War, gold and pyramids. Part one. What happened to the pyramids?

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And it was so that several years ago in one of the Penza newspapers an article was published ... of a fireman from Mokshan (we have such a district center) that “he is interested” history Ancient Egypt, and came to the conclusion that the Egyptian pyramids (and he sincerely believed that there are only three of them!) - this is ... breakwaters from the flood! And the “deluge” was due to the fact that seawater would flood into the voids formed at the site of coal and oil production, and sooner or later the globe ... would tip over! After reading “this,” we thought for a long time, why did the newspaper publish it? And then they wrote a response material, where the “comrade fireman” was popularly told about the number of pyramids and the geophysical features of our planet. In a word - let it be better studying the theory of fire business.


The pyramid of Pharaoh Djoser. Before her, both kings and their dignitaries were buried in mastabah.



However, even at VO no and no, and there are comments, it’s good that at least not the articles that the Russians built the pyramids in Egypt, that “secret knowledge” was ciphered in them, that the Egyptians couldn’t build them and that Tutankhamen’s golden coffin is a fake archaeologist Carter. In general, as before, quite many people believe that there are only three pyramids in Egypt, that our main knowledge about it is drawn ... it is not clear where it is, and all this is a figment of conspirators-scientists, but often all this is a consequence of a very superficial knowledge of the subject. A completely different picture arises when you are working on a topic for about twenty years, and when even your students already work as managers of travel companies that carry people to the same pyramids ...

War, gold and pyramids. Part one. What happened to the pyramids?

Mastaba of Pharaoh Shepseskaf in Saqqara. He ruled after Cheops and for some reason built a mastaba. Why?

We will consistently tell you about the wars of ancient Egypt (after all, wars are slaves who ... "built the pyramids"), about the artifacts found in them and about the pyramids themselves, which, as it turned out, well, just a lot. Well, to begin the story of the pyramids will have to talk about ... mastab - the beginning of the beginning of the ancient Egyptian funerary culture.

Mastaba (in Arabic, "bench") was the direct predecessor of the pyramids and was a tomb for the nobility. There are several hundreds (!) Of such mastabs, built before the pyramids, simultaneously with the pyramids and even after the pyramids. Each mastaba, although they are very similar - the original architectural structure. Everything is the same as with knight armor - everything is similar, but you can't find two identical ones! Outwardly, it is ... a structure made of stone or lined with stone with sloping rectangular walls, somewhat resembling modern gold bars. It had three sections: the underground, where there was a sarcophagus of limestone or granite, always on the western side of the burial chamber (“to go to the West” means to die!). The second part is the warehouse of the grave goods, and the third is the chapel. Some mastabas were very large. For example, Ptakshepses mastaba had 40 premises!


Berlin Museum. Entrance to Merida Mastaba.

It is clear that all the mastabs were already robbed in antiquity. But ... what the robbers could not carry away was the frescoes on the walls. The walls of the chapel and the chambers, as a rule, were decorated with painted reliefs, which were ancient “comics” from the earthly or afterlife of the deceased. On them in the smallest details depicted the work of farmers, home life, music, dancing, games, military campaigns and the afterlife. Pictures themselves are accompanied by explanatory texts.


Vaulted ceiling and painting on the wall in the room of the tomb of Imeri in Giza. The painting depicts the process of making grape wine.

On the walls are hundreds of thousands of mastab figures, tens of thousands of small parts. It is physically impossible to falsify all this - this is work for thousands of people for many years, which, among other things, would be inconceivably expensive, and why? The first to enter Mastabas was Champolion. Then such “shares” did not make sense at all.


Mastaba Neferbauptah. Plateau Giza.

Mastaba was built for centuries. The work of hundreds of people who worked for years was invested in it. The size of the largest 50 mastab on 30 meters, and their height 7-8 meters. Many mastabas were fenced with walls up to 3 meters thick. The mines leading to the burial chambers were covered with rubble and stones. That is, if it were not for the mastabs, we half would not know what we know today about ancient Egypt. You could even say that pyramids for Egyptologists are a thing less valuable than mastabs. Moreover, it is clear from them that as the riches of Egypt grew, the sizes of the mastabs also increased!




The frescoes on the wall of the tomb of Neferbauptah.

However, as many as three centuries passed since Egypt became a single state, before the next king of the III dynasty, called Djoser, was apparently so overwhelmed by his own importance that he decided to build himself a mastaba of unprecedented size. Even then, Egypt waged wars, as we were told all the same mastabah, but the influx of slaves, if there was, it is small. And the wars themselves were also small in scale. After all, the warriors went hiking. And also on "their own two" and fought. Accordingly, the main prey was cattle, which could drive and feed on grass. And the prisoners had to be fed the same as the soldiers ate. That is why the ancient name of the slaves in Egypt is “the living dead”, that is, initially all the prisoners were simply killed.



Joser, having conceived to create an unprecedented mastaba, began by deciding to build it not from raw bricks, but entirely from stone blocks. This happened around 2700 BC, and the highest court dignitary Imhotep was appointed the architect. Studying what he did, started back in the 1837 year, after which the “pyramid of Djoser” didn’t study unless it was lazy. As a result, we studied it in a thorough manner, and today it is one of the most studied “from and to” the pyramids of Egypt.


