Military Review

Our memory. Five steps along the Brest Fortress

42



21 June 2016 of the year. The day before the events, the 75-th anniversary of which we commemorated the whole world not so long ago. Place actions - Brest fortress. Our guide was a wonderful man, Andrei Vorobei from the military-historical club "Rubezh". Not quite ordinary historians, they are called fortifiers in Brest. Lovers utterly in everything that is built in Brest and around it. Accordingly, talking about the subject of their desire can hours. In general, in order to hear everything they knew, you probably had to spend all three days with Andrew, taking breaks only to charge the recorder.

And we were lucky, at the request of our friend Dmitry from the Brest Fortress club, Andrey gave us a tour of the fortress, the results of which will become the basis for more than one material.

We did not enter the fortress through the main entrance or the North Gate. It would be very simple. Our path lay across the “bridge to nowhere,” as it is called. The closest point to the Kobrin fortress fortifications.



Why precisely Kobrin? Terespol fortifications is not so easy to visit. We need coordination with the border guards a couple of weeks before the visit (which we just did not know, to be honest). The border is still ...

However, the Eastern, or Kobryn, fortification remained in virtually the same state as 75 years ago. And we passed the entire eastern part of the fortress, before proceeding to the inspection of the citadel.


This is all that remains of the East Gate. A huge funnel, which became a pond. A pond was formed at the site of the gate in the 1944 year, after an unsuccessful attempt at demining. Then the 16 sappers died, and the explosion was of such strength that in half the city the windows were flying.


The road from the Citadel to the North Gate. Here, on both sides, were the houses of the commanders and their families. From the barracks of the garrison - about a kilometer. By the standards of peacetime - not far. And in the conditions of fire ...
















Strengthening of the Eastern redoubt. Although it is not part of the Brest Fortress memorial today, it also maintains order.


Our guide near the remains of the German trench.


The very presence of this trench in front of the fortifications occupied by the Soviet fighters once again suggests that there was no easy walk, no matter what.


Alley of Memory. Laid back in the already distant year 1955.


North Gate. The only way to retreat in those days.


If you look closely, you can see that the arch of the gate is “corrected”. It is said that the Germans did this in order to drag trophy equipment on platforms before showing the fortress to Hitler and Mussolini.


Outside the gate look no less impressive.


This is the rear of the fortress, actually an exit to the city. But fortifications, moats and ramparts are present.


The firing point at the top of the gate. There are two, on both sides. Directed deep into the fortress. Apparently, in case of a breakthrough.


Today this place to the left of the North Gate is called “Kazemat Gavrilova”. On behalf of the last defender of the Brest Fortress, Major Peter Gavrilov, who accepted his last battle and was captured on July 23 of 1941.


Today, access here is open to all comers.


Artillery position.


Ventilation well for removal of powder gases.




Traces of soot on the ceiling around the ventilation well. The Germans practiced this method: drop homemade bombs from barrels of gasoline into the casemates.


The embrasure for the shooter.


And here once there was a gate ... The hinges remained, and, by the way, they were still strong. Were able to build ancestors for centuries ...

Many plans will be in our video tour, I will say only that, despite the fact that the casemates, caponiers and ramparts are thoroughly overgrown, this is where you get into the understanding of what happened. Not in the rather pompous Citadel, precisely here. Among the silence of silent fortifications ...

Then we headed to the citadel.


This is the well-known main entrance. Star.


The premises of the former artillery, in the 20 century - a bakery, today a cafe.




"Bayonet". Sculpture height 108 meters. There's also the eternal flame.


"Thirst". The water tower was destroyed in the first hours of the war, and the water was not just a value. All the approaches to Mukhavts on the first day of the war were swept by the Germans.


Garrison temple, and 75 years ago - the Red Army club. It was precisely the Germans who were striving to capture it, because from the top of the temple the entire courtyard of the citadel was in full view.

In general, all these places have already been filmed so many times on photos and videos that we left the usual route. And now - the reverse side of the building, which houses one of the museums.








It was not for nothing that I said that ancestors built conscientiously. Not a single brick fell out of the wall just like that. Destroyed those who took over the German bullets.


Novodely ... Perhaps this is very much for an amateur.


This we saw already at the exit. Here, without comment, everything is clear and so, and from where.

If in general, a visit to the fortress left a kind of double impression. Probably, the reason for this was the rehearsals of the solemn part, which plunged us into the already distant Soviet past. Scenarios haven't changed much, to be honest. The bottom line is that it’s best to be in silence. Alone with what he saw. So, as it was on the Kobrin fortifications.

