There are still widespread reports in the press that Rudolf Hess flew to Scotland, independently piloting a twin-engine Messerschmitt-110, and at 3 at one o'clock in the morning 11 May parachuted near the royal family of Duke Hamilton's royal family. I wonder how he was out of sight of the earth, and without a navigator, could determine this place, and how much did he love skydiving, and when did the last of them go?
Hess introduced himself to the first oncoming farmer as a fictitious name and asked him to deliver it to the duke. The Englishman first brought the paratrooper to his home, gave him tea, but secretly summoned the special services. They found out the true name of the "mysterious German". Instead of meeting with Hamilton Hess, he ended up in a London prison ...
On the landing of Hess in Scotland, the British press reported only 13 May. At the same time, it was suggested, apparently of a purely propaganda nature, that Hess had fled due to serious disagreements and a split in the leadership of the national socialists. The English press has done its job, and it makes no sense to retell Churchill's untrue statements about how Hess got to England. Another thing that talked about this in Germany.
In the Soviet Union, only 14 of May found out about this, but all attempts by foreign intelligence agents to understand the reasons for the flight, and even less the goal of the Hess mission, did not work.
Officially, the leadership of the National Socialist Party reported on the disappearance of Hess 12 May. The official communique said that “Hess 10 of May at 18 hours flew in an unknown direction on a plane from Augsburg and did not return to this time. The letter left by Hess testifies in view of his incoherence about the presence of signs of mental disorder, which makes one fear that Hess was a victim of insanity. " At the same time, Nazi propaganda began to actively promote the idea that Hess, being an idealist, "became a victim of an obsessive idea of achieving agreement between England and Germany."
In 1953, memoirs of the former fighter commander were published in Germany aviation Luftwaffe of Adolf Galland, where he described this event:
“In the early evening of May 10, 1941 of the year I was summoned to the telephone by a very excited Reichsmarshal and ordered to immediately raise the entire squadron (Me-110. - N.Ya.) into the air. It seemed ridiculous to me, because, first of all, it was already twilight and, secondly, there were no reports of an enemy raid. I said this to Goring.
“Plaque,” he mocked, “what a raid means! You must prevent the flight! In England, on the Me-110 flew mad deputy Fuhrer! He must be landed at any cost. ”
(It turns out that Goering was privy to the secret designs of Hess. - N. Ya.)
I asked about the estimated course and time of the take-off of the car and received an order: immediately after the start of the operation, personally give all the messages.
When I hung up, I could not understand which of us had gone mad: the deputy of the Führer, the Reichsmarschall or myself. In any case, the order I received was clearly abnormal. Before dusk 10 minutes remained. At this time there were a lot of Me-110 in the air, which were preparing for night flights or doing test flights after repair. How did I know in which of them Rudolf Hess was sitting? Therefore, I ordered a purely symbolic take-off. The group commanders were to send one or two cars. For their part, they obviously thought I was crazy.
I took the map and tried to calculate the distance and time of flight on the Augsburg – England line. If, as I was told, Hess started from the Messerschmitt airfield in Augsburg, then it is unlikely that he reached England, as if he had flown. Even from such an old pilot as Hess, for such an enterprise, great courage, caution, flying skills were required - or it was just necessary to go crazy.
These questions were related to our telephone conversation with Goering, when I informed him about the unsuccessful termination of our operation. I told Göring that if Hess really managed to fly from Augsburg to the British Isles, then there he would be shot down by the Spitfires.
However, Hess flew to Scotland, where he apparently ran out of fuel. He jumped with a parachute. Near the town of Peysley he was caught by a peasant armed with pitchforks.
12 in May was distributed to the party’s organizations: “Party comrade Rudolf Hess, who, due to the Fuehrer’s illness that had been developing for many years, strictly forbade flying operations, recently acquired an airplane for himself. 10 May around 18 hours in Augsburg Hess rose into the air and still has not returned ... As far as can be judged by the inspection of the papers left by Hess, he had an obsessive idea that through a personal meeting with his old friends, the British, he still managed to achieve mutual understanding between Germany and England. ”
Whatever the secret reason for this flight - here someone made an attempt at the last moment to slow down the train rushing to the crash ... "
At the same time, F. Halder, as follows from his “War Diary”, this became known at the morning meeting of May 12.
Three days later, a meeting on the Hess case was held at the OKH, and Halder wrote down in his diary:
“I. The message of the Fuhrer to the Commander-in-Chief corresponds to the second version of the press about the flight of Hess.
