularization of church lands, abolished hetmanship in Ukraine. She established and led the Commission on 1767-1769 for the systematization of laws. The Empress issued an Institution to manage the province in 1775, the Letter to the nobility and the Letter to the cities in the year 1785.

In foreign policy, Catherine's actions almost completely met the interests of the Russian people. First of all, in the south, the Russian Empire returned the lands that belonged to the Old Russian power of the first Rurikovichs and annexed new territories, which met the country's military-strategic and economic interests, and the restoration of historical justice. After the first war with Turkey, Russia acquired in 1774 year important points in the mouths of the Dnieper, the Don and the Kerch Strait (Kinburn, Azov, Kerch, Enikale). The Crimean Khanate formally gained independence under the protectorate of Russia. In 1783, the Crimea, Taman, and Kuban Oblast join. The second war with Turkey ends with the acquisition of the coastal strip between the Southern Bug and the Dniester (1791), including the strategic fortress of Ochakov. In the course of these wars, Russia is creating an efficient Black Sea fleet, which is smashing the Turkish naval forces. New Russia, one of the most developed parts of the empire, is being actively created.

Thus, the strategic tasks that had been confronting the Russian state for centuries were solved. Russia again went to the Black Sea, annexed the Northern Black Sea region, strengthened in the Caucasus, solved the problem of the Crimean Khanate, built a navy, etc.

It is also worth noting that Catherine's government was on the verge of capturing Constantinople-Constantinople and the Bosphorus and Dardanelles. The Black Sea Fleet under the command of F. F. Ushakov and the Russian troops were ready to fulfill the strategic task, but it didn’t work out (they had to solve Polish affairs). And such a step was made by the Black Sea - by the internal Russian, reliably defended the southern borders, giving Russia a powerful supporting bridgehead in the Mediterranean and the Middle East.

Second, the in the western strategic direction, the government of Catherine also solved the centuries-old task that stood before the Russian people. Catherine united most of the Russian civilization and the Russian superethnos, returning the lands of Western Russia. This happened during the division of the Commonwealth.

Initially, Catherine II was not going to dismember the Commonwealth. Weakened by internal problems Poland since the time of Peter was in the sphere of influence of St. Petersburg. Russia needed a buffer between our lands and Prussia and Austria. However, the decay of the Polish "elite" reached a stage when the collapse of the Commonwealth became irreversible. The arrogant and decayed Polish gentry itself killed its statehood. In 1772, the first section of the Commonwealth took place: Russia received the eastern part of White Russia to Minsk (Vitebsk and Mogilyov provinces) and part of the Baltic states (Latvia). In 1793, the second section of the Commonwealth took place: Russia received Central Belarus with Minsk and a part of Little Russia-Russia. In 1795, the Third Section of the Commonwealth took place: Russia received Lithuania, Courland, western Volyn and Western Belarus.

In this way, Historical justice was restored: most of the lands of Russia and the Russian super-ethnos were united. By significantly pushing the borders to the west, Russia has strengthened its military-strategic positions in this area, has increased its demographic potential and economic capabilities. There was also a historic revenge - Poland, which for centuries was the main enemy of the Russian state, was "rammed" in the hands of the masters of the West. At the same time, ethnic Polish lands were in the hands of Prussia and Austria, becoming their problem.

In the same period, Russia is fixed in the Caucasus. In 1783, Russia and Georgia signed the St. George Treaty, establishing a Russian protectorate over the kingdom of Kartli-Kakheti in exchange for Russia's military defense. In 1795, Persian troops invaded Georgia and ravaged Tbilisi. Russia, fulfilling the terms of the treatise, began fighting against Persia, and in April 1796, Russian troops stormed Derbent and suppressed the resistance of the Persians on the territory of modern Azerbaijan, including the major cities (Baku, Shemakha, Ganja). The Russian corps under the command of Lieutenant-General V. Zubov reached the confluence area of ​​the Kura and Araks rivers, preparing for further advance into the interior of Persia. In fact, Persia was already at the feet of Russia. The Russian empire had the opportunity to gain a foothold in these lands and get a strategic springboard for the march on Constantinople from the west through Asia Minor. However, the fruits of these victories stole the death of Catherine Alekseevny. Pavel I decided to oppose revolutionary France, and in December 1796, the Russian troops were withdrawn from the Transcaucasus. However, the consolidation of Russia in the region has already become inevitable. Persia and Turkey step by step yielded the Caucasus to the Russians.

In the north-west, Russia withstood the attack of Sweden, which tried to take revenge and regain part of the previously lost territory, taking advantage of the fact that the main forces of the empire were tied with the Ottomans.