The funeral complex of Djoser.

It turned out that at first it was just a square mastaba in 63 meters in length and height in 9 meters, made of stone and covered with limestone slabs. Then it seemed to Djoser that she was small (apparently, she appropriated someone else’s and decided to add something to her from herself), and he ordered me to add masonry meters along the 4 in all directions. Then add another 10 meters to the east, and its mastaba has become traditionally rectangular. And only now Dzhoser ordered the former building to be made wider even by 3 meters in all directions and put three terrace-like steps on it in height of 40 meters. So his mastaba became a four-step. But this was not enough for him. He ordered to extend its base to the west and north and add two steps to the top. Finally, the pyramid was also tiled with slabs (the sixth phase of construction), after which the dimensions of its base were 125 on 115 meters, and the height of 61 meters. Thus, his tomb became the tallest structure, which was then known.


Dungeon under the pyramid of Djoser.

Later pyramids were built according to the rule: one pyramid - one king. But Djoser’s pyramid was a family burial vault for all the wives and children of the king, so there were entire 11 burial chambers in it! And the tomb of the king was located right under the center of the originally designed mastaba, and not in the pyramid itself. Archaeologist Koneym about the internal structure of the pyramid of Djoser said that it was some kind of "giant rabbit hole."


The tiles that covered the walls in the dungeon pyramid of Djoser.

It is clear that all the premises of this “hole” were robbed in antiquity, but two sarcophagus from alabaster were found in one of the rooms, one of which contained a broken gilded wooden sarcophagus with the remains of a mummy of a child of eight years old. But the most amazing find was the 60-meter corridor, which was filled up with an incredible amount of burial utensils. The number of stone vessels, according to calculations of archaeologists, it amounted to 30-40 thousands !!! Several hundred were from alabaster and porphyry, and they were perfectly preserved, and from the rest, broken, about 7 thousands, they managed to glue! If it is a fake, then it’s just phenomenal in its stupidity, as it doesn’t prove anything, and making 40 thousands of vessels to break most of them is idiotic.


These same tiles in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.

The most interesting thing is that the pyramid of Djoser, like many mastabs, was fenced with walls, and very high - 10 and height. It was decorated with ledges and symbolic gates, but there was only one real entrance. The wall enclosed a rectangle the size of 554 on 227 meters, in which there was a requiem church and two religious palaces - North and South, in which there were the symbolic thrones of "Two Lands", the column halls and altars. In a word, it was a completely and completely religious building, which had nothing to do with the “breakwater” and in general with any encrypted knowledge of the ancients.


View of the pyramid and the remains of the temple complex.

The study of the pyramid also made it possible to find out that the stone blocks for it were hewn from coarse-grained limestone, taken from the local quarry, but the lining was from fine-grained limestone, and it was brought from the other side of the Nile. In both the quarries found traces of the work of ancient masters, and their tools. Stones received for the construction of rough processing. Therefore, the external surfaces of the blocks were leveled already after laying with copper bits. They controlled the quality of work with wooden planks, smeared with red paint, which were applied to the slabs just as dentists pinned to our teeth pieces of black carbon paper today.


"Guide" on the burial complex of Djoser.

The sizes of the pyramid blocks of Djoser are small, so there were no difficulties with their delivery. Two people would be quite enough. The intensity of the work was seasonal. In the Nile flood, stones prepared in advance could be transported on rafts and barks almost to the base of the pyramid.


Relief of the tomb of Ti. XXV — XXIV centuries. BC. Fragment. Plaster on the stone, cutter, tempera. Saqqara

Again, do not think that there is a pyramid of Djoser, and then the pharaohs immediately began to build "true pyramids." Nothing like this! The second step pyramid was the pyramid of Sehemkheta, found in 1952 by the archaeologist Goneim. What was left of it was excavated, and it turned out that it had already been built as a stepped one from the very beginning. The limestone blocks on it were the same size as Djoser, but its construction is more perfect. Inside it has a core of rough stone blocks, the masonry of which is narrowed from the base to the top. If it were completed, it would have a height of 9 meters higher than that of Djoser, would have seven steps and a size of 120 on 120 meters. The burial chamber was located exactly under the center of intersection of the diagonals. Work stopped at the second stage, apparently because of his sudden death.


Statues on the western wall of the Ida mastaba in Giza.

Then the step pyramid was built in Medum, fifty kilometers south of Cairo. It is believed that Pharaoh Huni built it - the last king of III dynasty. All of it collapsed, but if it had been built, then with a square base it would have the dimensions 146 on 146 meters and the height 118 meters. But most importantly, near this pyramid found the remains of building embankments, on which stone blocks were dragged up. So modern studies have confirmed what Diodorus reported yet - “the pyramids were built using embankments”.

So ... the ancient Egyptians did not use any "special" methods in the construction of the pyramids. It is precisely known how slowly, step by step, the size of the tombs of the nobility - mastab increased. Then there was a qualitative leap - Djoser's pyramid, followed by the “progress” stage, when stepped pyramids grew, and their design became more and more perfect.

Well, now how to get to the pyramid of Djoser, which, together with the whole complex of buildings, the preserved statue of the king in the prayer house and all its dungeons, is in any case no less interesting than the Great Pyramids.


The image on the wall of one of the corridors of the cave pyramid of Djoser.