1. For the Fuhrer, this event was a complete surprise.
2. It was known that:
a) Hess was internally suppressed, because the British were oppressed by the mutual destruction of the Germanic peoples;
b) Hess oppressed the ban to go to the front, and his repeated requests to allow him to take personal part in the battles were rejected;
c) Hess was prone to mysticism ("visions", "prophecies", etc.);
d) he was reckless in the air, and as a result, the Führer had long ago forbidden him to fly.
3. Additionally, it was installed:
A. Since last August, Hess has been interested in weather reports over England.
B. Hess tried to get data for radio direction finding in Norway through Terbova.
Q. After he was unable to achieve anything from Udet, Hess was systematically involved in the flight work of Messerschmitt.
G. Hess was engaged in technical preparation for the flight according to a previously developed plan (spare tanks).
4. How did all this happen:
A. On Sunday, a packet was received with materials addressed to the Führer, which he put aside, taking him for a memorandum. However, then the Fuhrer opened the package and found a letter in which Hess stated the reasons that prompted him to fly. As the ultimate goal, Hess indicated Glasgow and informed the Führer that he would visit Lord Hamilton (the head of the English Union of Frontline Soldiers).
B. A request to the Reichsmarshal and Udet about the possibility of reaching the Glasgow region on the indicated aircraft. An affirmative reply was received on the request. Anticipating that the English propaganda would try to use this case, the management made up a brief message for the press. ”
Now look at the map and determine the distance from Augsburg, bypassing Belgium. It turns out about 800 km. According to the results of flight tests, the speed range of the Me-110С (by the way, it doesn’t provide additional suspension tanks) was 800 km, and in economy mode (where he was in a hurry), as shown by tests at the Air Force Institute, 1000 km. So, Mr. Galland, you are mischievous. Fuel on the plane was enough to not only fly to the island, but also to choose (if desired) a place to land. And we should not forget that the sunset of May 10 in Germany was in 19 hours 42 minutes.
If Hess took off on the Me-110, which is unlikely, then taking into account the fuel in the tanks suspended under the wing, the speed range will be about 1500 km, and in economy mode - almost 2000 km. Just to fly not only to Glasgow, but also to the ocean coast of England. Just who was waiting for him there?
It should be noted here that by May 1941, the entire east coast of Misty Albion was covered by a network of radar stations warning of the approach of German aircraft, and their operators had time to accumulate sufficient experience. Therefore, Hess could not cross the unnoticed border of England, because there was a high probability of interception of his air defense fighters.
The second incomprehensible moment in all this stories was a night flight. What could Hess count on in the night sky? On the carpet road to the lighted airfield? In wartime, they were all darkened, and the lighting equipment was switched on during scheduled flights or in the case of prior notification by the military. Or maybe he intended to land on the roof of his friend's house and find himself in his arms?
The probability of a safe landing at night in the field was close to zero, as, indeed, on a parachute. It was a huge risk.
It was much easier, reaching England in the bright time, to land at a suitable military airfield than to continue the flight into the unknown, deep into the kingdom. Airfields on the coast of England were enough, and they were all well known to the Germans. At worst, it could be done in the field. But that did not happen.
People rushed to the site of the “fall” of the plane, and soon a press photo of the British posed against the background of the Messerschmitt appeared. What is it? Really the remains of a Hess plane or a good setting? After all, it was reported that the plane burned down. It's like, because the fuel was developed.
But judging by the photograph, there was no trace of a fire on the wreckage of the car, perhaps because there was no flight.
Suppose that the “flight” of Hess (perhaps, according to AN Osokin, his disappearance is connected with British intelligence) changed not only Hitler – Stalin’s plans to wage a future war, but also the balance of power in Europe. Then it turns out that thanks to Hess, we managed to “incline” England to the side of Germany and jointly oppose the USSR.
What could Britain do then against the USSR and how could she support her new ally in the war he planned? The United Kingdom ground forces and navy could hardly be quickly transferred to a new theater. Also the fleetexcept for the northern water areas, it was possible to deploy only on the Black Sea, passing through the Bosphorus. But there was a danger of being locked up if events at the front would develop in a different scenario. And the transfer of British troops to the borders of the Soviet Union would not have gone unnoticed. The Royal Air Force remained, and they could strike at the territory of the USSR only from airfields in Iraq.
As mentioned above, by the beginning of the Second World War, the Wellington and Whitley planes of the Vikkers and Armstrong-Whitworth companies were in service with the Royal Air Force, respectively.