Brest Fortress is a place that can not be given an hour or two. Here you need to spend a whole day, go through all the kilometers of roads and directions. See, hear, understand and accept. Having plunged into this atmosphere of the memory of the past, one can try to understand what moved those who today lie under the plates in the citadel, and who are still there, in their last positions throughout the fortress.

At least you can try to do it. But - necessarily.

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  1. parusnik
    parusnik 4 July 2016 07: 50
    +10
    Thanks guys..
  2. bionik
    bionik 4 July 2016 08: 07
    +10
    In Soviet times, everyone remembered and knew the inscription of one of the defenders of the Brest Fortress: “I am dying, but not giving up! Goodbye Motherland! 20.VII.41g. ”, It was made on the wall of the barracks of the 132nd separate battalion of escort troops of the NKVD of the USSR.
    1. staskaz1990
      staskaz1990 4 July 2016 08: 41
      +13
      These were real PEOPLE !!!!
    2. staskaz1990
      staskaz1990 4 July 2016 08: 41
      0
      These were real PEOPLE !!!!
    3. Evver
      Evver 4 July 2016 11: 25
      +7
      I have goose bumps from this inscription always ... And from its date!
  3. Amurets
    Amurets 4 July 2016 08: 23
    +7
    This Photo reminded one of Nikolai Cherkashin's articles about the "Molotov Line", when German sappers destroyed the garrisons of our bunkers in this way. Then this method was used by the Germans very widely, especially in the Crimea, near Sevastopol Kerch.
    Thanks to the authors, In this perspective, I did not see the fortress.
    << Traces of soot on the ceiling around the ventilation well. The Germans practiced this method: to drop homemade bombs from barrels of gasoline into the casemates. >> this quote from the post.
  4. Aleksander
    Aleksander 4 July 2016 08: 40
    +5
    I agree with Roman that the fortresses (and any historical buildings and structures) are interesting to watch not from the front side: there is more truth and life.
    While working in Sevastopol for some time, he traveled to many of his defenses, but most of all he was struck by the old abandoned concrete pillboxes: although they were scruffy and clogged with rubbish, but with still alive wounds, crevices, splinters and bullets, they remained direct witnesses of terrible battles. And direct evidence is much more catchy ....
    Thanks to the respected Roman for sharing what he saw ....
  5. EvgNik
    EvgNik 4 July 2016 09: 09
    +6
    Thanks, Roman and Roman for the pictures. The Brest Fortress is both the pain and pride of our land.
  6. igordok
    igordok 4 July 2016 09: 10
    +3
    Thank you.
    I curse myself that, being in school years, in Brest on excursions, I went only along standard routes. And it was necessary to look both right and left
  7. Warrior2015
    Warrior2015 4 July 2016 11: 16
    +2
    Many thanks to both Romanes for the excellent reporting!

    The garrison temple, and 75 years ago - the Red Army club.
    Yes, there is something mystical about it. First, the desecration of the shrine, then war, blood, and after years - the revival of Orthodoxy and Russia.
    1. Lex.
      Lex. 4 July 2016 14: 22
      +1
      Yes, there is something mystical about it. First desecration of the shrine, then war, blood, and after years - the revival of Orthodoxy and Russia
      In general, the Poles desecrated, turning it into a castle of St. Casimir
  8. Evver
    Evver 4 July 2016 11: 25
    +2
    "The bottom line is that it's best to be quiet here. Alone with what you see."

    This is VERY well said!
  9. Dr. Sorge
    Dr. Sorge 4 July 2016 13: 16
    +7
    Once again, many thanks for the report.
    Near the complex is a museum of the ancient Birch Bark, the remains of the ancient city, covered by the pavilion. I was there at the beginning of the excavation. Very interesting.
    This is how the history of the past and the new is combined. And all of it must be protected and passed on to descendants.

    PS / Thank you to the Russian Aerospace Forces for Alligators and Black Sharks over Minsk on Independence Day! And a deep bow to the Chernigov paratroopers!
    1. igordok
      igordok 4 July 2016 13: 24
      +3
      Quote: Dr. Sorge
      And a deep bow to the Chernigov paratroopers!

      In the sense of 76SD? If you are talking about them, now they rarely call the Chernihiv division, rather Pskov, at the location.
      1. Dr. Sorge
        Dr. Sorge 4 July 2016 13: 39
        +4
        Yes, about them, they took part on July 3 in the Parade in Minsk. It sounded like Chernihiv. In WWII, as part of the 1st Belorussian Front, Brest attacked and liberated.