The Djoser complex is located in the village of Sakara, and you can reach it by train from Cairo, but from the station you will most likely have to walk more than 3 km. It is possible - for fans of extreme sports, on horseback or on a camel from the pyramids in Giza, but this is 3-4 hours under the Egyptian sun! You can book a tour from any popular hotel for Russians anywhere, but ... not many people go there. You can take the shuttle bus from Cairo to Saqqara Village, but ... you need to know where it stops and be able to communicate with the locals. Finally, the easiest way is to get in a taxi and say - Saqqara, Djoser - and they will bring you there. But it is expensive, more expensive than an excursion, and you have to bargain, but they’ll get you there, and it’s hard to drag from one pyramid there to another. The price of the entrance to the 30 necropolis of Egyptian pounds, but in the pyramid of Djoser itself you need permission from the Ministry of Antiquities of Egypt in Cairo. You can get it just by presenting the card of a member of the Union of Journalists of Russia - they say, I want to write a complementary article. Here, in fact, all your troubles, but you will visit the very first pyramid of Egypt.
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  1. Riv
    +9
    August 18 2016
    As for the "rabbit hole" in the pyramid - how was it built? Technically, how? Ilyich's light bulb had not yet been invented. Lighting during work is an oil lamp and a torch. From the point of view of a person who regularly signs orders for gas-hazardous work, working in a tunnel with such lighting is not something that is impossible, but simply impossible. The lamp will burn oxygen and one dead Egyptian will be less. Natural ventilation in a rabbit hole is essential.

    That is, there should have been some sort of forced ventilation, even if primitive. Or ventilation shafts. But since there are no traces of such mines in the pyramid, then there was definitely an inflow.

    Now imagine that you have decided to build a pyramid on a personal plot. They started digging the funeral chamber. At a depth of three meters - oops! Suddenly groundwater. Instead of a burial chamber, you dug a well. Also a useful thing, but you will have to forget about the right Egyptian funeral. Question: How did the Egyptians determine where to dig? Groundwater does not stand still. Today the level in the well is one, tomorrow is another. A dry hole in the spring can fill with water along the edge, and in the summer dry again. Any summer resident will confirm this to you. And in Egypt there is an excellent source of groundwater - the Nile. So how did they find suitable places then?
    1. +13
      August 18 2016
      This is now in the age of electronics and computerization, we consider ourselves advanced .. And advanced, there were ancestors who built the pyramids .. But there was no guide to the construction of the pyramids, there was no ... The library of Alexandria .. several times burned .. For some reason, everything the conquerors first of all try to capture material values ​​and destroy sources that carry knowledge ..
      1. +7
        August 18 2016
        Historians should erect a monument to an unknown nomad who “destroyed everything”, saving historians from the need to explain their inventions.
        1. The comment was deleted.
        2. PKK
          0
          August 18 2016
          The question is the following for the Authors: The Pyramids of Cheops and the Sphinx were excavated in the century before last from an alluvial layer of clay, sand and stones. Did these your complexes dig out the same or were they on the surface?
          1. +1
            August 18 2016
            Quote: PKK
            a survey like this For Authors: The Pyramids of Cheops and the Sphinx, were excavated in the century before last from an alluvial layer of clay, sand and stones. And did these your complexes dig out the same or were they on the surface?

            I’ll answer for the authors - basically most of the monuments of Dr. Egypt were covered with sands almost to the tops - everything has been excavated.
        3. +3
          August 18 2016
          Quote: KaPToC
          monument to the unknown nomad
          )))

          Yes, yes Georgy Kostylev - T A R A N Y AND B A R A N
          "........ I would erect a Monument to the Unknown Nomad in front of every humanitarian university. Indeed, if it were not for this ubiquitous and elusive guy of indefinite appearance and mysterious origin, it would be much more difficult to hide the ends in the water." ))))
    2. +4
      August 18 2016
      Quote: Riv
      Question: How did the Egyptians determine where to dig?

      Pyramids are the remnants of a past, antediluvian developed civilization, and not the dignity of those who, by the will of fate, inhabit that area today. (Video from 1:10)

      1. +2
        August 18 2016
        Are all 108 pyramids leftovers?
        1. +1
          August 18 2016
          If you count them around the world - then much more.
          "The Mystery of the Death of Atlantis": http://79.120.77.163/klin-9/?p=715
          1. +5
            August 18 2016
            Here 80% of the pyramids are registered! What is Atlantis? The names of the pharaohs are written on stones and sarcophagi, their mummies were found (at least in the tomb of Djoser they found a broken arm). Found, found, found ... what Atlantis, even if the amount of garlic that was fed to the workers during the construction of the Khufu pyramid is recorded.
            1. +3
              August 18 2016
              Quote: kalibr
              Here, 80% of the pyramids are registered! What is Atlantis? The names of the pharaohs are written on stones and sarcophagi, their mummies are found. Found, found, found ... what Atlantis, even if the amount of garlic that was fed to the workers during the construction of the Khufu pyramid is recorded.

              In Soviet times, barns were arranged in churches - and what if a barn sign was hung on them and a granary book was placed there with the arrival and consumption - these places of worship ceased to be the legacy of the previous government?
            2. 0
              August 18 2016
              Quote: kalibr
              Here 80% of the pyramids are registered! What is Atlantis? The names of the pharaohs are written on stones and sarcophagi, their mummies were found (at least in the tomb of Djoser they found a broken arm).