The Wellington II was considered the most advanced long-range bomber of the Royal Air Force in 1941. If it was to fly from the Habbania airfield in 80 km from Baghdad, then it was quite possible to get to Sevastopol in a straight line, dropping the 500-kilogram cargo, imitating, for example, mine, and go back. Thus, exclude version A.N. Osokina on the mining of coastal waters by British aviation near Sevastopol is impossible.
Today, only the British government can refute or confirm this assumption, but it is silent. Rudolf Hess could have answered this question. But 17 August 1987, the whole world has spread around a sensational news: in Spandau Prison (West Berlin), he committed suicide 93-year-old Rudolf Hess, the only one of the defendants of German war criminals who was sentenced to life in prison in Nuremberg.
While Hess was in prison, he was forbidden to say anything or write about the “peace mission” he had undertaken in May of 1941. His correspondence and meetings with relatives and lawyers were controlled by the prison administration.
The verdict of the International Military Tribunal in Nuremberg said: "Hess flying to England, he carried with him some peaceful proposals," which, he claims, Hitler was ready to accept. It is noteworthy that this flight took place 10 days after Hitler set the last date for the attack on the Soviet Union - June 22 of the year 1941.
The transcript of the meeting of the Nuremberg 31 process of August 1946, it was recorded that Hess wished to report on his mission in England, but he was interrupted by the chairman of the tribunal, the Englishman Lawrence. After that, Rudolf Hess refused to answer the questions of judges and prosecutors, playing insanity and loss of memory.
But why didn’t the representative of the USSR demand that Hess continue his revelation? There can be only one explanation: the Soviet government, or more precisely Stalin, was just as interested in concealing the truth as the British were. We are still afraid to make this public.
So where is the truth
There are several versions of Hess's escape, but one thing unites them - the desire of Germany and Great Britain to attack the Soviet Union more quickly in order to wipe it off the face of the earth. And both of these states were full of hatred for each other. But the British, wanting to push Germany from the USSR, hoped for their mutual destruction, and Germany in the case of expanding "living space" would hardly have refused to occupy Foggy Albion, and this could not be realized in London.
The extent to which London was interested in working with Hitler is evidenced by the statement of Allen Dulles, the head of the station of the Office of Strategic Services in Bern during World War II, the future director of the CIA. In 1948, Dulles said: “British intelligence in Berlin made contact with Rudolf Hess and with his help found a way out to Hitler himself. Hess was told that if Germany declared war on the Soviets, England would cease hostilities. ”
Hess's suicide is hard to believe. On this occasion, the foreign press reported: “On the day of his death, Hess was unwilling to let his Tunisian nurse, Mauri. Only half an hour later, with difficulty breaking through to the garden house, specially built for Hess in case of bad weather, Mauri saw the ward lying lifeless on the floor. In the house there were an American warder and two military men, which was strictly prohibited.
Mauri began to make Gessa artificial respiration, but his “first aid” briefcase was cracked, and the oxygen cylinder was empty, although the orderly checked it the day before. The English doctor who arrived, the toolkit was also inoperable. When Hess's body was brought to the hospital, two strangers disappeared, and the orderly was advised to keep his mouth shut. ”
It is curious that in the press there are various dates (starting from the end of April until 15 May) of the cessation of the bombing of the military-industrial centers of Great Britain, the cities of Birmenhem, Bristol, Conventry, Liverpool and Southampton and others. However, the exact date has not yet been announced. There is no doubt that this event took place in May. Perhaps the answer to this can be found in the English newspapers of those years. But the author does not speak their language, and it is surprising that none of the titled historians paid attention to this. It cannot be excluded that this is the key to understanding the beginning of the Great Patriotic War.
28 May 1941, when the Germans completed their operation to seize the island of Crete and the active operations of the German Armed Forces against Great Britain ceased, the Germans allowed English troops to leave the second time after Dunkirk, this time from the island.
It seems that after this event a lull came, which, as it seems, was aimed at continuing the preparation of the war against the USSR. Often, the cessation of raids on the United Kingdom is associated with large losses for the Luftwaffe - the 1773 aircraft, but this does not seem to be the case.
The press often refers to a letter from Hitler delivered to Stalin by courier from Berlin on the U-52 15 of May 1941. The message is nothing more than a response to Stalin's letter sent to the Führer, apparently, on May 11 or 12.