In 1764, relations between Russia and Prussia normalized and a union treaty was concluded between the countries. This treaty served as the basis for the formation of the Northern system - the union of Russia, Prussia, England, Sweden, Denmark and the Commonwealth against France and Austria. Russian-Prussian-English cooperation continued. In October, 1782 was signed the Treaty of Friendship and Trade with Denmark.

In the third quarter of the XVIII century. there was a struggle of the North American colonies for independence from England. In 1780, the Russian government adopted the “Declaration of Armed Neutrality”, supported by the majority of European countries (ships of neutral countries had the right of armed defense when attacking a fleet of a belligerent country). Thus, the government of Catherine, in fact, supported the States against the British.

After the French Revolution, Catherine was one of the initiators of the anti-French coalition and the establishment of the principle of legitimacy. She said: “The weakening of monarchical power in France endangers all other monarchies. For my part, I am ready to resist by all means. It's time to act and tackle weapon". However, in reality, she was in no hurry to send the Russian army against revolutionary France. Russia was favored by the leading Western European powers (France, Austria, Prussia and England), at this time Russia could solve national problems. In particular, Catherine was occupied by the so-called. The Greek or Dacian project - on the section of the Ottoman Empire, the revival of the Byzantine Empire and the proclamation of the grandson of Catherine the Great Prince Konstantin Pavlovich as emperor. At the same time Russia received Constantinople and the straits.

If in the foreign policy of Catherine the government solved the most important tasks that the Russian state faced for many centuries, then in the internal policy there was no “golden” splendor. In fact, the era of Catherine II was marked by the maximum enslavement of the peasants and the comprehensive expansion of the privileges of the nobility.

The nobility received the opportunity to refuse the sovereign service, for which it had previously received estates and peasants. Thus, the division of the Russian people into a class of gentlemen- "Europeans", and simple people was fixed. This division began under Peter the Great, but he spent the merciless mobilization of the nobility. When he served, he served as soldiers and sailors, fought in the front ranks, stormed fortresses, mastered the marine business, went on long trips and expeditions.

Now the situation has changed radically. For the first time in a very long historical period, Russia had no enemies on its borders that could really threaten its existence. The last fragment of the Horde - Crimean Khanate, eliminated. Sweden was defeated, the Baltic States were annexed. Swedes are no longer able to seriously threaten St. Petersburg. Moreover, Russia itself can repel Finland, which ultimately happened. Poland in decline and distemper, which ended with its sections. A comparatively small kingdom of Prussia, dreams of some seizures in Germany, and not a march to the East. The Prussians cannot even dream of a raid on Russia, on the attack of Moscow or St. Petersburg. During the Seven Years' War, East Prussia and Königsberg were part of Russia for four years and did not become part of the empire only because of the controversial policy of St. Petersburg. Ideally, Berlin needs an alliance with the Russians.

Austria also needs the support of Russia against the Ottoman Empire, Prussia and France. France is far away, it cannot attack us. England can only threaten the sea. At the same time, in the isolated Baltic and Black Seas, we are able to create a local advantage, relying on the coastal infrastructure. The Ottoman Empire entered a period of prolonged degradation and itself trembled under the blows of Russian bayonets. There was a threat of partition of Turkey, in favor of Russia. In the East, Russia had no opponents at all. We actively mastered Russian America, had the opportunity to take a leading position in Japan and China.

For the first time in a very long time, Russia could weaken the mobilization regime in which the military estate fought, and the peasant men worked, providing soldiers with everything they needed. Thus, the nobleman lost his justification for his rule, turning ever more quickly into a parasite on the neck of the people. Warriors ascetics like Ushakov, Suvorov, Nakhimov became the exception to the rule rather than a common occurrence. The rest of the nobles, even those who served in the army and navy, were landowners in their psychology, and the soldiers and sailors were serfs for them.

The service of the nobles became voluntary, and serfdom not only remained, but also increased. Landowners, nobles from the point of view of a simple peasant turned into parasites. Although, it would be logical that after the Letters' Letter granted to the nobility the Letters Lettered Letters should be followed by the peasantry. The Russian people responded to this universal injustice with the peasant war of E. Pugachev. Troubles were able to suppress, but the reason remained. As a result, this was the main cause of the geopolitical catastrophe of the year 1917, when the Romanov empire died.