              The following is a very true example of a church turned into a barn. This point of view has very great reasons for understanding ancient Egyptian history.

              The pharaohs could write something on the walls of their tombs, standing in the desert and built by someone unknown, but cutting down such a mass of stone is unlikely.
    3. +5
      August 18 2016
      they have an excellent source of groundwater - the Nile. So how did they find suitable places then?
      ----------------------------------------------------------------------

      GIZA BOARD ... Here's the answer. it is a hill with a rocky base.
      1. Riv
        0
        August 18 2016
        Surprise! There are also groundwater sources on the plateau. Even if it rains once a year, it is still very difficult to predict whether there will be water at a depth of ten meters. Dig up twenty meters in the Sahara - and the soil will go wet. And in a month he will be dry in the same place ...
        1. +2
          August 18 2016
          Quote: Riv
          Surprise! There are also groundwater sources on the plateau. Even if it rains once a year, it is still very difficult to predict whether there will be water at a depth of ten meters. Dig up twenty meters in the Sahara - and the soil will go wet. And in a month he will be dry in the same place ...

          In the area where the pyramids were built, groundwater is deep everywhere. This is evident from the fact that the pyramids are not flooding now.
          Quote: Riv
          Surprise! There are also groundwater sources on the plateau. Even if it rains once a year, it is still very difficult to predict whether there will be water at a depth of ten meters.

          Here they answered their own question:
          Quote: Riv
          Dig up twenty meters in the Sahara - and the soil will go wet.

          Here is the answer! What prevented the Egyptians from digging up and checking for groundwater?
          1. Riv
            +3
            August 18 2016
            In the area where the pyramids were built, groundwater is deep everywhere.

            Do you have a garden plot in that area? :)

            What prevented the Egyptians from digging up and checking for groundwater?

            That's what:
            Groundwater does not stand still. Today the level in the well is one, tomorrow is another. A dry hole in the spring can fill with water along the edge, and in the summer dry again.

            I love to quote myself.
            1. 0
              August 18 2016
              Quote: Riv
              Groundwater does not stand still. Today the level in the well is one, tomorrow is another. A dry hole in the spring can fill with water along the edge, and in the summer dry again.

              The Egyptian pyramids were built for a rather long time, and the architects had time to find a place. For this, 1-2 years of observation of the site was enough.
              In addition, in that area there is a rocky base, and also an arid area (the Giza Plateau is remote from the Nile deep into the Libyan desert). Confirmation of this fact is that the pyramids are still not flooded.
              1. Riv
                +2
                August 18 2016
                Are you sure that the pyramids in Egypt are only on the Giza plateau?
                The same question for Vyacheslav. :)

                The fact of the matter is that groundwater is an extremely unpredictable thing. How much the soils of Moscow and St. Petersburg have been studied (not a century or two have been built there and everything seems to be known) - and when building a subway with groundwater, the grief was completely lost. The installation of any underground structures (and land reclamation, too) by itself cannot but affect the state of the soil.

                A pumping station is under construction (there was a case back in Soviet times). The blower is placed in a six-meter recess. When approving the project, the technologist says: "Provide a pump for pumping out the sump. Water will constantly accumulate there, and in much larger quantities than you expect." The pump had to be put on after five years, when the primer still began to seep. And before that she was not there. :(

                All this for what? Drilling holes with a look and softening a stone is certainly a heresy. But the ancient Egyptians were much better engineers than archaeologists believe.
                1. 0
                  August 18 2016
                  Quote: Riv
                  The fact of the matter is that groundwater is an extremely unpredictable thing. How much the soils of Moscow and St. Petersburg have been studied (not a century or two have been built there and everything seems to be known) - and when building a subway with groundwater, the grief was completely lost.

                  I repeat again:
                  The Egyptian pyramids were built for a rather long time, and the architects had time to find a place. For this, 1-2 years of observation of the site was enough.

                  They could just take it, dig it to the right depth, and observe the changes for 1-2 years.
            2. +3
              August 18 2016
              About groundwater you will, do not worry. It's just that they are not in the Saqqara region. Well, no, that's all!
              1. 0
                August 18 2016
                Quote: kalibr
                It's just that they are not in the Saqqara region. Well, no, that's all!

                This does not mean that they were not previously or there are no conditions for the occurrence of groundwater. You need to look at the geological section.
            3. +4
              August 18 2016
              Quote: Riv
              I love to quote myself.

              The groundwater level is directly related to the geological soil layers. It can radically change upwards only as a result of flooding. The main source of flooding in Egypt is the Nile, and no "rain" in this area can compete with it. This means that if it is known to what level the groundwater rises when the river floods, then the depth of underground structures can be calculated. Even if it rains of exceptional intensity for these areas (which is unlikely), the water level will rise by centimeters at best. Compared to this task, the work of the architects who built the Church of the Intercession on the Nerl looks much more interesting. It stands in the middle of a relict meadow, flooded every year by floods. The waters completely surround the temple, but they themselves are not affected.
              1. Riv
                +1
                August 18 2016
                It can change radically upwards only as a result of a flood

                And also in case of climate change and for a hundred different reasons. The climate over the past millennia has changed quite a lot, but no signs of flooding were ever found in the burial chambers.
                1. +3
                  August 18 2016
                  Quote: Riv
                  And also in case of climate change and for a hundred different reasons.