In it, Hitler reported:
“I am writing this letter at the moment when I finally came to the conclusion that it is impossible to achieve lasting peace in Europe - not only for us, but also for future generations - without the final collapse of England and the destruction of it as a state. As you well know, I have long ago decided to implement a series of military measures in order to achieve this goal. The nearer the hour of the decisive battle, the greater the number of problems I face. For the masses of the German people, no war is popular, and especially the war against England, because the German people consider the British as brotherly people, and the war between us is a tragic event. I will not hide from you that I thought in a similar way and several times offered England the conditions of peace. However, insulting responses to my proposals and the expanding expansion of the British in the field of military operations - with a clear desire to involve the whole world in the war - convinced me that there is no way out of this situation, except for the invasion of the British Isles.
British intelligence began to use the concept of "fratricidal war" for its own purposes in the most cunning way, using it in its propaganda - and not without success. Opposition to my decision began to grow in many elements of German society, including representatives of high-ranking circles. You probably know that one of my deputies, Herr Hess, flew to London in a fit of insanity in order to arouse the feeling of unity in the English. According to my information, several generals of my army share similar sentiments, especially those with relatives in England.
These circumstances require special measures. To organize troops away from British eyes and in connection with recent operations in the Balkans, a significant number of my troops, near the 80 divisions, are located near the borders of the Soviet Union. Perhaps this gives rise to rumors about the possibility of military conflict between us.
I want to assure you - and I give the word of honor that this is not true ...
In this situation, it is impossible to exclude occasional episodes of military clashes. In view of the considerable concentration of troops, these episodes can reach considerable sizes, making it difficult to determine who started first.
I want to be completely honest with you. I fear that some of my generals may deliberately start a conflict in order to save England from its impending fate and destroy my plans. It's about time more than a month. Starting around June 15 – 20, I plan to begin a massive transfer of troops from your borders to the West. In accordance with this, I strongly urge you, as far as possible, not to succumb to provocations that may be the work of those of my generals who have forgotten about their duty. And, of course, do not attach special importance to them. It became almost impossible to avoid the provocations of my generals. I ask for restraint, do not respond to provocations and contact me immediately via channels known to you. Only in this way can we achieve common goals, which, I believe, are agreed upon .....
I look forward to meeting in July. ”
Naturally, the question arises: where is Stalin's letter? If it existed, it should have been in the Reich Chancellery of the Führer, and a copy (second copy) - in the archives of the Kremlin. But it is not available to us.
It is curious that it was 15 in May 1941, apparently, that the development of a preliminary plan for the strategic deployment of the Soviet Armed Forces in case of war with Germany and its allies was completed. This document was kept in the personal safe of A.M. until 1948. Vasilevsky, while the deputy chief of operational management in the rank of Major General. The latter indicates that the document never left the walls of the General Staff. Naturally, the question arises: Is this related to the “Hess Mission”?
It should be noted here that Vasilevsky visited Germany in November 1940 of the year as part of the delegation of the People's Commissar for Foreign Affairs V.M. Molotov and was aware of the ongoing negotiations.
Already a lot of events, indicating a possible collusion of the two leaders, occurred in May 1941. One gets the impression that there was a big secret game between them and the winner, given the collapse of the USSR in 1992, was the middleman - the United Kingdom. Although the main winner in World War II was the Soviet Union.
The most important events in the life of the country in spring 1941 ended with Stalin’s speech at the end of May at an extended meeting of the political bureau, where he said: “If you sum up foreign policy from 1931 before the beginning of 1941, then the main thing is that, despite the intrigues of Anglo-American imperialism , managed to avoid the involvement of the Soviet Union in the war against Nazi Germany in the west and Japan in the east.
... The conclusion of a nonaggression pact with Germany was the right political step on our part. He gave the necessary respite for better preparation of the country in the defense ...
The situation is becoming aggravated every day, and it is very likely that we may be subject to a sudden attack by fascist Germany. ”
What guided the leader, warning the country's leadership about the inevitability of war? Perhaps it was Hess's flight to England that brought him to this idea. Or maybe he originally intended to stab in the back of Germany, which at that time was a much greater danger compared to England. One thing is clear - that both leaders hated each other and in any case should have fought in a bloody battle.
In 2011, several publications from the archive of the Foreign Intelligence Service appeared in the press with reports of Soviet intelligence officers about the flight of Hess, but they absolutely do not give the researchers anything other than the “One Citizen Say” heading.
To conclude, I will quote Winston Churchill from his memoirs: “Russians are very suspicious of the story with Hess, I had a long conversation on this topic in Moscow with Marshal Stalin: he kept saying that Hess was invited by our secret service. It is not in our interest that all this now surfaced. ”
In my opinion, this is quite enough to answer the questions: how and why did Hess find himself in England?