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  1. Bureaucrat
    Bureaucrat 17 November 2016 06: 26
    It should be noted that Catherine was very serious about things like the information war. Therefore, despite all the contradictions, it remains GREAT!
    1. Sagittarius2
      Sagittarius2 17 November 2016 08: 57
      In general, the Germans on the Russian throne is disgusting.
      1. Sergey S.
        Sergey S. 17 November 2016 09: 24
        Somehow off topic.
        And very controversial.
        In those days, there were no passports indicating nationality.
        And they asked differently.

        They asked about faith.
        And if recognized as Orthodox, then this was ours. that is, Russian, man.
        So on business, Catherine the Great is more Russian than some purebred ...
        1. Sagittarius2
          Sagittarius2 17 November 2016 09: 34
          there were no passports, but there were no nationalities for a long time, but this is expressed - nationality is a foreign language, E2 always spoke poorly - this "Russian" and culture, and this is when there are no Russians around, they live their own way and do not like everything Russian , well, like refugees in Europe now.
          1. Zmicerz
            Zmicerz 18 November 2016 11: 54
            nationality is a foreign language

            In this case, Catherine II was a Frenchwoman on the grounds that she was fluent in French, knew and loved French literature, and also corresponded with Voltaire and Didro.)
            1. Alexander Romanov
              Alexander Romanov 18 November 2016 12: 01
              Quote: Zmicerz
              In that case, Catherine II was a Frenchwoman on the grounds that she was fluent in French

              Then Putin is German wassat
        2. rjxtufh
          rjxtufh 18 November 2016 01: 20
          Quote: Sergey S.
          So on business, Catherine the Great is more Russian than some purebred ...

          Yes Yes. I remember one more "more Russian", only Georgian. And also, according to the "witnesses of socialism," great.
          These "witnesses" are strange. Whoever of the kings destroyed more than his compatriots is, in their opinion, the greatest.
          And those who somehow thought about these compatriots and did something for them are mostly "shameful fuckers."
          Having talked to such people, the wisest old woman Shapoklyak made her ingenious conclusion: "He who helps people is wasting his time. One cannot become famous for good deeds."
    2. Uncle Murzik
      Uncle Murzik 18 November 2016 16: 11
      Catherine the wise ruler was able to select the cadres of military leaders, managers, and it doesn’t matter in what way if only for the good of Russia! hi
    3. ava09
      ava09 18 November 2016 16: 52
      Who is she "Great" for? For those who also have "Peter the Great"?
      (c) In fact, the era of Catherine II was marked by the maximum enslavement of the peasants and the comprehensive expansion of the privileges of the nobility. (c)
      Shyness, if not to say shyness, the author of the material does not occupy ... Legalized slavery (serfdom) he modestly called it "enslavement", well at least "maximum" ...)
  2. parusnik
    parusnik 17 November 2016 06: 53
    She said: “The weakening of monarchical power in France endangers all other monarchies. For my part, I am ready to resist with all my might. It's time to act and take up arms ”
    ... She said the following: "Cannons do not fight with ideas" .. She acted in the interests of the class that elevated her to the throne .. I would go against .. I would not rule for a long time ...
    1. siberalt
      siberalt 17 November 2016 09: 04
      You might think that Catherine encore herself came up with everything. laughing Even her German, irrepressible lust is canonized. Something like - "suddenly appeared out of nowhere ..." you know what. But this does not happen in life.
      1. parusnik
        parusnik 17 November 2016 10: 01
        Catherine bis, she invented everything herself
        ..I was not stupid and didn’t surround herself with fools .. well, but in the process of work ... sometimes nothing human is alien ... wink
        By the way, son Pavel tried, with ease, to limit the rights of the nobility .. did not rule for a long time, he was killed ..
    2. Retvizan
      Retvizan 18 November 2016 00: 34
      Quote: parusnik
      I would go against it .. I wouldn’t rule for a long time ..

      Well, she played once - when they were on strike in the Urals, she gave hope to the workers by her decree, and then, correcting the mistake, and under pressure from the factory owners, sent Vyazemsky against the workers with the army .. and there was blood .. and she turned to them in the highest ass. ..
  3. captain
    captain 17 November 2016 07: 05
    She was a great woman; she did so much for our state that not all our kings and sovereign sovereigns for their countries put together made.
    1. Aleksander
      Aleksander 17 November 2016 11: 04
      Quote: captain
      Great was a woman did so much for our state

      Yes, she attached and created Novorossiysk, Russia, Odessa, Nikolaev and Sevastopol. Honor and glory to her!