                  You read my comment inattentively. The water regime of the Nile has not changed for millennia. Droughts have occurred, but floods above a certain norm - never. Moreover, with the development of Nile civilization, the river flow only slowed down in connection with the construction of various structures on the banks. During the spill, the river floods very vast territories. In fact, almost all territories suitable for farming in ancient Egypt (and even modern) are territories flooded by the river during a spill. The cycles of these spills were well investigated by the Egyptians, since the life of people living on the banks of the river depended on them. The ancient Egyptian calendar was associated precisely with the water regime of the Nile. Against the background of extensive spills of the river, all other causes look negligible.
                  1. Riv
                    0
                    August 19 2016
                    Are you absolutely sure that the water regime of the Nile has never changed?
                    Probably the last five thousand years you also have a summer house in that area.
        2. 0
          August 24 2016
          could just hammer until the water appears, stupidly using the "scientific poke" method wink about blocks made of stone is also an open question, there is a hypothesis about the use of concrete (then the absence of a gap between the blocks is explained, and the layers were simply coated with mortar so that the structure does not crack from temperature changes).
  2. +8
    August 18 2016
    We will consistently tell you about the wars of ancient Egypt (because wars are slaves who ... "built the pyramids").. An interesting series of articles is planned .. The latest archaeological finds indicate that free farmers also took part in the construction .. Several such villages were found .. Moreover, this work was paid for, it was considered honorable, free workers were provided with enough food ..
    1. +3
      August 18 2016
      And one of these groups of builders, by the way, was called "Menkaura the drunkard." However, it can be translated as "intoxicated". But according to the sources that have come down to us, Menkaura really loved palm wine and drank immoderately!
      1. +2
        August 18 2016
        And one of these detachments of builders, by the way, was called "Menkaura the drunkard"... I didn’t read about it .. But they wrote, they gave me barley beer, wheat .. meat, you could write a wife out of the village .. But it’s already known from some new written sources .. I read it on some historical resource .. three or four years ago .. And the excavations of these villages showed that, in principle, the builders lived not badly ..
  3. +6
    August 18 2016
    As stated in historical science, the pyramids were built by hundreds of thousands of people. These are masons and stone block suppliers. and builders. In addition, all of them had to be fed, dressed, organized, these masses of people at work, and much much more. A logical question arises as to how this was possible in those days and with the development of technical capabilities. These questions arise when examining the ruins in Tunisia, and when examining the ruins of Palmyra, and castles made of stone of Rome, the roads of those times. As I understand it, all this was built from the most accessible materials of the time. So there were some technologies that were lost over time, or we just don’t finish something. Questions arise about the orientation of the pyramids in space. So there was a corresponding knowledge.
    1. +2
      August 18 2016
      Quote: sv-georgij
      As stated in historical science, the pyramids were built by hundreds of thousands of people. These are masons and stone block suppliers. and builders. In addition, all of them had to be fed, dressed, organized, these masses of people at work, and much much more. A logical question arises as to how this was possible in those days and with the development of technical capabilities. These questions arise when examining the ruins in Tunisia, and when examining the ruins of Palmyra, and castles made of stone of Rome, the roads of those times. As I understand it, all this was built from the most accessible materials of the time. So there were some technologies that were lost over time, or we just don’t finish something. Questions arise about the orientation of the pyramids in space. So there was a corresponding knowledge.