        The politeness of the city takes!
  10. Lyubopyatov
    Lyubopyatov 4 July 2016 13: 20
    +6
    Thanks to the authors. Officials from the formation of the Russian Federation must pass the test: receive instructions from the president to include throughout the country in the program for middle school students - summer excursions to the Brest Fortress. Filling the tour with the same content as this article.
  11. Dr. Sorge
    Dr. Sorge 4 July 2016 13: 41
    +3
    How much more could be said about the restoration of the facility, it is a pity that those who stood at the origins of the creation of the complex no longer exist ... But the memory of them in these mighty monuments to our heroes.
  12. Uncle Murzik
    Uncle Murzik 4 July 2016 14: 48
    0
    excellent article! thank you! I would like to read about the fortifications and defense of Port Arthur! hi
  13. disgraced shooter
    disgraced shooter 4 July 2016 14: 49
    -2
    It is incomprehensible that I was just doing here, several hundred meters from the border, the 132nd separate convoy battalion of the NKVD troops.
    1. The comment was deleted.
    2. The comment was deleted.
    3. bionik
      bionik 4 July 2016 16: 03
      +5
      Quote: disgraced shooter
      It is incomprehensible that I was just doing here, several hundred meters from the border, the 132nd separate convoy battalion of the NKVD troops.

      ..... 132 separate battalion of the NKVD convoy troops was created on the basis of the Decree of the Defense Committee under the Council of People's Commissars of the USSR No. 1867-494ss dated 13.11.1939/14.11.1939/001389 and issued on 14/26/1939 by the NKVD of the USSR in its execution of order No. 1940 "On the organization and reorganization of the units of the convoy troops ". The bn was formed in the period from XNUMX to XNUMX November XNUMX. In April XNUMX he was relocated to the Brest Fortress.
      The battalion consisted of a headquarters, a communications platoon, three rifle companies, a machine-gun and auto-platoon platoons, an ammunition department, a service dog team, a club, and a medical unit. The 1st rifle company guarded prisons No. 24, 25, 29 in the cities. Kobrin, Pruzhany, Pinsk, 2nd company - prison No. 23 in Brest (the 1st building in the city and the 2nd building in the BC itself - the so-called Brigid in the western part of the Kobrin fortification), the 3rd company performed the tasks on the echelon, city, planned, etc. convoy of prisoners and Polish prisoners of war. B-n was located in the ring barracks, to the left of the Terespol Gate (if you look from the Citadel) up to parts of 84 sp. .... fortification.ru/forum/index.php?topic=4059.0
      1. disgraced shooter
        disgraced shooter 4 July 2016 19: 13
        -2
        But why keep criminals in the fortress, isn’t it easier to take them deep into the country.
    4. moskowit
      moskowit 4 July 2016 16: 06
      0
      According to the traitor of the Motherland, the pseudo-writer Rezun, for escorting crowds of German prisoners ...
      1. disgraced shooter
        disgraced shooter 4 July 2016 18: 58
        -4
        Quote: moskowit
        According to the traitor of the Motherland, the pseudo-writer Rezun, for escorting crowds of German prisoners ...

        But in my opinion this is the most truthful version, even closer than the border guards to the border was. The conclusion suggests itself. But in fact, why is it here?
    5. Amurets
      Amurets 4 July 2016 16: 13
      0
      Quote: disgraced shooter
      It is incomprehensible that I was just doing here, several hundred meters from the border, the 132nd separate convoy battalion of the NKVD troops.