      But national traitors (in the words of Putin) came to the Russian civilization (in the words of Samsonov) and gave away these primordially Russian lands to the never-existed state of the so-called. "Ukraine", created by them. Ruined all the achievements of the Russian people for 140 years.
      1. The comment was deleted.
      2. Retvizan
        Retvizan 18 November 2016 00: 35
        Quote: Aleksander
        But national traitors came (as Putin put it)

        those who planted the bomb? smile
      3. Uncle Murzik
        Uncle Murzik 18 November 2016 15: 54
        that’s for sure, Nicholas the second came and all went nuts! lol
  4. Cartalon
    Cartalon 17 November 2016 07: 16
    Comrade Samsonov, in the place of Catherine, everything would be much better done and Orthodox communism would be built in our country in a single empire
  5. V.ic
    V.ic 17 November 2016 07: 23
    Great, great, great ...
    Ivan Barkov. GRIGORY ORLOV
    -4 /
  6. avaks111
    avaks111 17 November 2016 07: 36
    not 1976, but 1796
  7. tundra
    tundra 17 November 2016 07: 46
    this became the main prerequisite for the geopolitical catastrophe of 1917,
    The last fragment of the Horde - the Crimean Khanate, was eliminated. Sweden was defeated, the Baltic states were annexed. The Swedes are no longer able to seriously threaten St. Petersburg.
    The controversial figure, of course, imagine how many copies will be broken today, in the comments.
    Well, for me, she is much more Russian than many others, well, for example, ardent Bolsheviks, or the feeding of Gaidar’s nests.
    I myself live on the lands connected by it.
  8. den-protector
    den-protector 17 November 2016 08: 40
    Article on the case, especially the conclusion (last two paragraphs). And now the authorities and the pro-government media are imposing on us the image of white and fluffy nobles, counts, princes and other white emigres who fought for "their Russia". All these carry-overs of the icon of "St. Nicholas II" by Natasha Poklonskaya at the action "Immortal Regiment" from the same opera. As Osta Bender used to say: "All gentlemen are in Paris." Let them knock down there and do not hope for revenge. And so many thieves have come running since 2, these whites have yet to be rehabilitated, put up with them. From the beginning we will make peace with them, then they will have to return the lands, factories, newspapers, steamers, i.e. to annul all the gains of Soviet power. And so the plundering of state property has been practically legalized since 1991. And then what?
    1. bober1982
      bober1982 17 November 2016 08: 47
      Gentlemen all in Paris , not Bender used to say, but Sharikov
    2. alexej123
      alexej123 17 November 2016 09: 42
      You just read the last two paragraphs and are already making a conclusion?
    3. bober1982
      bober1982 17 November 2016 11: 02
      We’ll make peace with them from the beginning, then they will have to return lands, factories, newspapers, parades, that is. nullify all the gains of Soviet power.
      So after all, all the conquests of Soviet power have been annulled long ago, back in the last century, are you lost in time? Which and whose steamboats and newspapers are you planning to return?
      1. Caretaker
        Caretaker 17 November 2016 23: 22
        ... So after all, all the gains of Soviet power have long been annulled ...

        Fortunately, not all.
        Some of the achievements allow us to remain a permanent member of the UN Security Council and look into near-Earth orbit.
        By the way, in the military sphere, science and industry, we still use the backlogs of the USSR.
    4. Aleksander
      Aleksander 17 November 2016 11: 24
      Quote: den-protector
      Here let them felled and do not hope for revenge

      Quote: bober1982
      I started to reconcile with them, then they would have to return land, factories, newspapers, parahods, that is, to annul all gains of the Soviet power. So after all all gains of the Soviet power are canceled long ago, back in the last century, what are you - lost in time? What and whose ships and newspapers are you going to return?

      In humans, whether lethargic sleep was, then the amnesia was already ....
  9. knn54
    knn54 17 November 2016 08: 42
    - the era of UNEXPECTED hypocrisy, lies, corruption and favoritism, when lieutenants ONLY with "masculine virtues" INSTANTLY became generals and owners of thousands of serfs, and honest officers who cut off all life in garrisons resigned as captains / majors.
    -In Europe, the Industrial Revolution took place, the Russian economy remained agrarian. Export was exclusively raw, and finished goods were imported.
    Yes, a golden age has come for the nobility. As a result, the emergence of numerous "False Pets"
    For example, a contradictory figure. And, apparently, it was not for nothing that Taras Shevchenko called Ekaterina "an evil stepmother" in his poems.
    PS Oh, if the Bosphorus and the Dardanelles ...
    1. V.ic
      V.ic 17 November 2016 09: 02
      Quote: knn54
      Industrial revolution took place in Europe

      This was after her death. Examples: a steam locomotive in 1804, a steamboat in 1807. You would object that by 1800, 321 Watt steam engines were already operating in England. So in Russia, the first steam-atmospheric machine of Newcomen was installed in 1772 in Kronstadt for pumping water from the dock.
    2. Sergey S.
      Sergey S. 17 November 2016 09: 29
      Quote: knn54
      -... apparently, it was not for nothing that Taras Shevchenko called Ekaterina "evil stepmother" in his poems.
      PS Oh, if the Bosphorus and the Dardanelles ...