      Recently, 6000 Egyptian clay tablets have been translated, which described the construction of the Egyptian pyramids, and it is written that the Pyramids built people, and their names were indicated, and places were indicated, from where the building materials were delivered. So supporters of an alternative story may not argue.
  4. +2
    August 18 2016
    I highly recommend Douglas Kenyon's book "Forbidden History" to anyone interested in this issue.
  5. +5
    August 18 2016
    they built pyramids, with ventilation and lighting, we sorted it out somehow
    but they didn’t learn how to lay tiles normally
    1. +2
      August 18 2016
      Apparently, this was the intention to put.
  6. +1
    August 18 2016
    I recommend watching the film "Nuclear Explosion BC" on the Internet - a lot of interesting things are said.
  7. 0
    August 18 2016
    Angels nailed silver stars to the pyramids in the sky
  8. +4
    August 18 2016
    We look forward to continuing. Although the question in the comment is higher, it remains - How did they provide food for a huge number of slaves and other builders, how on this little patch they managed to manage so many people, and how they didn’t interfere with each other, etc.
    1. 0
      August 18 2016
      The embankment to the Sekhemkhet pyramid has been preserved; there is an image of an inclined plane for lifting stones in one of the tombs. So you can imagine how they were placed there. How were stone axes drilled? You can organize your business in different ways. For example, one drills, and ten others prepare "drills" for him. The second one is being replaced and the work goes on continuously! And if everyone does one? So here - the Egyptians were smart people, judging by their mathematical papyri. The country is rich - 3-4 harvests a year - and so they organized!
      1. +3
        August 18 2016
        After the majestic castles, which are also built with manual labor, you can also believe in the pyramids) Moreover, the instrument from that time to the Middle Ages did not change much, except that the material became stronger. The quality of decoration of stone blocks on many ancient buildings is amazing - among other Egyptians and other Greeks and Mayans and many others. Much has been lost in the darkness of centuries.
  9. +2
    August 18 2016
    An interesting informative article. Authors Respect). I would like to see a sequel.
    1. +2
      August 18 2016
      Will be. There is an intention to walk through all the significant pyramids and tombs, show a series of battles "for gold", in a word, if not all 108 pyramids can be described, then a lot!
  10. +2
    August 18 2016
    Egypt, like China, does not want to reveal the secrets of the pyramids. If you answered the question why they built the pyramids, then the question of how they built disappears by itself. And so we can only open new places of buildings. Only in Russia there is no money, you need to hold on - the pioneer is an important camp.
  11. +5
    August 18 2016
    The article was not convincing. The abundance of turns like "apparently", "if there were" interspersed with an accurate description of the stages of construction does not inspire confidence. Again, the abundance of numbers (by the way, and in the comments. This is to crush the intellect? 6000 tablets, damn it. Exactly 6000? Or rounded? I especially like the place "If it had been completed, it would have had a height of 6000 meters higher than that of Djoser, had seven steps and a size of 9 by 120 meters." and the same "It all fell apart, but if it were built, then at square base would have dimensions of 120 by 146 meters and a height of 146 meters. "How can you say this without having a construction plan? Maybe the architect planned to change the angle at the top of the mastaba? Or wanted to make it truncated? You never know what could have occurred to his owner- a pharaoh or an official?
    In short, I conclude. Current archaeologists, scientists, researchers who adhere to the approved version of history lie and are mistaken much more than those researchers who offer an alternative. It is sad. My advice is to get started with your information, and then write angry articles against the alternative. And you yourself don’t know anything that is growing in your garden.
    1. +1
      August 18 2016
      Volumes of fundamental research have been written on the history of Egypt. Read here really scientific articles on this topic and everyone, and you will be the first to get lost. Therefore, information is given "popularly". Therefore, she does not answer 100%. How everyone is measured, how they look, how they dig - this is all a matter of technology that is interesting only to very narrow specialists. The alternatives know nothing of this, so they only touch on the outer, most accessible side of the matter. And this is their advantage. They ask questions that are simply very difficult to answer. Moreover, one ignoramus can ask them more than a hundred wise men can answer.
      Quote: jaguarstas

      Maybe the architect planned to change the angle at the top of the mastaba? Or wanted to make it truncated?

      Everything can be assumed. But we proceed from what is - the pyramids of Djoser. Therefore, all your "would" do not fit here.
      1. +4
        August 18 2016
        Quote: kalibr
        The history of Egypt contains volumes of basic research. ...

        So what?! belay

        Now the borderline-independent people will also write many volumes, too, believe it ?! belay

        Quote: kalibr
        Therefore, information is given "popularly". Therefore, she does not answer 100%.
        Even mathematics today cannot give answers to all 100%, and about history ... oh yes storyteller you ...
        1. +2
          August 18 2016
          The difference is that volumes on the history of Egypt began to be written in 1837, when there were no color revolutions, the traditions of noble honor were alive and people shot themselves if they were accused of deceit and the deception was proved. The Ukrainians were satisfied with their history before the well-known events, they began to change it and make it older after them. "100%" is a figure of speech. Do not take everything literally. In the history of Egypt, the process of study was consistent, and continues to go. You don't have to believe anything. They believe God. They know mathematics and history.
          1. +2
            August 18 2016
            Quote: kalibr
            In mathematics and history they know.

            In history they know ... laughing laughing laughing
            Therefore it is not necessary to mix with mathematics, to cling to mathematics. Just mathematics, coupled with astronomy and physics, in many respects your "written" history and refutes !!!

            Yes, and where are the color revolutions ... ??? !!!

            It’s as if you don’t know that each newcomer winner rewrites the story ... who is for himself ... who is trying to restore reality ...
            1. 0
              August 19 2016
              The Egyptians were good mathematicians and left a lot of things for us from this area. And do not talk about astronomy - you do not know it, otherwise you would not have written it. Just astronomy confirms everything perfectly in the history of Egypt.
          2. +1
            August 18 2016
            Quote: Dali
            Therefore it is not necessary to mix with mathematics, to cling to mathematics. Just mathematics, coupled with astronomy and physics, in many respects your "written" history and refutes !!!

            By the way, genetics is also haplogenetics, to be more specific ...
          3. +1
            August 18 2016
            Quote: kalibr
            volumes on the history of Egypt began to be written from the 1837 of the year when there were no color revolutions, traditions of the noble honor were alive, and people shot if they were accused of deception and proved

            But there were "bourgeois" ones with a corresponding change in the foundations. Let us recall the interests of precisely revolutionary France towards Ancient Egypt.
        2. +2
          August 18 2016
          Quote: Dali
          Now the borderline-independent people will also write many volumes, too, believe it ?!