      He guarded prisons. << By the beginning of the Great Patriotic War, the battalion organizationally consisted of three escort companies, carrying out service and combat missions of a penitentiary nature in the Brest region. So, the 1st convoy company provided the protection of prisons No. 24, 25 and 29, located respectively in the regional cities of Kobrin, Pruzhany and Pinsk, and the 2nd and 3rd escort companies, stationed at the same time in the Brest fortress (and here - battalion management and the main staff units of combat support and rear services), - two prisons in the city of Brest: general No. 23 (it is also the city) and the internal prison of the UNKVD (but, according to other sources, UNKGB) in the Brest region, equipped, we note , not anywhere, namely inside the complex of the Brest Fortress. >> For details, follow this link. http://forum.patriotcenter.ru/index.php?PHPSESSID=99d7d01a9ed94c97cdc16c12ce5058
      b9 & topic = 1307.msg29644 # msg29644
      I didn’t find anything about the hospital.
  14. disgraced shooter
    disgraced shooter 4 July 2016 15: 02
    -1
    And why was the hospital of the central special military district moved to the hospital island?
  15. moskowit
    moskowit 4 July 2016 15: 57
    +5
    From childhood, I remember the photographs placed in the book of S. Smirnov "Brest Fortress". True, if my memory serves me, it came out later than the wonderful movie "The Immortal Garrison" ...
  16. petrovihdanil
    petrovihdanil 4 July 2016 17: 52
    +2
    Eternal Glory to the Fallen!
  17. sw6513
    sw6513 4 July 2016 18: 13
    +2
    Eternal memory to the heroes, we will never forget you ...
  18. Cat
    Cat 4 July 2016 19: 17
    +2
    Many thanks!!! Heartily!!!
  19. disgraced shooter
    disgraced shooter 4 July 2016 19: 27
    -5
    And why were there no troops between 80 and 100 km on the right and left of the Brest Fortress? It was simply surrounded and calmly finished off, and in Brest there were several divisions, including armored. And in our books they talk about a handful of brave border guards who managed to fight back.
    1. ruskih
      ruskih 4 July 2016 20: 39
      +3
      On the left was the 22nd Panzer Division, on the right was the 30th. Everyone fought.
      1. Ze Kot
        Ze Kot 4 July 2016 21: 53
        -1
        Quote: ruskih
        On the left was the 22nd Panzer Division, on the right was the 30th. Everyone fought.


        But according to the recollections of the Germans, the crossings were captured in good condition and without a fight, and the troops, besides attacking the fortress, went forward.
        1. ruskih
          ruskih 4 July 2016 22: 13
          +2
          Find our chronicles. I will not give links.
          1. Ze Kot
            Ze Kot 5 July 2016 10: 16
            0
            Quote: ruskih
            Find our chronicles. I will not give links.


            Yes, I don’t argue that they were there. Only in that chronicle, which is dedicated to the Brest Fortress and the surrounding area, there is not a word about the 22nd and 30th divisions.
            1. ruskih
              ruskih 5 July 2016 12: 40
              +1
              Is this the only chronicle?
              About "without a fight" - to whom are the monuments along the entire border and at the outposts? Do you even know how many outposts there were in the Brest region? Start with at least this, and then only your desire to find information. Good luck.
              July 2 was the material N. Cherkashin can read.
        2. disgraced shooter
          disgraced shooter 4 July 2016 23: 51
          -3
          But according to the recollections of the Germans, the crossings were captured in good condition and without a fight, and the troops, besides attacking the fortress, went forward.
          Of course, they were captured, they weren’t even mined, because they themselves were needed during the offensive. The German 45th infantry division surrounded the Brest Fortress, put up barriers at the exits and hollowed on separate casemates from the mortar. It became a mousetrap for Soviet divisions from which it was very difficult to escape. Already on June 22, the German infantry not only at the forts and all three bridgeheads, it even broke into the citadel. There was no single centralized defense, only separate centers of resistance remained.
        3. Dinko
          Dinko 1 January 2017 08: 35
          0
          The Germans simply bypassed the fortress so as not to waste time, it is Guderian’s recollections. But in the fortress itself, the 45th infantry division, consisting of Austrians, fought. Hitler apparently did not forget that they fought there, too, in the First World War. it was then for the whole war.
      2. disgraced shooter
        disgraced shooter 4 July 2016 23: 53
        0
        Quote: ruskih
        On the left was the 22nd Panzer Division, on the right was the 30th. Everyone fought.

        Were only in the boiler itself.
  20. Cosmonaut
    Cosmonaut 5 July 2016 00: 47
    +3
    Quote: disgraced shooter
    It is incomprehensible that I was just doing here, several hundred meters from the border, the 132nd separate convoy battalion of the NKVD troops.

    Duc, that incomprehensible ??! Like you escorted, and immediately spanked the Nazis!
    PS. Already, it’s not fashionable to write such crap Rezunovskaya !!! read documents, unlike the Anglo-Saxon shit democracy, a lot of declassified! There you will find out about the NKVD !!!
    Maybe thanks, tell them!
    1. disgraced shooter
      disgraced shooter 5 July 2016 03: 08
      -2
      not fashionable to write such crap rezunovskaya
      And what’s the reason for this, it’s fixed in many documents. And what’s more about fashion, the main thing is to get to the truth, and if you yourself don’t know then why respond to comments.
  21. Dinko
    Dinko 1 January 2017 08: 29
    0
    Once in the late 70s, I was accepted into pioneers in the Brest Fortress. This is a monument to the heroism of our people.