      You would have decided, "evil stepmother" or "land-gatherer mother."
      But Shevchenko can be understood, he, exiled to the sands of Central Asia, overheated in the sun, forgot to speak Russian, ...
      1. alebor
        alebor 17 November 2016 11: 00
        I don’t know for what reason Shevchenko used this epithet, but I suspect that dissatisfaction could have been caused by the liquidation of the Zaporizhzhya Sich and hetman in Ukraine.
        1. Retvizan
          Retvizan 18 November 2016 00: 38
          Quote: alebor
          I don’t know for what reason Shevchenko used this epithet, but I suspect that dissatisfaction could have been caused by the liquidation of the Zaporizhzhya Sich and hetmanism in Ukraine

          and here it’s not - the reason is serfdom .. its tightening in warm Ukraine, dear
    3. alexej123
      alexej123 17 November 2016 11: 20
      Contradictions FOR NO EVERYTHING, AT ALL. She was a man of her time, her era. Yes, she loved men, yes, she gifted them royally. Yes, I was mistaken. And who was not mistaken? Look at affairs in the name of the country. I could look out and exalt the people needed for the good of the country. Rumyantsev, Orlov, Potemkin, Suvorov, Ushakov, Kutuzov, Bagration, Miloradovich and many others These people appeared and showed themselves during her reign. This is the main thing.
      1. Basil50
        Basil50 17 November 2016 14: 30
        123 y
        Do not forget your opinion when you * disassemble * statesmen of other eras. The main thing in Catherine’s administration is success in wars and politics.
        1. alexej123
          alexej123 17 November 2016 15: 00
          And then, in general, there were no other criteria for success.
    4. Aleksander
      Aleksander 17 November 2016 11: 32
      Quote: knn54
      Taras Shevchenko in his poems called Ekaterina "an evil stepmother".

      Are you talking about VURDALAK Taras Shevchenko (after Oles Buzin)? "Good" authority: Shevchenko is a russophobe, alcoholic and pdnk

      His friend sheltered the freedom-loving Shevchenko in his room. Sheltered, however, not for long. Very soon, “a friend” “thanked” Soshenko, starting to care for his bride Masha, persuaded a seventeen-year-old girl to pose for him as a model and eventually seduced her. Ivan Maksimovich was shocked. He drove the future "great Kobzar", but it was too late. Shevchenko, who moved to another apartment, continued his affair with Masha, and when she got pregnant, decided not to tie herself up with family ties and left the girl he had dishonored. There was no one to stand up for her. Masha was an orphan
      1. Uncle Murzik
        Uncle Murzik 18 November 2016 16: 04
        Aleksander as Shevchenko looks like Kolchak! wassat
    5. Retvizan
      Retvizan 18 November 2016 00: 37
      Quote: knn54
      PS Oh, if the Bosphorus and the Dardanelles ...

      we wouldn’t hold back ... like Poland.
  10. Olena
    Olena 17 November 2016 09: 12
    -To great regret, Catherine II did not have time to do, fulfill and resolve the most important task for Russia ... is to crush and destroy the "filthy Ottoman Turkey" ... -These consequences for Russia affect to this day ...
    1. Sagittarius2
      Sagittarius2 17 November 2016 21: 32
      Quote: olena
      -To great regret, Catherine II did not have time to do, fulfill and resolve the most important task for Russia ... is to crush and destroy the "filthy Ottoman Turkey" ... -These consequences for Russia affect to this day ...