          So that Ukrainians do not write, their works are not proved. For your information, an alternative history of Ukraine was written at the beginning of the 20th century, but no one believed it. And why? But because it is not proven by any sources. There are no ancient Ukrainian cities, mentions in historical documents.
          In Egypt, the situation is different. There are written sources written on clay tablets in the Egyptian language, in which there are drawings, names of architects, data on materials and workers. And to build pyramids using the technologies that the Egyptians possessed is quite possible.
          1. +1
            August 18 2016
            Quote: Lord Blacwood
            In Egypt, the situation is different. There are written sources written on clay tablets in the Egyptian language, in which there are drawings, names of architects, data on materials and workers.

            And someone is against the history of ancient Egypt ... belay
            It is not against history that many oppose, but against the assessment of historical events, in this case of ancient Egypt.
  12. 0
    August 18 2016
    Djoser's pyramid is generally a collection of various crafts. Let the authors tell you why at the base of this "pyramid" there are huge blocks of limestone, and on top of them - some kind of mess of clay bricks. Well, and here: from the above photos you can see how the internal blocks are made more perfect than the external masonry.
    1. +3
      August 18 2016
      Quote: DimanC
      from the above photos you can see how much the internal blocks are made more perfect external masonry.

      And in my opinion just the opposite can be seen. We probably look at different photos.
      Quote: DimanC
      Let the authors tell you why there are huge blocks of limestone at the base of this "pyramid"

      But should it be the other way around?
      Aren't big stones laid in the foundation?
  13. +3
    August 18 2016
    Commentators don’t believe in building something more complicated than the untreated hut before the invention of electricity, it’s useless to prove them otherwise, thanks for the article.
  14. +1
    August 18 2016
    I wonder why in the pantheon of the Gods of Egypt there is no Goddess of Love? In general, everything in Egypt is built on the worship of Death and the Dead. In short - one big cemetery, not a country.
    1. +3
      August 18 2016
      Quote: Pitot
      Why is there no Goddess of Love in the pantheon of the Gods of Egypt?

      Isis and Hathor are not suitable?

      Quote: Pitot
      in general in Egypt everything is built on the worship of Death and the Dead.

      What is what is - civilization rather strongly implicated in necromancy. Fortunately - only it was.
      1. 0
        August 19 2016
        why fortunately then? the afterlife in Egypt was perceived as a happy continuation of the earthly and civilization was quite optimistic
  15. +3
    August 18 2016
    Quote: Boris55
    In Soviet times, barns were arranged in churches - and what if a barn sign was hung on them and a granary book was placed there with the arrival and consumption - these places of worship ceased to be the legacy of the previous government?

    Does this prove the presence of Atlantis?
  16. +3
    August 18 2016
    And besides the pyramids, there are also obelisks .. Yes
  17. +5
    August 19 2016
    Dear author! Do you admit the possibility that some Egyptian pyramids (the three main ones in Giza, Lomanaya and Krasnaya in Dashur, the pyramid in Medium and Abu Roash) may be much older than the other pyramids, since they have common principles of construction, ideal angles and orientation, impossible building technology for that era and more? The rest of the Egyptian pyramids look like an imitation of this, but already using the available technologies of that time. Moreover, at the base of many other pyramids there is perhaps an ancient foundation, as if they were built on old ruins, possibly even using the materials of these ruins.
    I specifically use the word Egyptian pyramids, since there is no exact calculation of pyramids and megalithic objects around the world. For example, in the Canary Islands, the island of Tenerife, the city of Guimar - there are six pyramids left, and there were nine, there is evidence that in the Caucasus there was a pyramid discovered in the 19th century, but it is no longer there, it was stolen to the stones, a hundred pyramids in China and Tibet , underwater in Japan, well, Mexico, Peru, etc. All the pyramids found are located along the equator; they are not in the northern latitudes.
    Typical features of the "ancient" pyramid: astronomical orientation of the pyramid (north-south, solstice, to the brightest star, for example Orion), huge blocks, perfectly flat surface, perfect fit of seams in solid material (granite in the facing!), Rectangular cuts in blocks (part of the block is included in another block, rectangular recesses!) often use angles of inclination of 52 (external) and 26 (internal) degrees, there are almost no inscriptions (or applied later, or inscriptions on the stele next to the pyramid).
    If you look at a thing and it is made in perfect quality, it causes amazement, so this is not a fake, but really ancient Egypt.
    I had a case, not far from Hurghada, we drove ATVs to the Bedouins, but not from an official travel agency, but through a local company. Debris, stones with half-worn hieroglyphs, were under their canopy, for sale! One stone struck me with its quality and rare drawings, at first glance. It’s a pity the photo turned out badly, it was dark under the canopy at sunset, and the group had already left.
    1. 0
      August 19 2016
      At the beginning of the answer will be in the following materials. At the end, the answer is such a pity, would be revered ...
    2. +3
      August 19 2016
      Quote: Alisher
      Debris, stones with half-worn hieroglyphs, were under their canopy, for sale! One stone struck me with its quality and rare drawings, at first glance. It’s a pity the photo turned out badly, it was dark under the canopy at sunset, and the group had already left.