      how stupid deer, you don’t know anything ...
  11. unknown
    unknown 17 November 2016 09: 15
    Oddly enough, but Catherine and Kutuzov are very similar.
    Like a brother and sister.
    Or one person, propagated in the pages of history.
    A portrait of Kutuzov, on which he is depicted in the imperial mantle, has been preserved. It is unlikely that such an artist’s liberty was permissible at that time. This means that there were real grounds for such an image.
  12. alexej123
    alexej123 17 November 2016 09: 46
    Great time, Great people, Great Things. But there is still no monument to G.A. Potemkin. Although I think that Novorossia and Crimea would not be his energy Russian?
  13. Basil50
    Basil50 17 November 2016 09: 55
    * Weaknesses * Catherine has long been forgiven by our liberal democrats. Forgiven a lot of things - and vulgar treason for money, and enslavement of the PEOPLE and the suppression of uprisings and the secularization of church property and even * weakness on the front end *. The main results of the reign, gold balls and masquerades, and of course the success of wars and the destruction of ludolov on the borders of the RUSSIAN EMPIRE.
    1. Basil50
      Basil50 17 November 2016 14: 23
      Oh how. Of the entire list of what characterizes Catherine, only sex was of interest, which by the way was paid, including by land with slaves confiscated from the church.
      1. Uncle Murzik
        Uncle Murzik 18 November 2016 16: 05
        Basil50 Quietly! You can write about kings either well or not! fellow
  14. alebor
    alebor 17 November 2016 11: 15
    With all due respect to A. Samsonov, regarding serfdom, I think he is wrong. Serfdom is a consequence of the natural development of the state and its emergence and development is not the result of the desire of one of the tsars, but a natural process that can be observed in other European countries. In the West, it arose earlier and began to wither away by the time it was just taking shape in the East of Europe. Catherine II acted in the spirit of her time, in accordance with the tasks that faced Russia at that time. If she “ran ahead of the locomotive” and, ahead of time, would start peasant reforms in the spirit of Alexander II, then the fate of her husband and son would surely have overtaken her, she would not have entered history and would have been swept out of the way. To judge the society and people of the end of the 7th century by the standards of the beginning of the 17st is as senseless as to demand from a XNUMX-year-old child everything the same as from a XNUMX-year-old who is at a different stage of development.
    1. voyaka uh
      voyaka uh 17 November 2016 11: 41
      I agree with you.

      Catherine carried out many important reforms. Canceled a bunch of medieval
      practices and laws. There’s nothing to complain about.
      The abolition of serfdom could be undertaken by Alexander the First, but for Catherine
      it was too early.
  15. Stirbjorn
    Stirbjorn 17 November 2016 12: 55
    Although, it would be logical that after the Granted Certificate the nobility should have followed the Granted Certificate to the peasantry.
    Naturally, after all, this letter was given by Peter III, and he was going to give the second one as well, but here the noble guard erected Catherine. Not at all because of peace with Prussia, for the guard regiments sat in the capital and did not go to war from the time of Peter I. Koenigsberg was to them a light bulb, but his serfs, whom Peter III was going to release - is another matter!
  16. Dekabrist
    Dekabrist 17 November 2016 15: 24
    Judging by the comments, for some reason more and more people are behaving with their own history, like a pig at the trough. Moreover, for the most part, such "nihilists" have left nothing behind except biogas. What is the reason. Or am I wrong?
  17. cedar
    cedar 17 November 2016 15: 31
    Quote: Dmitry Nagiev
    Quote: Sagittarius2
    illiteracy, RUSSIAN is not an adjective for you, but a proper name.

    Yes, complete ignorance.
    Because "Russian" is a substantive adjective - an adjective that has passed into the category of a noun.
    Examples: living room, daytime, city, attendant.
    Some substantive adjectives may, depending on their role, be either nouns or adjectives in a sentence.
    A cup of tea on duty stood on the table (adjective on duty)
    A drunk attendant (duty noun, drunk adjective) fell out of the window.
    This is according to the rules of ruMOPwhat language if, for all the rest there is a "sect of witnesses of Zadorny".

    Dear Dmitry Nagiev, we stopped at the most interesting place.
    It is clear that "Russian" is a substantive adjective - an adjective that has passed into the category of a noun.
    It is not clear why they moved for our sake ... from Russians and dews to this very thing, like him substantiated Yes, and the adjective.?! I wonder who else but us have crossed ..?
    We and the noun were not bad, but as you yourself understand, some kind of uncertainty arises, well, like Catherine II Alekseevna, nee Sofia Frederick Augusta Anhalt-Zerbst, Prussian, Russian .... Who?
  18. fukudi
    fukudi 17 November 2016 16: 18
    The article is not satisfactory, if not bad. In 1885, Brickner A.G. was published. The story of Catherine the second consisting of 4 parts, if the author reads, I think his opinion will change. As for the serfs, the author obviously does not understand that the princes, counts, nobles had a huge number of serfs, which means she had to go against everyone and how long she lived after that, I think no more than a month. Let the author take an interest in how she created church parish schools, note free, and if you consider that at that time, everyone went to church, then the children could learn to write and read and count, and this is already considerable. After Catherine the Second, 6 emperors were replaced and I think that it has nothing to do with the events of 1917. This is equivalent to judging the inquisitor Tokvimada, in that he created such tortures as Hitler Germany used during the Second World War, and this follows that Takvimada is guilty of at least a million victims of fascism.
    1. Parsec
      Parsec 17 November 2016 17: 32
      Quote: fukudi
      This is tantamount to judging the Inquisitor Tocquimada,

      Thomas de Torquemada was his name.
      If you are already online, take a look at any search engine.
      Such a mistake immediately reduces the credibility of the content of your comment.
    2. bober1982
      bober1982 17 November 2016 18: 06
      fukudi ...... how she created parish schools in Russia .....
      Catherine II is not involved in the creation of such schools; exaggerating, they were created after her death.
  19. cedar
    cedar 17 November 2016 17: 54
    On the "golden age" of Catherine II

    Samsonov Alexander, I still do not understand. Was Catherine Sophia Frederica Augusta of Anhalt-Zerbst's century gold or not gold?
    ALEA IACTA EST 17 November 2016 20: 34
    Flying through the straits, splashing the blood of the best Russians into the flames of the French Revolution, letting beer and sausage lovers start their onslaught in the East and putting their own citizens in the position of animals is not an achievement.
    1. bober1982
      bober1982 17 November 2016 20: 45
      I will add - continuous wars, an incredible population decline, the largest number of hungry years, flirting with French scholars, peasant wars that raised the question of the existence of the country itself.
  21. Cat
    Cat 17 November 2016 20: 59
    Quote: siberalt
    You might think that Ekaterina bis, herself invented everything. Even her German, irrepressible lust is canonized. Something like - "suddenly appeared out of nowhere ..." you know what. But this does not happen in life.

    Yes, out of nowhere appeared ....... our military everything A.V. Suvorov, savior of the Fatherland in 1812 M.I. Kutuzov, the only unbeaten Russian admiral F.F. Ushakov and many, many others who have glorified our country, both with a sword and a pen.
    Try to look around this century and the past century, to name equal to its eagles.
  22. Retvizan
    Retvizan 18 November 2016 00: 53
    Quote: article author
    True, Empress Catherine was no longer an "English agent." In fact, this smart woman used the British to their advantage.

    beautifully otmazatsya ... that is, the entire intelligence network did everything so that the Russians bleed blood 7 years of war, winning and ... losing, playing on the British and draining 2 (3) countries in the center of Europe, so that Europe could not become strong. I used it from the author ... Yes, I can’t believe it - while England was not against it - they fought against France, and Turkey, with the States, yes, they were against it but in a neutral way. And the alliance with England all the time. ..
    Maybe she used the British, but they squeezed the maximum out of her (with RI)
    What are the advantages of the "German"
    territory with better conditions than Russia, improving the status of RI in the world, reform
    what's the downside
    a brake on development — absolutism, serfdom, and I wrote that after the annexation of lands with fertile soils, wage labor became economically profitable, non-black soil could be freed from serfdom
    floodlights such as straits (they would not have kept because they blew into the English pipe, but France had to be left in their own as an English counterweight)
    reform of money - and a huge debt ...
    in general, the Great in acts of territorial and emotional (woman and minions) lost in the banal.
    But thanks to her and her son for my city. Her for re-establishing, and her son for developing.
    ZY-Suvorov inherited from Elizabeth, like Rumyantsev, but she chose the favorites skillfully, thanks to Potemkin for the Black Sea.
    1. alexej123
      alexej123 18 November 2016 08: 53
      Suvorov and Rumyantsev as brilliant military leaders showed themselves precisely in the reign of Catherine 2. Larga, Cahul, Fokshany, Rymnik, Izmail, Warsaw pl. other
  23. Omsk
    Omsk 18 November 2016 06: 20
    Hmm, and with whom Russia \ when Catherine 2 fought for 7 years in Europe, irrigating her fields with blood? Nothing comes to my mind except the war with Sweden. Oh yes, there was still a partition of Poland. And the rest of the war took place with Turkey.
    And Suvorov nevertheless made his career under Ek.2, having passed with her the way from Colonel to Field Marshal.
    The greatness of Catherine 2 in that she perfectly understood that in order to be great, she needed to rule a great country and went to this as she could, quite in the spirit of that time, trying to surround herself with smart people, even those who react negatively to her. It’s not up to us to judge her for serfdom and favoritism. At least, taking into account her origin, she strove to be Russian, if only in spirit. It can be condemned, scolded, but it is stupid to deny that it has made Russia a great power.
    1. rjxtufh
      rjxtufh 18 November 2016 21: 15
      Quote: Omich
      It can be condemned, scolded, but it is stupid to deny that it has made Russia a great power.