      It’s good that they didn’t buy it - the removal of historical artifacts from Egypt is a criminal offense.
  18. +3
    August 19 2016
    Citizen Shpakovsky, your challenge has been accepted. And this is our answer. What will you cover? smile
    1. +1
      August 19 2016
      Nothing! This is not science! I believed in all this as a schoolboy, having read articles in Young Technology and Technology-Youth. And if I stayed at the same level, I would continue to believe. I even read lectures through the OK Komsomol "Mysteries of Ancient Civilizations". Let's go with a bang! But then he got an education and stopped believing in fairy tales.
  19. +2
    August 19 2016
    Anecdote:
    They brought the "Neanderthaloid" to a working transformer, and then asked:
    "What do you think it is for?"
    In response, they heard: "In order to do Uu-Uu-Uu."
  20. +1
    August 19 2016
    The Egyptians were not superhuman, just our contemporaries solve such problems with the help of technology and electronics. Surprisingly, the average person can make measurements and counts by eye with (without electronic tacheometers) satisfactory accuracy, and the Egyptian was dumber. I looked like a papyrus - a map of the Egyptians on the Internet and suddenly saw that it was three-dimensional, and this approach to the image of three-dimensional is still used by geologists to document mining workings with a direct scan. Then he built a relief and an ancient mine on an ancient map in AutoCAD - they were good miners ... What can I say - they used to go to cities without a navigator and did not fornication.
    When you yourself solve the problems of moving and loading multi-cube containers without a crane at hand, you are surprised at how this ancient knowledge was built into us ...
  21. +2
    August 19 2016
    The article is definitely a plus. Amateurs who consider themselves smarter than others are always lacking in life. From that and no respect for the work of others. Indeed, it is always easier to see from the sofa how best to shoot with a rifle, play soccer or conduct archaeological excavations of ancient burials and be able to determine the age of artifacts smile
  22. +1
    October 4 2016
    About the Cheops Pyramid from Wikipedia:
    The largest is the pyramid of Cheops (Khufu). Initially, its height was 146,6 m, but due to the fact that now there is no facing of the pyramid, its height has now decreased to 138,8 m. The length of the side of the pyramid is 230 m. The construction of the pyramid dates back to the XXVI century BC. e.
    Presumablyconstruction lasted over 20 years.The pyramid is made of 2,5 million stone blocks; cement or other binders were not used. On average, the blocks weighed 2,5 tonsbut in the “King’s Chamber” there is granite blocks weighing up to 80 tons. The pyramid is an almost monolithic structure - with the exception of several cameras and corridors leading to them.


    Personally, I have several questions when reading this information:
    How was such an accurate carving of blocks carried out that without using a solution they fit tightly together?
    How was sawn harder granite?
    What crane loaded, unloaded and installed 80 ton units?
    How much does a person need to move an 80-ton block on logs or a drag drag?


    P.S. I figured in the table, according to the data from the wiki, an interesting situation turns out: during the construction of 20 years, the logistics should provide 856 tons, and since the period is not accurate, the period doubled - during the 40 year construction, 428 tons. Daily. How I can provide reasonable human resources on sledging drags, I personally cannot imagine.
  23. 0
    July 26 2017
    With this pyramid, all secrets are solved simply if you know about its defensive essence.

    40 thousand stone vessels for burials are not needed. As in any fortress, water was a prime necessity. They kept water. The whole clue ...
    There was no sense in building walls 10 meters high from simple burglars. For them, this is not an obstacle, and labor costs are comparable to the construction of the pyramid itself. These are ordinary fortress walls for a garrison, personal guard, the nearest militia. In times of danger (unexpected attack by neighbors, uprisings, coups, riots ...) messengers jump into the troops, the main militia recruits around the country.

    There was no sense in symbolic inputs either. In any fortress, the most vulnerable spot is the entrance, as it can be knocked out with a battering ram. There are 14 (!) False (non-symbolic) inputs. Therefore, with a probability of more than 90%, enemies will hit the wall.

    The step pyramids, like the mastabs, were also built after - it seemed more convenient to build your defense without the entrance known to the rest. It doesn’t matter whether it is higher or lower than others, longer or less than others - the main thing is that it lasts for the near future. Children, grandchildren will build others, since the main secret of the entrance and passage to the camera will not last long. All traps, traffic jams, dampers, labyrinths, etc. will be known to the closest competitors - sisters, brothers, as well as commanders, bodyguards, proxies ...

    And why is there such a huge granary?
    Only for the power of the defenders, and no other versions are suitable as well. Remember that in other pyramids there was food for long-term storage: grain, honey.
    Also a lot of dishes (for water).

    And one more important point here.

    Why was this pyramid constantly rebuilt? For such things, Imhotep was supposed not to be reckoned with God, but to end his life much earlier, probably.
    The same goes for the Cheops pyramid (remember the 3 cameras in it).

    The thing is this: at the beginning there was an ordinary mastaba, like hundreds before it, which were destroyed every time after the civil wars (!), This is a simple but effective defensive structure: a well with a camera, everything is closed with a high top with an army on top. This defensive structure can already be used (as well as the first chamber of the Cheops pyramid - the same mastaba for now).
    Then, as far as possible, this mastaba expanded, and a new step was placed to strengthen the defense (second, third chamber in the Cheops pyramid).
    Next is the third, etc.

    Everything is just like in other later fortresses: there is an opportunity - it is necessary to erect a new frontier of defense or strengthen the existing one.

    About the Gonheim pyramid, as well as about this (the mother of all the pyramids), you can read more on my forum. I ask you to pay attention to the empty sealed sarcophagus that was not processed from the inside, what is its real meaning.

    http://megalit.bobb.ru/viewforum.php?id=7

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