      Apparently you have some kind of perverted concept of the greatness of the country.
      How can a country be great if its inhabitants were slaves and eked out a dying existence? And they destroyed them in all sorts of wars, in batches.
      1. Omsk
        Omsk 19 November 2016 04: 13
        well yes. probably perverted.
        it turns out that at that time there were no great countries? or was democracy developed somewhere at that time? I hope you will not cite England as an example, with its gallows for vagrants, the destruction of the Indians and the slave trade.
        I do not defend serfdom, just need to objectively look at things, including the conditions of the 18th century.
        1. rjxtufh
          rjxtufh 19 November 2016 06: 31
          Quote: Omich
          it turns out that at that time there were no great countries?

          I do not know, not a great specialist at that time. Maybe not.
          But Russia with its slavery certainly was not.
          And the USSR, later, with its slavery, was not there either.
          1. Omsk
            Omsk 19 November 2016 08: 02
            how do you determine the greatness of a country? democracy? democracy? and please give an example of a great country where all the people are happy and content.
            1. Sagittarius2
              Sagittarius2 19 November 2016 11: 08
              Quote: Omich
              how do you determine the greatness of a country? democracy? democracy? and please give an example of a great country where all the people are happy and content.

              during the time of Tsar Alexei, the welfare of the people was such that the visiting foreigners were amazed that the peasants and slaves, the nobleman walked in silk and velvet, like boyars and it was impossible to determine who was the master and who was the servant, and this disturbed them. The army under Tsar Alexei was the MOST POWERFUL and what historians write about the defeat in the Northern War, this is a historical lie caused by the need to exalt Peter to belittle the old dynasty
              Travelers have reported "a multitude of rich villages" (Adams). “The whole land is well sown with bread, which the inhabitants take to Moscow in such quantity that it seems surprising. Every morning you can see from 700 to 800 sledges going there with bread, and some with fish ”(Chensler).

              And the Russians lived very well. Without exception, all foreigners who visited Russia drew pictures of almost fabulous prosperity compared to their home countries!

              The land “abounds in pastures and is well-processed ... There is a lot of cow butter, like all sorts of dairy products, thanks to the great abundance of animals, large and small” (Tjapolo). They mentioned "the abundance of grain and livestock" (Perkamot), "the abundance of vital supplies that would honor even the most luxurious table" (Lizek).

              And it was all available to everyone! “There are no poor people in this country, because edibles are so cheap that people go on the road to look for someone to give them to” (Juan of Persia, obviously, referring to the distribution of alms). “In general, in all of Russia, due to the fertile soil of the food, it is very cheap” (Olearius).

              Barbaro, Fletcher, Pavel Aleppsky, Margaret, Contarini also wrote about cheapness. They were amazed that the meat was so cheap that it was not even sold by weight, “but with carcasses or chopped by eye”. And chickens and ducks were often sold in hundreds or magpies.

              historian Shambarov
              1. Omsk
                Omsk 19 November 2016 18: 03
                Do you think that the copper revolt and Stepan Razin came from the good welfare of the people?
                1. Sagittarius2
                  Sagittarius2 19 November 2016 19: 04
                  Quote: Omich
                  Do you think that the copper revolt and Stepan Razin came from the good welfare of the people?

                  all the preceding time before the advent of Peter is FULLY FALSE. All these returbations, Razin’s uprising, Nikon’s split, shootings, were all invented in history, to hide the essence, this is a Latin coup when the Roman Germans came to power. Then the Russian civilization was replaced by Western
                  Therefore, to your question, when did you live well in Russia? The answer is when the RUSSIANS were in power, because after Tsar Alexei there were no Russian rulers anymore, there are none now.
                  1. Omsk
                    Omsk 3 December 2016 18: 37
                    I understand you correctly that Alex was not Romanov? And then I got the idea that they sat on the throne to Peter, starting with Michael ...
                    1. Sagittarius2
                      Sagittarius2 4 December 2016 08: 01
                      Quote: Omich
                      I understand you correctly that Alex was not Romanov? And then I got the idea that they sat on the throne to Peter, starting with Michael ...

                      the fact that the first romanovs is sophia and peter i read from alexander casa - the writer is such a historian, quite justified.
  24. Igor V
    Igor V 18 November 2016 19: 12
    Note to the author. There was East Prussia, but there was just Prussia. Catherine should not be sent to the VP.